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requirements depends on
country & merchandise.
Use freight forwarders or

forwarding agents. Benefit:

Ensure documentation

requirement accurately
Specialized in handling
Faster & easier, Door-to-door.

Document involved:

Bill of Lading
Charter Parties
Export/Import Licenses
Certificate of origin
Inspection Certification
Insurance Certificate
Packaging Lists

Defined as a receipt for goods carried on board a

ship, signed by the person (or agent) who
contracts to carry them, stating the terms on
which goods were delivered to and received by
the ship.

Central document for facilitating international

trade and transportation.

A document which evidences a contract of

carriage by sea. Sometimes called as Sea Waybill.


Issued by:
by a shipping company, master of vessel
or agents on behalf of a shipping line to the

1. BOL as a contract between carrier & shipper

Justify terms of agreement between carrier &
* Shippers - retailers and manufacturers of
goods that require shipping
* Carriers (also called private carriers) are
companies with goods to be shipped that own or
manage their own vehicle fleets. What goods,
designated ports, designated ships, sailing date
& financial considerations.
Contract effectives when signed by the master &
accepted by shipper.

2. BOL as a receipt:
BOL completed by shipper details the

cargo, shipment (package, boxes etc.),

and weight of goods.
Shipper is obligated by law to provide

accurate information.
Carriers reserve the rights to open the

cargo for verification.

In case of non-delivery @ damage, BOL

becomes proof of quantity & condition.

3. BOL as evidence of ownership

A copy of BOL will be sent to consignee,

so consignee will be awaiting the arrival

of ships.
To protect against theft, agent at the port

will require consignee to produce copy of

Anyway, possessor of BOL could pass the

authority to third party (with enclosed

written statement).

Name of shipper
Name of carrying vessel
Full description of cargo
Marks & numbers identifying the goods
Port of shipment
Port of discharge
Details on freight charge payment

Terms of contract of carriage
Date goods received & loaded on
Name & address of the notified party

Straight BOL
BOL states that the goods are

deliverable solely to a named

Cannot appoint third party.
Also called Consignment BOL
Open BOL
BOL states that goods are deliverable

to bearer.
Cargo can be claimed by persons who
presents the original @ copy of BOL.

Shipped BOL
BOL issued by ship owner to shipper, proving

that the goods have been actually shipped.

Most BOL already printed with wording
Shipped in apparent good order & condition.
Also called Onboard BOL.

Stale BOL
BOL presented to consignee or their banks

after goods arrived & due at port.

Therefore, it is not acceptable as a valid
Cargo cannot be cleared, increase cost.

Through BOL
Need to employ 2 or more carriers, to

reach destinations. (Similar or different

transport)e.g. use train and vessel
Shipping companies issue BOL which
cover the whole transit. Through rate
will be quoted.
Shipper deals only with the first
Also called Multimodal BOL.

Groupage BOL
BOL issued by a carrier to a forwarding agent
which covers consignments from various
shippers for the same destination which have
been consolidated into one consignment by the
forwarding agent.
Mostly in containerized market as cargo destine to

same destination are console into FCL.

*FCL means the load reaches its allowable maximum (or

full) weight or measurement. Shipping line issues

Groupage BOL to freight forwarders.

Transhipment BOL
Issued when there is no direct service between 2

Ship owner tranship the cargo at intermediate port
at their expenses.

Clean BOL : issued by a carrier declaring that

the goods have been received in an

appropriate condition, without the presence of
defects. The product carrier will issue a clean
bill after thoroughly inspecting the packages
for any damage, missing quantities or
deviations in quality.

Claused BOL : that shows a shortfall or

damage in the delivered goods. Typically, if

the shipped products deviate from the delivery
specifications or expected quality, the receiver
may declare a claused bill of lading. Converse
to clean BOL.

Long form BOL

Optional discharge BOL
Origin BOL
Port to port BOL
Order BOL
Ocean BOL
Domestic BOL
Memo BOL
Uniform BOL . and so forth and so on.

In addition to liner service, a large number of

world trade is also carried by tramp service.

Here, they used a document which is known as
charter party.

Charter Party (C.P) is a contract in which the

ship owner agrees to place his vessel or a part

of it at the disposal of a third party (charterer),
for carriage of goods for which he receives a
freight per ton cargo, or to let his vessel for a
definite period or trip for which a hire is paid.

Charterer the legal person who has signed a

charter party with the owner of a vessel and

thus hires or leases a vessel or a part of the
capacity thereof.

Demise Charter Party

Arises when charterer is responsible for

providing the cargo & crew.


Ship owner provides the vessels.

Consequences charterer take full

responsibility for the operation of the

vessel, & pay all expenses incurred.
For a period of time may vary from

few weeks to several years.

Non-Demise Charter Party

Arises when ship owner provides

the vessel & crew,

crew charterer merely
supplies the cargo.

Different payment term for

loading, discharging & port


Gross terms form of charter

Commonly used. Shipowner pays all

expenses (loading, discharging, port
charges) incurred.
FIO (Free in & out) charter Charterer

pays loading & discharging cost.

Shipowner pay port charges.
Lump sum charter Charterer pays

lump sum of money for the use of space

available in a ship.



Liner charter Shipowner

charged a freight rate (which
usually charged by liner services).
Covers also cost of loading,
stowing & discharging cargo.
Anyway, there are numerous
variations in charter party,
depends on negotiation.

Terms & conditions in CP represent the

need of both parties.
These are certain essential clause
1. The preamble : Contracting parties,

Vessel name.
2. Description of cargo : Quantity
(minimum and maximum).
3. Loading date : Laytime (days to

4. Loading/Discharging port or place :

either single port, or one of range of

picked port.

5. Payment of freight : Terms, currency

of payment, consideration on
exchange rate.

6. Lay time, Demurrage

7. Penalty for non-performance

Lay Time/ Lay Days

Number of days allowed in a charter party

for the loading and discharging of cargo.

May be indicated in different ways:
Consecutive days:
days Next calendar days. Once

started, lay times count includes Sunday &


Working days:
days Do not perform work on Sunday &


Weather working days:

days Lay time do not count

when bad weather condition prevent operation.

When laytime starts?

Two (2) criteria must be fulfilled:
Vessel must be an arrived ship

at loading port.
Vessel must be physically ready
to load.

Compensation paid to shipowner in

respect of a breach of charterers

obligation to load and/or discharge the
vessel within laytime stipulated in
charter party.
Additional charge imposed for

exceeding the agreed time, which is

included in the rate for the use of berth
& certain equipment at the terminal.

I have a ship. So, I

am a ship owner. I
got a lot of money
from the charterer
who charter my ship.
Remember our
agreed lay-time,
dont forget it.