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Wind Energy

Allen Jerry P. Aries


Paul Lyndon M. Cabuguason
BSChE-5

Wind Energy/Wind Power


an indirect form of solar energy which can
be used continuously unlike solar energy
extracted fromair flowusingwind
turbinesorsailsto produce mechanical
orelectrical energy.
Windmillsare used for their mechanical
power,windpumpsforwater pumping,
andsailsto propelships.

Wind Energy/Wind Power


As of 2014,Denmark has been generatingaround
40% of its electricity from wind
at least 83 other countries around the world are
using wind power to supply their electricity grids
Wind power capacity has expanded to 369,553
MW by December 2014
total wind energy production is growing rapidly
and has reached around 4% of worldwide
electricity usage

History
5000 BC
500-900 AD 1300 AD
Sailboats used
First
First
on the Nile
windmills
horizontalindicate the developed in
axis
power of wind
Persia
windmills in
Europe

1850s
Late 1880s
Daniel Halladay and Thomas O. Perry
John Burnham build conducted 5,000
Halladay Windmill; wind experiments;
start US Wind
starts Aermotor
Engine Company
Company

1888
Charles F. Brush
used windmill to
generate
electricity
in Cleveland, OH

Early 1900s
Windmills in CA
pumped saltwater
to evaporate ponds

1941
In VT, Grandpas
Knob turbine
supplies power to
town during WWII

1985
CA wind capacity
exceeded 1,000 MW

1993
US WindPower
developed
first commercial
variable-speed wind
turbine

2004
Electricity from
wind generation
costs 3 to 4.5
cents per kWh

1979
First wind turbine
rated over 1 MW
began operating

2013
Wind power
provided
over 17% of
renewable
energy used in US

Statistics
Add

Statistics

Winds
Atmospheric air in motion
form of solar energy
caused by the uneven heating of the
atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of
the earth's surface, and rotation of the
earth.
Wind flow patterns are modified by the
earth's terrain, bodies of water, and
vegetative cover
This wind flow, or motion energy, when
"harvested" by modern wind turbines, can
be used to generate electricity

Classification of Winds
Planetary winds are cause due to greater
heating of earths surface near the equator
as compared to solar heating near the south
& north poles.
Local winds are caused due to differential
heating of land & water in coastal areas
these are also caused due to uneven heating
in hills & mountain along the slopes.

What Makes Wind?

What Makes Wind?


Heat from the sun causes convection in the
atmosphere, meaning the heated air rises.
These currents create zones of high and low air
pressure within the atmosphere.
As the heated air rises, it creates a low pressure
zone near the ground.
Air from surrounding cooler areas rushes in to
balance the pressure.

Wind Turbines
devices that convert the wind's kinetic energy into
electrical power
like aircraft propeller blades, turn in the moving
air and power an electric generator that supplies
an electric current.
It is the opposite of a fan. Instead of using
electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines
use wind to make electricity.
The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft,
which connects to a generator and makes
electricity.

Wind Turbine
Components
Regardless of the size, all turbines have the same parts.
Blades on modern turbines are similar to airplane
blades, lifted by the wind.
The hub connects the blades to the shaft and
generator.
The nacelle houses the generator.
The tower holds the turbine high above anything that
might cause turbulence in the air such as trees and
buildings. Towers can be lattice or monopole for large
turbines. Most modern day turbines have monopole
towers made of steel.

Wind Turbine Types


Based on the orientation of the rotor

1. Horizontal Axis
like the traditional farm windmills used for
pumping water
Most large modern wind turbines are of this type

Wind Turbine Types


Based on the orientation of the rotor

2. Vertical Axis
-like the eggbeater-style Darrieus model, named
after its French inventor

Wind Turbine Types


Based on the orientation of the rotor

2. Vertical Axis
-like the eggbeater-style Darrieus model, named
after its French inventor

Wind Turbine Types


Based on the orientation of the rotor

2. Vertical Axis
-like the eggbeater-style Darrieus model, named
after its French inventor

Vertical Axis Wind


Turbines
Advantages
Omni-directional
- accepts wind from any direction
Components can be mounted at ground level
- ease of service
- lighter weight towers
Can theoretically use less materials to capture the same
amount of wind
Disadvantages
Rotors generally near ground where wind is poorer
Centrifugal force stresses blades
Poor self-starting capabilities
Requires support at top of turbine rotor
Requires entire rotor to be removed to replace bearings
Overall poor performance and reliability

Wind Farms
Wind farms are like power plants, with a number
of turbines wired together before going to the
transformer.
The transformer steps up the voltage before the
electricity goes out on transmission lines and the
electricity grid.

