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Ch 14

Single-Station Manufacturing Cells


Sections:
1. Single-Station Manned Workstations
2. Single-Station Automated Cells
3. Applications of Single-Station Cells
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4. Analysis of Single-Station Cells
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Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
1

Classification of
Single-Station Manufacturing Cells

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All


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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
2

Single-Station Manufacturing Cells


Most common manufacturing system in industry
Operation is independent of other stations
Perform either processing or assembly operations
Can be designed for:
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Single
model
production
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Batch production
as they currently exist.
Mixedofmodel
production
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this material
may be reproduced, in any form or by
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
3

Single-Station Manned Cell


One worker tending one production machine (most
common model)
Most widely used production method, especially in
job shop and batch production
Reasons
popularity:
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Education,
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rights reserved.
material
is protected under all copyright laws
ShortestThis
time
to implement
as they currently
Requiresexist.
least capital investment
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
Easiest to install and operate
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
Typically,
lowestofunit
cost for low production
the exclusive
use ofthe
adopters
the book
MostProduction
Automation,
Systems,
flexible for
productand
or Computer-Integrated
part changeovers
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
4

Single-Station Manned Cell Examples


Worker operating a standard machine tool
Worker loads & unloads parts, operates machine
Machine is manually operated
Worker operating semi-automatic machine
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Worker
loads
& unloads
parts, Saddle
starts semi-automatic
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reserved.
cycleThis material is protected under all copyright laws
as they currently exist.
Worker attention not required continuously during
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
entirewithout
work cycle
any means,
permission in writing from the publisher. For
Worker
using
hand
toolsoforthe
portable
the
exclusive
use of
adopters
book power tools at one
location Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Automation,
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
5

Variations of
Single-Station Manned Cell
Two (or more) workers required to operate machine
Two workers required to manipulate heavy forging at
forge press
Welder and fitter in arc welding work cell
Inc.,
Upper Saddle
River, NJ.
All
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One Pearson
principalEducation,
production
machine
plus support
equipment
rights
reserved.
This material
protected under
all copyright
Drying
equipment
for aismanually
operated
injectionlaws
as theymolding
currentlymachine
exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
Trimming shears at impression-die forge hammer to
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
trim flash
forgedofpart
the exclusive
usefrom
of adopters
the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
6

Single-Station Automated Cell


Fully automated production machine capable of
operating unattended for longer than one work cycle
Worker not required except for periodic tending
Reasons why it is important:
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Labor cost is reduced
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Easiest exist.
and least expensive automated system to
as they currently
implement
No portion
of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
Production
any means,
without permission
rates usually
in writing
higherfrom
thanthe
manned
publisher.
cellFor
the exclusive
of the book
First use
stepofinadopters
implementing
an integrated multi-station
Automation,
Production
Systems, and Computer-Integrated
automated
system
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
7

Enablers for
Unattended Cell Operation
For single model and batch model production:
Programmed operation for all steps in work cycle
Parts storage subsystem
Automatic loading, unloading, and transfer between
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Saddle River, NJ. All
parts
storage
subsystem
and machine
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reserved. attention
This material
is protected
under all
laws
Periodic
of worker
for removal
ofcopyright
finished work
as theyunits,
currently
exist. of starting work units, and other
resupply
No portion
of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by
machine
tending
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
Built-in safeguards to avoid self-destructive operation or
the exclusive
use of adopters of the book
damage
to work units
or unsafe
to workers
Automation,
Production
Systems,
and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
8

Enablers for
Unattended Cell Operation
For mixed model production:
All of the preceding enablers, plus:
Work unit identification:
Automatic identification (e.g., bar codes) or
sensors
that recognize
alternative
features
of
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NJ. All
starting
rights reserved.
Thisunits
material is protected under all copyright laws
If starting
as they currently
exist. units are the same, work unit
identification
unnecessary
No portion of
this materialismay
be reproduced, in any form or by
Capability
to download
programs
forthe
each
work unit
any means,
without permission
in writing
from
publisher.
For
styleuse
(programs
prepared
in advance)
the exclusive
of adopters
of the book
Capability
for quick
changeover
of physical setup
Automation,
Production
Systems,
and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
9

Parts Storage Subsystem and


Automatic Parts Transfer
Are necessary conditions for unattended operation
Given a capacity = np parts in the storage subsystem, the
cell can theoretically operate for a time
UT = npTc
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Saddle River, NJ. All
where
UT = unattended
time
of operation
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reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws
In
reality, unattended time will be less than UT because
as they currently exist.
the worker needs time to unload finished parts and load
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
raw workparts into the storage subsystem
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
10

Parts Storage Capacity


Typical objectives in defining the desired parts storage
capacity np:
Make npTc = a fixed time interval that allows one worker
to tend multiple machines
Make npTc = time between scheduled tool changes
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Make n T = one complete shift
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Make
npTcexist.
= one overnight (lights-out operation)
as they
currently
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
The time
of unattended
operation
increases
with storage
any means,
without
permission
in writing
fromdirectly
the publisher.
For
capacity, so there is an advantage to designing the storage
the exclusive
use of adopters of the book
subsystem with sufficient capacity to satisfy the plants operational
Automation,
Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
objectives.
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
11

Storage Capacity of One Part


Example: two-position automatic pallet changer (APC)
With no pallet changer, work cycle elements of
loading/unloading and processing would have to be
performed sequentially
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where
reserved.
Tm = machine
This material
timeisand
protected
Ts = worker
under all
service
copyright
timelaws
as
exist. work cycle elements can be
they
Withcurrently
pallet changer,
Noperformed
portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by
simultaneously
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
T = Max{Tm, Ts} + Tr
the exclusive usec of adopters
of the book
where Tr =
repositioning
timeand
of pallet
changer
Automation,
Production
Systems,
Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
12

