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Todays Lecture

Block 1: Mole Balances (Review)


Size CSTRs and PFRs given rA=f(X)
Conversion for Reactors in Series
Block 2: Rate Laws
Reaction Orders
Arrhenius Equation
Activation Energy
Effect of Temperature
Block 3: Stoichiometry
Stoichiometric Table
Definitions of Concentration
Calculate the Equilibrium Conversion, Xe

Review of Mole Balances

Review of Conversion
A general reaction:

a A bB cCd D
Choose limiting reactant A as basis of calculation
b
c
d
A B C D
a
a
a
X

moles A reacted
moles A fed

Levenspiel Plot (Review)

FA 0
rA

CSTR(Review)

Area = Volume of CSTR


FA 0
V
X1
rA X
1

FA 0
rA

X1

PFR(Review)

Area = Volume of PFR

FA 0
rA

V
X1

X1

FA 0

dX
rA

Reactors in Series (Review)

Two steps to get rA f X


Step 1: Rate Law

rA gC
i

Step 2: Stoichiometry

Ci hX

Step 3: Combine to get

rA f X

Collision Theory
When one substance
is mixed with
another, the two
substances .

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According to collision theory, atoms, ions, and


molecules can react to form ...

Rates of chemical reactions are often measured


as ...

The factors that affect how ...

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Factors influencing the likelyhood


of a reaction occurring:
1)

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2)
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3)

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activated complex
In order for the reaction to occur,
the particles involved must collide
with each other,
.
Not every collision results in a
reaction.
The is the temporary
arrangement of atoms as they
change from reactants into
products.
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Orientation

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activation energy

The colliding molecules


must have enough energy
to react and form an
. This minimum
amount of energy is
called the ..
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Rate of a Reaction = speed of reactants


turning into products
Can be measured in :
or

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Effect of the Nature of the Reactant


The nature of the reactants involved will
determine the kind of reaction that occurs.
Reactions with bond rearrangements or
electron transfer take longer than reactions
without these changes

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Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate


Increasing the temperature increases
the rate of a reaction. At higher
temperatures, the particles have more
energy, move faster and collide more
frequently. .

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Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate


Increasing the concentration of the
reactants increases the rate of a
reaction. ..

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Effect of Particle Size/Surface Area


Decreasing particle size/increasing surface
area increases the rate of a reaction.
When .

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Simulation
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Not Cattle List!!

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Catalyst
- any substance that is added to the reaction to
the rate. The catalyst .. react with any
substance to produce product.

Inhibitor
- Any substance added to . the rate of reaction.
Works against the catalyst.

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C2H2
H2

C 2 H4

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A catalyst increases the rate of


a reaction by lowering the
activation energy.

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Stoichiometry

Batch Systems

Batch Systems (Stoichiometric Table)

Batch Systems (Constant Volume)

Batch Systems (Example)

Expressing
concentration as a
function of concentration

Example 1

Example2

Homework1

Homework2

Homework3