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CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS

Submitted To:-Mrs. Jasjeet Sohi


Submitted By:-Ankur Singla

INTRODUCTION: Carbon is an element with symbol C,


atomic no. 6 and electronic configuration
2,4.
Carbon is a non metal.
Carbon compounds form the basis of all
the life forms on the earth.
A large number of things we use are made
up of carbon compounds.
For example:-Grains, pulses, sugar, tea,
coffee, fruits and vegetables all are carbon
compounds.

It is a tetravalent element.
Its tetravalency allow it to make a large
no. of compounds.
It makes new compounds by sharing of
electrons ,thus it is a covalent compound.
Carbon can make a large number of
compounds due to two reasons: Catenation:- Self linking property
Tetravalency:-Ability to make covalent
compounds by sharing of electrons.

ALLOTROPES OF CARBON: The various physical forms in which an


element can exist are called allotropes of
the element.
Carbon has three allotropes: Diamond
Graphite
Buckminsterfullerene

PROPERTIES OF DIAMOND: Diamond is a colourless substance with a


brilliant shine.
Diamond is the hardest substance known
on the earth.
Diamond burns on strong heating to form
carbon dioxide(CO2).
Since diamond is made of carbon,
therefore its symbol is C.
Due to its hardness it is used for cutting of
hard substances like metals and glass.

PROPERTIES OF GRAPHITE: Graphite is a greyish black opaque


substance.
It is a very good conductor of electricity.
It also burns on heating to form carbon
dioxide(C02).
It is used for making dry cells due to its
good conductivity even in dry form.
It is used for making pencil leads and also
as a lubricant in industries.

PROPERTIES OF
BUCKMINSTERFULLERENCE: It is an allotrope of carbon made by joining
of sixty carbon atoms.
It resembles the shape of a football.
It is a dark solid molecule at room
temperature.
It is neither hard nor soft. It is in between
diamond and graphite.
It also burns with oxygen to form carbon
dioxide(CO2).

HYDROCARBONS: Compounds made of carbon and hydrogen


only are known as hydrocarbons.
There are a large number of hydrocarbons
present on the earth
Most of hydrocarbons we get are from
petroleum.
Hydrocarbons can be divided into two types: Saturated hydrocarbons
Unsaturated hydrocarbons

SATURATED HYDROCARBONS: Hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms


are connected only by single bond are
saturated hydrocarbons
Saturated hydrocarbons are also known as
alkanes.
General formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2,
where n is the no. of carbon atoms.
Names of all alkanes end with ane.
For example:-Methane(CH4), ethane(C2H6).

UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS: Hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms


are connected by double bond or triple
bond are saturated hydrocarbons.
Hydrocarbons with double bond are called
alkenes.
Hydrocarbons with triple bond are called
alkynes.

ALKENES: An unsaturated hydrocarbon in which the two


carbon atoms are connected by a double
bond is called an alkene.
General formula for alkanes is CnH2n , where
n is the no. of carbon atoms.
Names of all alkenes end with ene.
For example:- Ethene(C2H4), propene(C3H6).

ALKYNES: An unsaturated hydrocarbon in which the


two carbon atoms are connected by a triple
bond is called an alkyne.
General formula for alkynes is CnH2n-2,
where n is the no. of carbon atoms.
Names of all alkynes end with yne.
For example:-Ethyne(C2H2), propyne(C3H4).

NAMING OF HYDROCARBONS: The official naming of organic compounds


is done by International Union For Pure
And Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
Therefore the official names of organic
compounds is also known as IUPAC
name.
The prefix of hydrocarbon is always
depends on the number of carbon atoms:-

No. of carbon atoms

Indicated by

One carbon

Meth

Two carbons

Eth

Three carbons

Prop

Four carbons

But

Five carbons

Pent

Six carbons

Hex

Seven carbons

Hept

Eight carbons

Oct

Nine carbons

Non

Ten carbons

Dec

SUFFIXES FOR SATURATED


HYDROCARBONS: Suffix for alkanes is ane after the word to
indicate the no. of carbons.
For example:- CH4 is named as Methane:Meth(as the no. of carbon is 1) +ane(as it
is alkane)

SUFFIXES FOR UNSATURATED


HYDROCARBONS: Suffix for alkenes is ene after the word to
indicate the no. of carbons. For example:C2H4 is named as Ethene Eth(as the no.
of carbon is 2) + ene(as it is alkene).
Suffix for alkynes is yne after the word to
indicate the no. of carbons. For example:C2H2 is named as Ethyne Eth(as the no.
of carbon is 2) + yne(as it is alkyne).

