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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 2

ROMANESQUE IN EUROPEAN
COUNTRIES
PRESENTED BY: HADUCA, GOBIS, & ACORIBA

ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe


the architecture of Europe which emerged in the late 10th
century and evolved into the Gothic style during the 12th
century.
The Romanesque style in England is more traditionally referred
to as Norman architecture.
The style can be identified right across Europe with certain
significant architectural features occurring everywhere. There
are other characteristic which differ greatly from region to
region.
Most of the buildings that are still standing are churches, some
of which are very large abbey churches and cathedrals. The
majority of these are still in use, some of them having been
substantially altered over the centuries.

FEATURES OF ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE


WHICH ARE SEEN ALL OVER EUROPE.

Small churches are generally aiseless, with a projecting apse.


Large churches are basilical with a nave flanked by aisles and divided by an
arcade.
Abbey churches and cathedrals often had transepts.
Round arches in arcades, windows, doors and vaults.
Massive walls
Towers
Piers
Stout columns
Buttresses of shallow projection
Groin vaulting
Portals with sculpture and mouldings
Decorative arcades as an external feature, and frequently internal also
Spiral ornament
Cushion capitals
Murals

FEATURES WHICH ARE REGIONALLY


DIVERSIFIED

These features often have strong local and regional traditions. However,
the movement of senior clergy, stonemasons and other craftsmen meant
that these traditional features are sometimes found at distant locations.
Ground plan
Facade
Position and number of towers
Shape of towers
Presence and shape of spires
Shape of the east end
Shape of columns
Shape of piers
Building material
Local diversity in decorative details that was dependent on local
craftsmen.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN
ITALY
Influences
Pre-Romanesque is demonstrated in Italy by the
construction of churches with thick walls of
undressed stone, very small windows and massive
fortresslike character.
The architecture of Northern Italy has features in
common with French and German Romanesque.
The architecture of Southern Italy and Sicily was
influenced by both Norman and Islamic architecture.
Building stone was available in mountainous regions,
while brick was employed for most building in river
valleys and plains. The availability of marble had a
profound effect on the decoration of buildings

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN
ITALY
Characteristics

Large churches often have basilical form, with a


projecting apse.
Some large churches have projecting transepts as at
Pisa Cathedral.
Towers are freestanding and may be circular as at Pisa.
Windows are small.
The faade takes two forms, that which coincides with
the basilica section of nave and aisles, as at Pisa
Cathedral and that which screens the form, such as
San Michele, Pavia.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN
ITALY

The wall surface above the arcade was covered with


decorative marble, mosaic or fresco. Galleries such
as that at Pisa were uncommon, but occur in convent
churches as nuns' galleries.
Open timber roofs prevailed.
Ribbed vaults, when used, are large, square and
domical, spanning two bays as at San Michele, Pavia,
and Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN
ITALY

Freestanding polygonal baptisteries were


common, as at Parma Cathedral and the
Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence.
The large churches and cathedrals of Southern
Italy and Sicily were influenced by Norman
architecture, as at Trani Cathedral and Bari
Cathedral in Apulia.
Churches in Sicily were influenced by Islamic
architecture, in the employment of the pointed
arch as at Monreale Cathedral and Palermo
Cathedral.

NOTABLE BUILDINGS

Pisa Cathedral and complex.


Tuscany

San Galgano, Tuscany

NOTABLE BUILDINGS
San Zeno, Verona

San Michele, Pavia

NOTABLE BUILDINGS
Bari Cathedral

The Church of Sant' Ambrogio, Milan

OTHER NOTABLE BUILDINGS

Basilica of San Zeno, Verona, Northern


Italy
Modena Cathedral, Northern Italy
San Vittore alle Chiuse, Genga.
Parma Cathedral and complex,
Northern Italy
Bari Cathedral, Southern Italy
Palermo Cathedral, Sicily
Monreale Cathedral, Sicily