Wind Farms

Wind Power Equations


Wind Power depends on:
amount of air (volume)
speed of air (velocity)
mass of air (density)
flowing through the area of interest (flux)

Wind Power Equations


Derivation

Kinetic Energy Definition:


Power is the time rate change of Kinetic Energy,
and at constant velocity:

Wind Power Equations


Derivation

contd.
Mass Flux:

Wind Power Equations


Power

Coefficient, Cp
-is the ratio of power extracted by the turbine to the
total contained in the wind resource

Betzs Limit
Betz's law indicates the maximum power that can be
extracted from the wind, independent of the design of
a wind turbine in open flow.
It was published in 1919, by the German physicist
Albert Betz
The law is derived from the principles of
conservation of mass and momentum of the air
stream flowing through an idealized "actuator disk"
that extracts energy from the wind stream.
According to Betz's law, no turbine can capture more
than 16/27 (59.3%) of the kinetic energy in wind.
This is known as the Betzs Limit

Betzs Limit
The Betz Limit is the maximal possible Cp =
16/27. 59% efficiency is the BEST a conventional
wind turbine can do in extracting power from the
wind.
Practical utility-scale wind turbines achieve at
peak 75% to 80% of the Betz limit.

Capacity Factor (CF)


The fraction of the year the turbine generator is
operating at rated (peak) power
Capacity Factor = Average Output / Peak Output 30%

CF is based on both the characteristics of the


turbine and the site characteristics (typically 0.3 or
above for a good site)

ADVANTAGES OF WIND
POWER
The wind is free and with modern technology it can be
captured efficiently.
Once the wind turbine is built the energy it produces
does not cause greenhouse gases or other pollutants.
Although wind turbines can be very tall each takes up
only a small plot of land. This means that the land
below can still be used. This is especially the case in
agricultural areas as farming can still continue.
Many people find wind farms an interesting feature of
the landscape.

ADVANTAGES OF WIND
POWER
Remote areas that are not connected to the
electricity power grid can use wind turbines to
produce their own supply.
Wind turbines have a role to play in both the
developed and third world.
Wind turbines are available in a range of sizes
which means a vast range of people and
businesses can use them. Single households to
small towns and villages can make good use of
range of wind turbines available today.

DISADVANTAGES OF WIND
POWER
The strength of the wind is not constant and it
varies from zero to storm force. This means that
wind turbines do not produce the same amount of
electricity all the time. There will be times when
they produce no electricity at all.
Many people feel that the countryside should be
left untouched, without these large structures
being built. The landscape should left in its natural
form for everyone to enjoy.
Wind turbines are noisy. Each one can generate
the same level of noise as a family car travelling
at 70 mph.

DISADVANTAGES OF WIND
POWER
Many people see large wind turbines as unsightly
structures and not pleasant or interesting to look at.
They disfigure the countryside and are generally
ugly.
When wind turbines are being manufactured some
pollution is produced. Therefore wind power does
produce some pollution.
Large wind farms are needed to provide entire
communities with enough electricity. For example,
the largest single turbine available today can only
provide enough electricity for 475 homes, when
running at full capacity. How many would be needed
for a town of 100 000 people?

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

Land Use
Public Health and Community
Wildlife and Habitat
Life-Cycle Global Warming Emissions

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Land Use
The land use impact of wind power facilities varies
substantially depending on the site
wind turbines placed in flat areas typically use more
land than those located in hilly areas
However, wind turbines do not occupy all of this
land; they must be spaced approximately 5 to 10
rotor diameters apart.
Thus, the turbines themselves and the surrounding
infrastructure (including roads and transmission
lines) occupy a small portion of the total area of a
wind facility.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Land Use
large wind facilities in the United States found that
they use between 30 and 141 acres per megawatt
of power output capacity (a typical new utilityscale wind turbine is about 2 megawatts)
less than 1 acre per megawatt is disturbed
permanently and less than 3.5 acres per megawatt
are disturbed temporarily during construction.
The remainder of the land can be used for a variety
of other productive purposes

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Public Health and Community
Sound and visual impact are the two main
public health and community concerns associated
with operating wind turbines.
Most of the sound generated by wind turbines is
aerodynamic, caused by the movement of turbine
blades through the air.
There is also mechanical sound generated by the
turbine itself.
Overall sound levels depend on turbine design
and wind speed

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Public Health and Community
Some people living close to wind facilities have
complained about sound and vibration issues, but
studies in Canada and Australia have found that these
issues do not adversely impact public health.
However, it is important for wind turbine developers to
take these community concerns seriously by following
good neighbor best practices for siting turbines and
initiating open dialogue with affected community
members.
Additionally, technological advances, such as
minimizing blade surface imperfections and using
sound-absorbent materials can reduce wind turbine
noise.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Public Health and Community

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Public Health and Community
Under certain lighting conditions, wind turbines can create an effect
known as shadow flicker.
This annoyance can be minimized with careful siting, planting trees or
installing window awnings, or curtailing wind turbine operations when
certain lighting conditions exist.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires that large wind
turbines, like all structures over 200 feet high, have white or red lights
for aviation safety.
However, the FAA recently determined that as long as there are no gaps
in lighting greater than a half-mile, it is not necessary to light each
tower in a multi-turbine wind project. Daytime lighting is unnecessary as
long as the turbines are painted white.
When it comes to aesthetics, wind turbines can elicit strong reactions.
To some people, they are graceful sculptures; to others, they are
eyesores that compromise the natural landscape. Whether a community
is willing to accept an altered skyline in return for cleaner power should
be decided in an open public dialogue.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Wildlife and Habitat
Life-Cycle Global Warming Emissions