ISOMERISM: The organic compounds having same


molecular formula but different structures
are known as isomers.
For example:- Butane has two isomers nbutane and iso butane.

n-Butane

iso-Butane

NAMING OF BRANCHED
HYDROCARBONS: Certain rules are followed while naming
branched hydrocarbons: The longest chain of carbon atoms in the
structure of he compound is found first.
The compound is then named as a derivative of
the alkane hydrocarbon which corresponds to the
longest chain. This is called parent hydrocarbon.
The alkyl groups present as side chains are
considered as substituents and named
separately.

The carbon atoms of the longest carbon chain


are numbered in such a way that the alkyl
groups get the lowest possible number.
The position of alkyl group is indicated by writing
the no. of carbon atom to which it is attached.
The IUPAC name of the compound is obtained
by writing the position and name of the alkyl
group just before the name of the parent
hydrocarbon.

Naming of this compound is done as follows: There are three carbons in the longest chain in the
above structure. Now the alkane containing 3
carbons is propane. So its parent hydrocarbon is
propane.
On the second carbon there is one methyl group.
Thus the prefix of this structure is 2-methyl.
On combining these two, we get the name of
compound as 2-methyl propane.

HOMOLOGOUS SERIES: A homologous series is a group of organic


compounds having similar structures and
similar chemical properties in which the
successive compounds differ by CH2 group.
All the compounds of alkanes form a
homologous series.
All the compounds of alkenes also form a
homologous series.
All the compounds of alkynes also form a
homologous series.

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS: An atom or a group of atoms which makes


a carbon compound reactive and decides
its properties is called a functional group.
Some of important functional groups are: Halo group
Alcohol group
Aldehyde group
Ketone group
Carboxylic Acid group

HALO GROUPX(X can be Cl, Br or I): When one hydrogen atom of an alkane is
replaced by a halogen atom, we get a
haloalkane.
The halogen atom can be of chlorine,
bromine or of iodine.
For example:- In methane i.e.,CH 4, if one
hydrogen is replaced by chlorine atom it
become CH3Cl named as chloromethane.

The name of halogen atom is always


taken as prefix .
Haloalkanes forms homologous series,
i.e., any two successive compounds differ
by CH2 group and all the compounds have
same chemical properties.
The general formula for haloalkanes is
CnH2n+1X (where X is any halogen atom,
i.e., Cl, Br or I and n is the no. of carbon
atoms).

ALCOHOL GROUP(OH): Alcohols are organic compounds containing


hydroxyl group (i.e., OH group). Simplest
alcohol is Methanol(CH3OH).
Alcohols are formed by replacing one
hydrogen atom from alkanes with a
hydroxyl group.
For example:- In methane i.e.,CH 4, if one
hydrogen is replaced by hydroxyl group it
become CH3OH named as Methanol.

The naming of alcohol group is done by


replacing last alphabet from alkane(to
which hydroxyl group is added) with ol.
Alcohols forms homologous series, i.e.,
any two successive compounds differ by
CH2 group and all the compounds have
same chemical properties.
The general formula for alcohols is
CnH2n+1OH(where OH is a hydroxyl
group and n is the no. of carbon atoms).

ALDEHYDE GROUP(CHO): Aldehydes are organic compounds containing


aldehyde group (i.e., CHO group). The
simplest aldehyde is Methanal(HCHO).
Aldehyde group is always attached to the
terminal carbon in any carbon compound.
In naming of aldehyde group the carbon which
is in the group itself also has to be counted.
For example:- In CH3CHO, we have to count
two carbons and not one carbon.

The naming of aldehyde group is done by


taking the parent name of the alkane
(depending upon the no. of carbon atoms)
and replacing last alphabet from it with al.
Aldehydes forms homologous series, i.e.,
any two successive compounds differ by CH 2
group and all the compounds have same
chemical properties.
The general formula for aldehydes is C nH2nO
(where n is the no. of carbon atoms).

KETONE GROUP(CO): Ketones are organic compounds containing


ketone group (i.e., CO group). The
simplest ketone is propanone(CH3COCH3)
Ketone group is always attached on the
centre carbon in any carbon compound.
In naming of ketone group the carbon which
is in the group itself also has to be counted.
For example:- In CH3COCH3, we have to
count three carbons and not two carbon.