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN
FRANCE
Influences

The foundation of the Cistercian Order in 1098 introduced a simplicity of design


and austerity of ornament.
Parcticularly in the south, the existence of Roman Structure such as the Pont du
Gard played a part in the development of storied arcades and other structural
forms.
Buildng stone was readily avaiable, including high grade limestone suitable for
fine carving.
For much of the period Normany were comparatively large and powerful
political unit, and developd consistnt styles that affected much of northern
france.
South of the Loire Valley churches showed considerable diversity of
architectural form and are often without aisles.
The pilgramage to Santiago de Compostela in northern spain led to the
establishment of four pilgrim routes through France, and the establisment of
many religion houses along the new age.
Crusade and pilgraimage brought cantoct with Islamic and Byzantine
architecture that influenced the forms of a number of churches such as SaintFront, Periguex

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN
FRANCE
Characteristics

Large churches of northern have basilical form of nave and aisles separated
by arcades.
Large churches of southern France may be without aisles, as at Angouleme
Cathedral.
Churches generally have transepts.
The eastern end often takes the form of an apse that is almost as high as
the walls.
The high apse was increasingly surrounded by an ambulatory and later
Romanesque churches have a fully developed chevet with radiating chapels.
The faade takes two forms, that with two large towers, such as that at
Saint-Etienne, Caen, and the screen form with two small flanking turrets, as
at Angouleme Cathedral.
There are often three portals, as at the Abbey of la Trinit, Caen, left
Faade decoration is rich and varied, with the central portal being the major
feature.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN
FRANCE

Large sculptured portals are a distinguishing feature of French


Romanesque. The portal is deeply recessed and the jambs set with
shafts and mouldings. They typically have lintels, supporting a
tympanum carved in high relief.
In the 12th century, cylindrical piers with Corinthian style capitals
came into use.
A pattern of three stages: vault, arcade and clerestory was
established in the 11th century.
Masonry vaults were preferred for larger churches, and were
initially barrel or groin vaults, often with arches spanning the nave
between the vaults. Vaulted bays are square.
The earliest ribbed high vault in France is at Saint-Etienne, Caen
(1120). The wide adoption of this method led to the development
of Gothic architecture.
Several aiseless churches of Aquitane and Anjou are roofed with
domes, as at Angouleme Cathedral.

NOTABLE BUILDINGS
The Church of the Abbey of la Trinit, Caen shows the
development of the twin-tower and
triple-portal faade.

Angouleme Cathedral shows a


turreted screen facade which gives
little indication of the building's form
and is typical of southern France.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN BRITAIN AND


IRELAND
Influences

The Pre-romanesque tradition of architecture was Saxon. The thick-walled


aiseless churches had archway leading into rectangular channels. Bell

towers often had an attached circular stair turret. Windows were often
arched or had triangular heads.
Monesteries were established in Wales, Scotland and Ireland,
suppressing local Celtic monastic tradition.
Many catherdrals were of monastic foundation serving a dual role,
which affected their architecture, in particular the extended length of
the choir and transepts
There was a great diversity of building stone including limestones, New
Red Sandstones, flint and granite.
In England, the relative political stability led to large diocese with few
bishops. Cathedrals were correspondingly few in number and large in
scale

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN BRITAIN AND


IRELAND

The Climate led to the construction of long naves to


facilitate processions in wet weather.
Of the medieval cathedrals, nearly all were
commenced in this period and several have
remained substantially Norman Structures.
Many Parish churches were commenced at this
period.
The abbey churches suffered destructions at the
time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries in early
16th Century and the majority were reduction to
ruins, some surviving as parish churches.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN BRITAIN AND


IRELAND
Characteristics

The Norman facades of cathedrals and large abbeys follow the two
basic forms found in France, that with paired towers as at Southwell
Minster and that with framing turrets as at Rochester Cathedral.
Side porches are common and are often the usually mode of
entrance, the western portal only being opened for major festivals.
Blind arcading is used as a major decorative feature, often around
internal walls.
Windows are comparatively large and may be arranged in tiers as in
the transepts of Peterborough Cathedral. Paired windows occur in
towers.
Naves of cathedrals and abbey churches are of great length, and
transepts are of strong projection.
Chancels of cathedrals and abbey churches are also very long.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN BRITAIN AND


