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Unit-3

T-beam bridge

Most commonly adopted type


Span range 10 to 25 m
Deck slab cast monolithically with
Types of T-beam bridge
1.Slab girder bridge

No cross beams
Slab design as a one way slab
Does not possess much torsional rigidity
This type is not adopted in recent designs

girders

2. T-beam bridge With diaphragms

Diaphragms connecting the longitudinal girders


But do not extend up to the slab
Slab remain behaves as an one way slab
Greater torsional rigidity than the girder-slab type

3. T-beam bridge With cross beam

Cast monolithically with desk slab


Slab design as a two way slab
Slab thickness reduces
Dead load on longitudinal girder reduce
Better load distribution on longitudinal girders
Increase spacing of longitudinal girders
Hence less number of girders
Cost reduce

riment investigation was conducted under the supervision of the

No cross
beam

With
diaphragm

With cross
beam

deflection

100%

74%

63%

Load distribution

Poor

Better

best

Ultimate load
capacity

100%

132%

162%

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Components of a T-Beam
Bridge

Deck slab
Cantilever portion
Footpaths : if provided,kerbs and handrails
Longitudinal girders
Cross beam or diaphragms
Wearing course

Some standard details

Kerb vary from 475 mm to 600 mm


Wearing course thickness for asphaltic concrete -56 mm
for cement concrete-75 mm
Footpaths about -1.5 m
Number and spacing of main girders

Three girders applicable for two-lane carriage way of 7..5 m width


Four girders for 12 m width
Lateral spacing of the longitudinal girders will affect the cost of the bridge
Three girders system is usually more economic than a four girder system for
bridge width of 8.7 m

Cross-beam
Cross beam are provided mainly to stiffen the girders and to reduce torsion in t
Exterior girders

Design components
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Deck slab
End longitudinal girder
Intermediate longitudinal girder
End cross beam
Intermediate cross beam
Cantilever portion

Design steps
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Design data
B.M due to dead load
B.M due to live load
Design B.M
Main reinforcement
Distribution reinforcement

e maximum B.M under any wheel load occurs when the center of the span is mid
tween the C.G of load system and the wheel load under consideration

3.2

Box culvert

ulvertis a structure that allows water to flow under a road, railroad, trail, or simi
ruction from one side to the other side. Typically embedded so as to be surround
oil, a culvert may be made from a pipe , reinforced concrete or other material

Components of box culvert


1.Top slab
2.Side walls
3.Bottom slab

esign Loads

Concentrated loads
Uniform Distributed load
Weight of side walls
Water pressure inside walls
Earth pressure on Vertical Side walls
Uniform Lateral Load on Side Walls