The naming of ketone group is done by


taking the parent name of the alkane
(depending upon the no. of carbon atoms)
and replacing last alphabet from it with one.
Ketones forms homologous series, i.e., any
two successive compounds differ by CH 2
group and all the compounds have same
chemical properties.
The general formula for ketones is C nH2nO
(where n is the no. of carbon atoms).

CARBOXYLIC ACID GROUP(COOH)


Carboxylic acids are organic compounds
containing carboxylic acid group (i.e., COOH
group). The simplest carboxylic acid is
Methanoic acid(HCOOH).
Carboxylic acid group is always attached to the
terminal carbon in any carbon compound.
In naming of carboxylic acid group the carbon
which is in the group itself also has to be
counted. For example:- In CH3COOH, we have
to count two carbons and not one carbon.

The naming of carboxylic acid group is done by


taking the parent name of the alkane
(depending upon the no. of carbon atoms) and
replacing last alphabet from it with oic acid.
Carboxylic acids forms homologous series, i.e.,
any two successive compounds differ by CH 2
group and all the compounds have same
chemical properties.
The general formula for carboxylic acids is
H COOH (where H is any alkyl

COAL AND PETROLEUM: Coal and petroleum are two most important
fuels. They have stored energy in them which
can be used for different purposes.
Coal was formed by the decomposition of large
land plants and trees buried under the earth
millions of years ago.
Petroleum oil was formed by the decomposition
of the remains of extremely small plants and
animal buried under the sea millions of years
ago.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF
CARBON COMPOUNDS: The most important carbon compounds i.e.,
hydrocarbons show some specific properties
on which they can be differentiated. The
chemical properties of hydrocarbons are: Combustion In all hydrocarbons
Substitution Reactions In saturated
hydrocarbons
Addition Reactions In unsaturated
hydrocarbons

COMBUSTION: The process of burning of a carbon compound


in air to give carbon dioxide, water, heat and
light, is known as combustion.
Saturated hydrocarbons burn in air to produce
a lot of heat and they burn with a non-sooty
flame, which makes them an excellent fuel.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons burn in air to
produce less heat and a sooty flame which
make them less efficient fuels.

USES OF COMBUSTION: Combustion property of saturated


hydrocarbons is very helpful as it is used very
much in everyday life. For example:- Fuel
burning in gas stove, in cars, in industries and
in many other fields.
Not only saturated hydrocarbons are used for
this purpose but also unsaturated hydrocarbons
are very useful in many purposes.
For example:- Ethyne which is unsaturated
hydrocarbon is used for welding when burnt in
pure oxygen.

SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS: The property of saturated hydrocarbons to


substitute one or more of hydrogen with
chlorine in the presence of sunlight is known a
substitution reaction.
For example:- Methane reacts with chlorine in
the presence of sunlight to form CH 3Cl
(chloromethane).
This type of reaction is used for making many
useful compounds like dichloromethane,
chloroform and tetra chloromethane.

ADDITION REACTIONS: The reaction in which an unsaturated


hydrocarbon combines with another substance
to give a single product is called an addition
reaction.
For example:- Ethene(C2H4) reacts with
hydrogen(H2) when heated in the presence of
nickel catalyst to form ethane(C2H6).
This process of addition of hydrogen to
unsaturated hydrocarbon to form saturated
hydrocarbon is called hydrogenation.

USES OF ADDITION REACTIONS: The process of hydrogenation is widely used


in making of vanaspati ghee (which is solid at
room temperature and is an alkane) from
vegetable oil (which is liquid at room
temperature and is an alkene).
Vegetable oils contain unsaturated fats which
are good for health, whereas vegetable ghee
contain saturated fats which are very harmful
for health.

BROMINE WATER TEST: Bromine water test is used to distinguish


between an unsaturated hydrocarbon and a
saturated hydrocarbon.
If the given compound decolourises the
bromine water(which is brown in colour),
then the given compound is unsaturated
hydrocarbon.
If the given compound do not decolourises
bromine water than it is a saturated
hydrocarbon.