IRELAND

Large central towers are characteristic, as at Tewkesbury Abbey


and Norwich Cathedral.
Many round towers occur in Ireland. They are also found in Saxon
(Pre-Romanesque) architecture in England as stair towers attached
to larger towers of square plan.
The nave rises in three stages, arcade, gallery and clerestory.
The arcade has two forms: arches resting on large cylindrical
masonry columns as at Gloucester and Hereford Cathedrals, and
arches springing from composite piers as at Peterborough and Ely
Cathedrals. Durham Cathedral has alternating piers and columns.
Crypts are groin vaulted, as at Canterbury Cathedral.
Barrel vaults are rare, examples being St John's Chapel, Tower of
London and several 12th century monastic churches in Ireland
including Cormac's Chapel and St Flannan's oratory.

NOTABLE BUILDINGS
Cormac's Chapel, Rock of Cashel,
Ireland, with its steeply pitched roof
and bands of blind arcading maintains
a distinctly Irish character.

Peterborough Cathedral, the three


-stage nave 1155-75 has piers of
ovoid section with attached shafts.
While the forms are typically Norman,
the length is greater than found in
Normandy. The wooden ceiling is original.

OTHER NOTABLE BUILDINGS

Durham Cathedral, England


Peterborough Cathedral, England
Ely Cathedral, England
Southwell Cathedral, England
Tewkesbury Abbey, England
St Bartholomew-the-Great, London, England
Kilpeck Church, England
The Leper Chapel, Cambridge, England
Dunfermline Abbey, Scotland
Cormac's Chapel, Ireland

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN SPAIN, PORTUGAL


AND ANDORRA
Influences

Prior to the beginning of the period, the greater part of the


Iberian Peninsula was ruled by Muslims, with Christian rulers
controlling only a strip at the north of the country. [
By 900 the Reconquista had increased the area under Christian
rule to about one third of Iberia. This expanded to about half
the area by 1150 and included Galicia, Leon, Castille, Navarre,
Aragon, Catalonia and Portugal.
Romanesque churches are located in the northern half of the
peninsula, with a number occurring in Avila which was reestablished and fortified around 1100 and Toledo in central
Spain from 1098.
Many small Pre-Romanesque churches were established in the
10th century with distinctive local characteristics including
vaults, horseshoe arches, and rose windows of pierced stone.
Many Benedictine monasteries were established in Spain by

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN SPAIN, PORTUGAL


AND ANDORRA

Most of the area has abundant building stone,


granite, limestone, Red Sandstone and
volcanic rubble.
There was little timber, so it was used
sparingly for roofs.
The northern part of the region is dotted with
numerous small churches such as those of
Andorra and the Vall de Bo in Catalonia. [
There are also larger monasteries. Many
cathedrals were commenced at this time.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN SPAIN, PORTUGAL


AND ANDORRA
Characteristics

It is characteristic of both cathedrals and large abbey churches


that they have many accretions of different periods,
particularly flanking chapels, in later styles, often Baroque.
Most churches are built of stone. In areas where brick is used,
Toledo, Sahagn, Cullar, the bricks are similar to Roman
bricks. The exterior of brick churches, particularly the apses,
are decorated with tiers of shallow blind arcading and squaretopped niches, as at the churches of San Tirso and San
Lorenzo, Sahagn
Small churches abound across the area, usually having an
aisless nave and projecting apse and a bell turret on one gable.
Larger churches often have a wide turret extending across the
upper facade with a gallery of openings holding bells, as at Jaca
Cathedral
Freestanding towers with increasing openings in each stage,