CNC Machining Center with Automatic


Pallet Changer - Stores One Part

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All


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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
13

Storage Capacities Greater Than One


Machining centers:
Various designs of parts storage unit interfaced to
automatic pallet changer (or other automated
transfer mechanism)
Turning centers:
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Industrial robot interface with parts carousel
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Plastic
molding
as they
currently
exist. or extrusion:
Hopper
sufficient
molding compound
No portion
of thiscontains
material may
be reproduced,
in any form for
or by
unattended
operationin writing from the publisher. For
any means,
without permission
Sheet metal
theexclusive
use ofstamping:
adopters of the book
Starting
Automation,
Production
material
Systems,
is sheet
andmetal
Computer-Integrated
coil
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
14

Storage Capacities Greater Than One

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rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws
as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
Machining center and automatic pallet changer with pallet holders
the
exclusive use of adopters of the book
arranged radially; parts storage capacity = 5
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
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Storage Capacities Greater Than One

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rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws
as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
Machining
center
in-line shuttle
cart
system with pallet holders
the
exclusive
useand
of adopters
of the
book
along its length; parts storage capacity = 16
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
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Storage Capacities Greater Than One

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All


rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws
as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
Machining
center
pallets held
on book
indexing table; parts storage
the
exclusive
use with
of adopters
of the
capacity = 6 Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Automation,
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
17

Storage Capacities Greater Than One

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rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws
as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
and
parts storage
theMachining
exclusivecenter
use of
adopters
of thecarousel
book with parts loaded onto
pallets; partsProduction
storage capacity
= 12 and Computer-Integrated
Automation,
Systems,
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
18

Applications of Single Station


Manned Cells
CNC machining center (MC) with worker to load/unload
CNC turning center (TC) with worker to load/unload
Cluster of two CNC turning centers with time sharing of
one worker to load/unload
2008
Plastic
injection
molding
on Upper
semi-automatic
cycle
Pearson
Education,
Inc.,
Saddle River,
NJ. with
All
worker
to unload
molding,issprue,
andunder
runner
rights
reserved.
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protected
all copyright laws
as they
One currently
worker atexist.
electronics subassembly workstation
Noinserting
portion ofcomponents
this material into
may PCB
be reproduced, in any form or by
any
means, without
in loading
writing from
the and
publisher.
For
Stamping
presspermission
with worker
blanks
unloading
thestampings
exclusive use
of adopters
each
cycle of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
19

Applications of Single Station


Automated Cells
CNC MC with APC and parts storage subsystem
CNC TC with robot and parts storage carousel
Cluster of ten CNC TCs, each with robot and parts
storage carousel, and time sharing of one worker to
load/unload
the carousels
2008
Pearson Education,
Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All
rights
reserved.
This molding
material is
under
all with
copyright
Plastic
injection
onprotected
automatic
cycle
robotlaws
as they
exist.
armcurrently
to unload
molding, sprue, and runner
No
portion of this
material may
be reproduced,
in anyinsertion
form or by
Electronics
assembly
station
with automated
anymachine
means, without
permission
in writing
the publisher. For
inserting
components
into from
PCBs
the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Stamping press stamps parts from long coil
Automation,
Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
20

CNC Machining Center


Machine tool capable of performing multiple operations
that use rotating tools on a workpart in one setup under
NC control
Typical operations: milling, drilling, and related operations
Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All
2008
Typical features to reduce nonproductive time:
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Automatic tool changer
as they currently exist.
Automatic
positioning
No portion
of thisworkpart
material may
be reproduced, in any form or by
any means,
without
permission
in writing from the publisher. For
Automatic
pallet
changer
the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
21

CNC Horizontal Machining Center

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rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws
as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
22

CNC Turning Center


Machine tool capable of performing multiple operations on
a rotating workpart in one setup under NC control
Typical operations:
Turning and related operations, e.g., contour turning
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Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All
Drilling
related
operations
along
workpart
axis of
rights
reserved.and
This
material
is protected
under
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laws
as theyrotation
currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
23

CNC Turning Center

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All


rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws
as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
24

Automated Stamping Press

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rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws
as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
anyStamping
means, without
in writing
fromstampings
the publisher.
For
press onpermission
automatic cycle
producing
from sheet
themetal
exclusive
coil use of adopters of the book
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
25

CNC Mill-Turn Center


Machine tool capable of performing multiple operations
either with single point turning tools or rotating cutters in
one setup under NC control
Typical operations:
Turning,
drilling
related
operations
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Enabling
feature:
as they
currently exist.
Capability
to control position of c-axis in addition to xNo portion
of this control
material(turning
may be reproduced,
in anytoform
or byzand z-axis
center is limited
x- and
any means,
without permission in writing from the publisher. For
axis control)
the exclusive use of adopters of the book
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Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
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Part with Mill-Turn Features

2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All


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No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by
any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For
the exclusive use of adopters of the book
Example
part with
turned, and
milled,
and drilled features
Automation,
Production
Systems,
Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
27

Sequence of Operations of a
Mill-Turn Center for Example Part

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rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws
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No(1)portion
of thisdiameter,
material(2)
may
in any formangular
or by
Turn smaller
millbe
flatreproduced,
with part in programmed
positions,
positions
for square
section;
hole withFor
any
means,four
without
permission
in cross
writing
from (3)
thedrill
publisher.
in programmed
angular position,
and (4) cutoff of the machined
thepart
exclusive
use of adopters
of the book
piece
Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated
Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
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