SOME IMPORTANT CARBON


COMPOUNDS: There are large number of carbon
compounds on earth and most of them are
very useful to us. But the two compounds
are extremely useful and are commercially
very useful. These two compounds are: Ethanol (or Ethyl Alcohol)
Ethanoic acid (or Acetic Acid)

ETHANOL (ETHYL ALCOHOL): Ethanol is the second member of the


homologous series of alcohols.
The formula of ethanol is C2H5OH.
The common name of Ethanol is Ethyl
Alcohol.
Ethanol is widely used in industries for
many purposes.
It is also used in many medicines due to
its solvent property.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF
ALCOHOL: Ethanol is a colourless liquid having a
pleasant smell and a burning taste.
It is a volatile and has low boiling point of
78C.
It is easily soluble in water due to presence
of hydroxyl group in it.
It is a covalent compound.
It is neutral in nature and do not effect
litmus paper.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF
ETHANOL: Ethanol show the following chemical
properties:Combustion Reaction
Oxidation Reaction
Reaction with sodium metal
Dehydration
Reaction with Ethanoic Acid

COMBUSTION REACTION: Ethanol is a highly inflammable liquid. It


catches fire easily and starts burning.
Ethanol burns in air to form carbon dioxide
and water vapour, and releasing a lot of heat
and light.
C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H20 +Heat + Light
Ethanol

Oxygen

Carbon
Dioxide

Water
Vapour

Due to this property it is sometimes mixed


with petrol to be used as fuel.

OXIDATION REACTION: Oxidation is kind of a controlled combustion.


When ethanol is heated with alkaline
potassium permanganate solution or with
acidified potassium dichromate solution, it gets
oxidised to ethanoic acid:CH3CH2OH + 2[0]
CH3COOH + H2O
Ethanol

Nascent Oxygen

Ethanoic Acid

Water

In the above reaction alkaline KMnO 4 or


Acidified K2Cr2O7 act as a catalyst. They
themselves do not take part in the reaction.

REACTION WITH SODIUM


METAL: Ethanol reacts with sodium to form sodium
ethoxide and hydrogen gas: 2C2H5OH + 2Na
2C2H5O-Na+ + H2
Ethanol

Sodium

Sodium ethoxide

Hydrogen

This reaction is used as a test for ethanol.


When a piece of sodium metal is dipped in
ethanol, rapid effervescence are observed
due to evolution of gas. When this gas is
tested with burning match stick, it burns with
a pop-up sound.

DEHYDRATION REACTION: Dehydration of ethanol means removal of


water molecule from it .
When ethanol is heated with excess of
concentrated sulphuric acid at 170C.
CH3CH2OH
Ethanol

CH2=CH2 + H20
Ethene

Water

In this reaction concentrated sulphuric


acid act as an dehydrating agent.
Alcohols on dehydration form alkenes.

REACTION WITH ETHANOIC


ACID: Ethanol reacts with ethanoic acid on warming
in the presence of few drops of sulphuric acid
and form sweet smelling ester. This process is
known as esterification.
CH3COOH + C2H5OH
CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
Ethanoic Acid

Ethanol

Ethyl Ethanoate
(Sweet smelling ester)

Water

The formation of ester on reaction between


ethanol and ethanoic acid is used as a test for
ethanol as well as for ethanoic acid.

TESTS FOR ETHANOL: Sodium Metal Test:- When a small piece of


sodium metal is added to ethanol, the bubbles
of hydrogen gas are formed which can be
tested by taking a glowing candle near it. It
burns with a pop-up sound.
Ester Test:- When ethanol reacts with ethanoic
acid in presence of heat, a sweet smell is
observed which is of ester. This shows the
presence of ethanol in the reaction.

USES OF ETHANOL: It is used in manufacturing of paints, varnishes,


lacquers, medicines, perfumes, etc.
It is used in many cough syrups and
medicines.
It is also used as a fuel my mixing with petrol.
It is used in alcoholic drinks like whisky, wine
beer and other liquors.
It is also used as antiseptic to sterilize wounds
in hospitals and dispensaries.
It is used for making iodine tincture used as an

HARMFUL EFFECTS OF
DRINKING ALCOHOL: Alcohol slows down the activity of the nervous
system and the brain.
Alcohol drinking lowers mental restrains due to
which drunken man become quarrelsome.
Heavy drinking of alcohol can lead to blurred
vision, dizziness and vomiting.
Heavy drinking of alcohol over a long period of
time can damage the stomach, liver, heart,
and even brain. It can even lead to death of
the person.

DENATURED ETHANOL: A large amount of ethanol is required for


various industrial purposes. For this the
alcohol is supplied duty free(without
production tax).
To prevent the misuse of this fact methanol
(which is poisonous in nature) is added to
ethanol (produced for various industries).
Being blue in colour it can be identified
easily and distinguished from ethanol. This
type of ethanol is called denatured ethanol.