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN SPAIN, PORTUGAL


AND ANDORRA

Small churches are sometimes barrel vaulted and are roofed with
stone slabs lying directly on the vault.
Wider spaces have timber roofs of low profile, as timber was scarce.
Larger churches, have barrel vaults, sometimes with transverse arches
marking the bays.
Abbey churches of later French foundation have ribbed vaults.
Larger monastic churches and cathedrals have nave and aisles and
follow French plans, including chevets as at Avila Cathedral.
The crossing of a large church sometimes has an octagonal tower or
dome supported on squinches, as at Santa Maria, Ripoll and the
Cathedral of Santa Maria d'Urgell .
Externally, many large churches are fortresslike, such as Lisbon
Cathedral and the Old Cathedral of Coimbra in Portugal and the
Sigenza Cathedral, Spain
Rose windows with pierced tracery similar to those that occur in PreRomanesque churches of Oviedo are a feature in some facades, such
as that at the Monastery of Santa Mara de Armenteira, Galicia.

NOTABLE BUILDINGS
The imposing facade of
Lisbon Cathedral, Portugal,
has a fortress-like quality

The cupola of the Cathedral


of Zamora has a ribbed stone
vault and gives light to the
centre of the church

NOTABLE BUILDINGS
The Church of San Lorenzo in Sahagn,
Leon, has the tiered apses and galleried
tower of brick churches in the region.

Interior of the Cathedral


of Santiago de Compostela,
Spain, a major pilgrimage
destination.

OTHER NOTABLE BUILDINGS

The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Spain


Santa Maria de Ripoll
The Cathedral of Santa Maria d'Urgell, Spain
Jaca Cathedral, Spain
The cloister of the Abbey of Santo Domingo de Silos
The Basilica of San Isidoro, Len, Spain
The Cathedral of Zamora
Old Cathedral, Salamanca
Lisbon Cathedral, Portugal
Monastery of Rates, Portugal
The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Spain

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN GERMANY, BELGIUM


AND THE NETHERLANDS
Influences

Much of Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands were united under


Charlemagne who built a castle on the Valkhof, Nijmegen, the Netherlands,
and the Palatine Chapel at Aachen.
The power of individual bishops and the establishment of cathedrals and
monasteries were focused initially in the south of Germany and the
Rhineland.
In the early 10th century Germany and Lombardy were united under Otto the
Great, crowned in Charlemagnes church at Aachen.
Consolidation under Frederick Barbarossa in the 12th century led to the
establishment of towns, imperial palaces and churches of imperial patronage.
Southern Germany, the Rhineland and Belgium had abundant building stone.
Saxony and Flanders had little stone, while large parts of the Netherlands
and the river plains of northern Germany had none, so that brick was the
main building material.
Timber was abundant in Germany and Belgium.
The rich fertile river valleys, particularly those of the Rhine and the Meuse,
encouraged the growth of towns.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN GERMANY, BELGIUM


AND THE NETHERLANDS
Characteristics

The most distinctive characteristic of large Romanesque churches is the


prevalence of apses at both ends of the church, as on 9th century Plan of St.
Gall, the earliest example being at Gernrode Abbey. Two reasons are
suggested: that the bishop presided at one end and the abbot at the other, or
that the western apse served as a baptistery.
The main portal of a double-apsed church is into the side of the building, and
may be richly decorated with carving.
Both apses are flanked by paired towers. Many of the smaller towers are
circular, as at Worms Cathedral. There may be numerous towers of varied
shapes and sizes.
The crossing is generally surmounted by an octagonal tower, as at Speyer
Cathedral.
Spires are of roofed timber rather than stone and take a variety of forms, the
most distinctive being the Rhenish helm. Stone is sometimes used for
Rhenish helms as at the eastern end of the Basilica of Our Lady, Maastricht.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN GERMANY, BELGIUM


AND THE NETHERLANDS

The towers and apse of the western end are often incorporated
into a multi-storey westwerk. These westwerks take a great
variety of forms, from a flat faade as at Limburg Cathedral, a flat
faade with projecting apse at St Gertrude, Nivelles and a
rectangular projecting structure of several storeys that juts
beyond the towers as at St Serviatius, Maastricht.
The transepts do not project strongly.
Wheel windows, ocular windows and windows with simple
quatrefoil tracery often occur in apses, as at Worms Cathedral.
Wooden roofs were common, with an ancient painted ceiling
retained at St Michaels, Hildesheim.
Stone vaults were used at a later date than in France, occurring
over the aisles at Speyer in about 1060.

NOTABLE BUILDINGS
Worms Cathedral, Germany,
is a double-apsed church with
a side entrance.

Laach Abbey, Germany, has a westwerk


that demonstrates the careful massing
and balancing of forms that is typical
of Romanesque architecture in Germany.

NOTABLE BUILDINGS
Tournai Cathedral, Belgium,
the south transept, is a
balanced composition with
much detail.

Speyer Cathedral, Germany,


an imperial church that set
the style for the region,
and includes a groin vault
over the nave.

OTHER NOTABLE BUILDINGS

Aachen Cathedral, (Carolingian)


Gernrode Abbey
St. Michael's Church, Hildesheim
Collegiate Church of Saint Gertrude, Nivelles,
Belgium
Collegiate Church of St. Bartholomew, Liege, Belgium
Tournai Cathedral, Belgium
Basilica of Our Lady, Maastricht, the Netherlands
Basilica of Saint Servatius, Maastricht, the
Netherlands

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN SCANDINAVIA


Influences

Norway, Sweden and Denmark were separate kingdoms for much of the period.
Much of Norway was united from the late 9th century until 1387 under Harold I
and his successors.
Cnut the Great briefly united Denmark, England, Norway and parts of Sweden in
the early 11th century.
King Olaf II of Norway, known as St Olav, did much to enforce Christianity on the
Vikings, and by the end of the 11th Century, Christianity was the only legal
religion.
In Denmark, Christianity was promoted by Canute the Holy in the late 11th
century, with Sweyn II of Denmark dividing the country into eight dioceses, and
establishing many churches, cathedrals and monasteries from about 1060
onwards.
Much of Sweden was united under Olaf Eirksson around 995, with the southern
area, Gtaland being united with Svealand by Sverker I of Sweden in the 1130s.
Lund Cathedral, Sweden, was made the seat of the archbishop for all of
Scandinavia in 1103, but only the crypt remains from the 1130s, the rest being
mostly 19th century rebuilding.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN SCANDINAVIA

Bishop Absalon founded Roskilde Cathedral in Denmark in 1158 and the city
of Copenhagen (116067).
Architectural influences came with clergy brought from England (such as
Nicholas Breakspeare), Lombardy and Germany. The influence of English
Norman architecture is seen particularly in Norway at Nidaros Cathedral,
Trondheim, and of German Romanesque at Lund Cathedral, Sweden.
Benedictine monks from Italy introduced the skill of firing bricks to Denmark.
While most churches were initially built of timber, the larger ones were
replaced by stone, with brick being the dominant material in much of
Denmark where building stone is scarce.
Small Romanesque churches are plentiful and are generally in relatively
unchanged condition. Large churches are rare and are much altered as at
Aarhus Cathedral, Lund Cathedral and Roskilde Cathedral.
Norway has 25 wooden stave churches from this period, making up all but
three of the worlds medieval wooden churches.
In Sweden, surviving Romanesque churches are concentrated mainly but not
exclusively to three provinces: Gotland, Scania and Vstra Gtaland