ETHANOIC ACID: Ethanoic acid is the second member of


homologous series of carboxylic acids.
Formula of ethanoic acid is CH3COOH.
Common name of Ethanoic Acid is
Acetic Acid.
Ethanoic acid is widely used in many
household industries.
It is mainly used in its dilute form or in the
form of vinegar.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF
ETHANOIC ACID: Ethanoic acid is a colourless liquid having a
sour taste and a smell of vinegar.
The boiling point of ethanoic acid is 118C.
When pure ethanoic acid is cooled, it freezes
to form a colourless, ice-like solid. Due to this,
pure ethanoic acid is called glacial ethanoic
acid.
Ethanoic acid is miscible with water in all
proportions.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF
ETHANOIC ACID: Ethanoic acid shows the following chemical
properties: Action on litmus.
Reaction with Carbonates and Hydrogen
carbonates.
Reaction with Sodium Hydroxide.
Reaction with Ethanol.
Hydrolysis of Esters.

ACTION ON LITMUS: Ethanoic acid is acidic in nature.


Due to acidic nature of ethanoic acid, it
turns blue litmus red.
Ethanoic acid do not effect red litmus
paper.
Ethanoic acid turns universal indicator and
pH paper to orange.
This shows that pH of Ethanoic acid is
about 4.

REACTION WITH CARBONATES


AND HYDROGEN CARBONATES: Reaction with Sodium Carbonate:- Ethanoic
acid reacts with sodium carbonate to form
Sodium Ethanoate, water and carbon dioxide:2CH3COOH + Na2CO3

2CH3COONa + CO2 + H2O

Reaction with Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate:Ethanoic acid reacts with Sodium Hydrogen
Carbonate to form Sodium Ethanoate, water
and carbon dioxide:CH3COOH + NaHCO3

CH3COONa + CO2 + H2O

REACTION WITH SODIUM


HYDROXIDE:-

Ethanoic acid reacts with bases to form salts


and water.
For example:- Ethanoic acid reacts with
sodium hydroxide to form sodium ethanoate
salt and water.
CH3COOH + NaOH
CH3COONa + H2O
Ethanoic Acid

Sodium

Sodium Ethanoate

Water

Ethanoate

The reaction of ethanoic acid with a base,


i.e., sodium hydroxide to form salt and water
shows that ethanoic acid is acidic in nature.

REACTION WITH ETHANOL: Ethanoic acid reacts with Ethanol on warming


in the presence of few drops of sulphuric acid
and form sweet smelling ester. This process is
known as esterification.
CH3COOH + C2H5OH
CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
Ethanoic Acid

Ethanol

Ethyl Ethanoate
(Sweet smelling ester)

Water

The formation of ester on reaction between


ethanol and ethanoic acid is used as a test for
ethanoic acid as well as for ethanol.

HYDROLYSIS OF ESTERS: When an ester is heated with sodium hydroxide


solution then the ester gets hydrolysed to form
the parent alcohol and sodium salt of the
carboxylic acid.
For example:- When ethyl ethanoate ester is
boiled with sodium hydroxide solution, then
sodium ethanoate and ethanol are produced:CH3COOC2H5 +NaOH
Ethyl Ethanoate

Sodium Hydroxide

CH3COONa + C2H5OH
Sodium Ethanoate

Ethanol

TESTS FOR ETHANOIC ACID: Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate test:- If the


given compound reacts with sodium hydrogen
carbonate and brisk effervescence came out,
it show that the compound is carboxylic acid.
Litmus test:- If the given compound turns blue
litmus red, then the given compound is
carboxylic acid.
Ester test:- If the given compound form sweet
smelling ester when heated with ethanol, it
means that the compound is carboxylic acid.

SOAPS AND DETERGENTS: Any substance that has a cleansing action


in water is known as detergent.
The soapy detergents are called soaps.
The non-soapy detergents are called
synthetic detergents or just detergents.
Soaps and detergents are used for washing
clothes, cleaning our hands, shaving
soaps, hair shampoos, cleaning utensils,
and in textile industries.

SOAPS: A soap is the sodium salt or a potassium


salt of a long chain carboxylic acid which
has cleansing properties in water.
Soap has large non-ionic group and an
ionic group, COO-Na+.
For example:- Two sodium salts are: Sodium Stearate:-C17H35COO-Na+
Sodium Palmitate:-C15H31COO-Na+