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN SCANDINAVIA


Characteristics

The wooden stave churches of Norway represent a type that was


once common across Northern Europe, but elsewhere have been
destroyed or replaced. They have timber frames, walls of planks, and
shingled roofs which are steeply pitched and overhanging to protect
the joints of the building from the weather.
Denmark has seven rotunda churches, which have a circular nave,
divided into several storeys internally, and have projecting chancel
and apse as at Bjernede Church and Nylars Church. At sterlars
Church, the chancel and apse are constructed as small intersecting
circles. Rotunda churches also occur in Sweden as at Hagby Church.
Bulky west towers with stepped gables are typical of Denmark and
are found on smaller churches as at Horne Church, SborgChurch,
and Aa Church, Bornholm where the tower has paired crow-step
gables at each side.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN SCANDINAVIA

In Denmark the west tower may extend across the whole width of the
church, forming a westwerk as at Aa Church and Hvidbjerg Church, Mors,
with some such towers incorporating a large open archway with stairs such
as at Torrild Church.
Small stone churches in Norway and Sweden have a short wide nave,
square chancel, an apse and a western tower with pyramidal shingled spire,
as at Hove Church, Norway and Kinneveds Church and Vmbs Church,
Sweden.
Large central towers occur in Norway, as at Old Aker Church.
Free standing belltowers are found, often with half-timbered upper sections.
Stone churches, such as Aa Church, Denmark and Lund Cathedral, Sweden,
have Lombard bands and paired windows, similar to churches of Lombardy
and Germany.
Openings are generally small and simple. Many doors have a carved
tympanum as at Vestervig Church and Ribe Cathedral, Denmark

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN SCANDINAVIA

Most churches have timber roofed naves, but ribbed vaulting over smaller
spaces such as the chancel is common. Some small churches, such as
Marka Church in Sweden, have groin vaults. Larger churches such as Ribe
Cathedral are vaulted.
Arcades may be of simple rectangular piers such as at Ribe, Denmark, or
drum columns such as at Stavanger Cathedral, Norway. Lund Cathedral has
alternating rectangular piers and piers with attached shafts which support
the vault.
Fully developed Romanesque arcades of three stages occur in churches built
under English or German influence as at Nidaros Cathedral, Trondheim.
Large churches may have paired towers at the western end, as at
Mariakirken, Bergen.
Visby Cathedral and Husaby Church, Sweden, have tall westwerks, framed
by round towers. At Ribe Cathedral the stone westwerk is framed on the
south by a Romanesque tower of German form with a Rhenish helm spire
and on the north by a taller Gothic tower in red brick.

NOTABLE BUILDINGS
At Husaby Church, Sweden,
the massive tower is framed
by round turrets.

Hopperstad Stave church,


Norway (1130), one of
twenty-five remaining
from the Medieval period.

OTHER NOTABLE CHURCHES

Hopperstad Stave church, Norway (1130)


Borgund Stave church, Norway
Aa Church, Bornholm, Denmark, late 12th century
Bjernede Church, Denmark
sterlars Church, Bornholm, Denmark
Horne Church, Denmark
Vestervig Church, Denmark
Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark (11601280)
St. Bendt's Church, Ringsted, Denmark (1170)
Ribe Cathedral, Denmark
Old Aker Church, Oslo, Norway, founded 1080
Stavanger Cathedral, Norway
Buttle Church, Gotland, Sweden
Hemse Church Gotland, Sweden
Fardhem Church Gotland, Sweden
Husaby Church, Vstra Gtaland, Sweden

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN POLAND, AUSTRIA,


HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC
Influences

The remaining buildings are few in number and the influences are diverse.
Poland became Christian under Mieszko I in 966, resulting in the foundation of the
first Pre-Romanesque churches, including Wawel Cathedral in Krakw, Gniezno and
Pozna Cathedrals.
During the period 9761248 Austria was ruled by margraves of the House of
Babenberg. Towns and monasteries were established.
The Romanesque style was introduced to Poland from Germany with the founding
of the bishopric of Gniezno in 1000.
In Hungary, Stephen I brought the Magyar states together in 1001 and created two
Catholic archbishoprics.
Bohemia was largely Christianised in the 10th century under Vaclav I.
The bishopric of Prague was established in 973 with a Saxon Benedictine bishop,
Thietmar.
The Benedictine, Premonstratensian and Augustinian orders founded monasteries
and built abbey churches throughout the area.
The influence on architectural style was initially from Germany, and later from
France and Italy.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN POLAND, AUSTRIA,


HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC
Characteristics

There are a number of surviving small rotunda churches, generally with an


apse as at sk, Hungary and Saint Nicholas Rotunda in Cieszyn, Poland.
Rotunda churches sometimes have towers which may be circular as at Saint
Procopius Church, Strzelno, Poland or square in plan as at the Church of St
Peter and St Paul, Bude, Czech Republic.
Other small churches found in the region are rectangular, aisleless and with
a square chancel, or an apse as at the Church of Saint Wenceslas, Hrusice,
Czech Republic. Schngrabern Church, Austria, has a square chancel and
projecting apse.
Larger churches have a nave and aisles, each ending in an apse, and with
no transept. Examples are Pcs Cathedral, Jk Church and the Basilica of the
Assumption, Tismice, Czech Republic.
The aisles sometimes contained galleries for the nobility.
While arcades are usually supported on piers, the Basilica of the
Assumption, Tismice has alternating piers and columns which have cushion
capitals.

ROMANESQUE CHURCHES IN POLAND, AUSTRIA,


HUNGARY AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC

Larger churches have paired western towers, some with decorated central
portals, as at Jk Church and the ruined Zsambek Church, Hungary.
At St. Andrew's Church, Krakw, the unornamented facade takes the form of
westwerk, with an octagonal towers rising on either side. Gurk Cathedral,
Austria, has a similarly flat facade, rising to two very tall square towers.
The Collegiate Church at Tum has and apse at either end, similar to many
German Romanesque churches.The western apse is flanked by square towers.
Pecs Cathedral, Hungary, has four towers of square plan, like Bamberg
Cathedral, Germany.
Tower openings take the typical Romanesque paired form as at Church of St
Peter and St Paul, Bude Czech Republic.
Roofs are generally of wood, with vaults occurring
Lombard bands are used, as at Schngrabern Church, Austria, and around the
towers of Tum and Jk churches.
The facade of Sulejw Abbey Church, founded by the Cistercians, and having
a gabled portal and rose window, heralds the influence of French architectural
style that was to introduce Gothic.

NOTABLE BUILDINGS
At St. Andrew's Church, Krakw, the plain
westwerk resolves into octagonal towers.

Gurk Cathedral, Austria, has remarkably


little adornment of the westwerk, and
Arbitrary placement of the lower windows

OTHER NOTABLE BUILDINGS

Gurk Cathedral, Austria


Schngrabern Church, Austria
Tum Collegiate Church, Poland
St. Andrew's Church, Krakw, Poland
St. Leonard's Crypt in Wawel Cathedral, Poland
Saint Procopius Rotunda Church, Strzelno, Poland
St Martin's Collegiate Church, Opatow, Poland
Sulejw Abbey, Poland
St. Nicholas Church in Wysocice, Poland
St. Peter and Paul-Collegiate in Kruszwica, Poland
Cathedral in Kamie Pomorski, Poland

OTHER NOTABLE BUILDINGS

Dominican Church and Convent of St. James in Sandomierz, Poland


St. Trinity-Church in Strzelno, Poland, with unique sculpted columns
inside depicting vices and virtues
Zsambek Church, Hungary. The facade of this ruined
Premonstratensian abbey church, (1220), has remained largely
intact.
Pcs Cathedral, Hungary. Although the plan reflects the church of
the 11th century, the exterior appearance is almost entirely due to
19th century renovation.
Jk Church, Hungary, is one of the most complete Romanesque
churches in the region.
Church of Saint Wenceslas, Hrusice, Czech Republic
Church of St Peter and St Paul, Bude Czech Republic, (c. 900 AD)
The Basilica of the Assumption, Tismice, Czech Republic

END.