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Module 2

Information
Technology
Infrastructure

IT Infrastructure
IT infrastructure refers to the composite

hardware, software, network resources and


services required for the existence, operation
and management of an enterprise IT
environment.
It allows an organization to deliver IT solutions
and services to its employees, partners and/or
customers and is usually internal to an
organization and deployed within owned
facilities.

IT infrastructure consists of all components

that somehow play a role in overall IT and ITenabled operations.


It can be used for internal business operations
or developing customer IT or business
solutions.

A standard IT infrastructure consists of the following

components:
Hardware: Servers, computers, data centers, switches, hubs
and routers, etc.

Software: Enterprise resource planning (ERP), customer


relationship management (CRM), productivity
applications and more.

Network: Network enablement, Internet connectivity,


firewall and security.

Meatware: Human users, such as network administrators


(NA), developers, designers and generic end users with
access to any IT appliance or service are also part of an
IT infrastructure, specifically with the advent of usercentric IT service development.

IT Infrastructure Services

IT Infrastructure

Infrastructure
Management

IT Infrastructure : Hardware and

Software

computer hardware and information technology infrastructure

SOFTWARE

Program:
instructions to the computer

System Software:
manages computers resources so that
application software can run efficiently
eg multiprogramming, multiprocessing

Application Software:
Programs to serve end users
eg MS Access

SOFTWARE

MANAGING HARDWARE AND


SOFTWARE ASSETS

Capacity Planning: Process of predicting


the computing power needed

Scalability: Ability of a computer system


to expand without breaking down

Management of TCO: total cost of


owning IT resources includes:
initial cost of hardware and software
cost of maintenance, upgrades, training etc.

In-house vs Out sourcing: Use of


service providers?

MANAGING HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE ASSETS

Data Recourse
Management

Data Recourse
Management
Data resource management involves the

management of files and computer data for


businesses and companies.
Data Resource Management is the
development of data models in order to allow
different systems to share data.

Data Resource
Management
A managerial activity
Applies information systems technology to

managing data resources to meet needs of


business stakeholders.

Features of Data Resource


Management

Data Resource
Management

Data Resource Management Implementation


Create a plan for the data resource management system.
Determine who thebest resources are for managing this data.
Research what currents systems are in place for data resource

management.
Once holes in the current system have been detected it is time to

come up with a plan for filling in these holes.


Implement this plan through the company.
Review on a regular basis the needs of the organization when it

comes to data resource management for projects

Databases

Database Definition
A structured set of data held in a computer,

especially one that is accessible in various


ways.
Collection of data or information organized for
rapid search and retrieval, especially by a
computer.
Databases are structured to facilitate storage,
retrieval, modification, and deletion of data in
along with various data-processing operations.

Two Tire Architecture

Three Tire Architecture

Basic File Terminology


Data

Raw facts that have little meaning unless they have been
organized in some logical manner. The smallest piece of data
that can be recognized by the computer is a single
character, such as the letter A, the number 5, or some
symbol such as; ? > * +. A single character requires one
byte of computer storage.

Field

A character or group of characters (alphabetic or numeric)


that has a specific meaning. A field might define a telephone
numbers, a birth date, a customer name, a year-to-date
(YTD) sales value, and so on.

Record

A logically connected set of one or more fields that describes


a person, place, or thing. For example, the fields that
comprise a record for a customer named J. D. Rudd might
consist of J. D. Rudds name, address, phone number, date
of birth, credit limit, unpaid balance, and so on.

File

A collection of related records. For example, a file might


contain data about ROBCOR Companys vendors; or, a file
might contain the records for the students currently enrolled
at Gigantic University.

Database

Primary Functions of a DBMS


It manages concurrent access to data in a predictable,

repeatable and controlled manner for multiple endusers.


For example, banking systems and airline reservation
systems use a DBMS to provide global access to data.
It is an important component of making data available
on every device across he business.
A DBMS can make the same data available to multiple
applications, and enables the sharing of customer data
across order entry, invoicing and accounts receivable.
A DBMS creates backup data copies for disaster
recovery.

Need Of DBMS
As businesses grow, the volume of data they

accumulate grows exponentially. Managing this data


becomes difficult and also more important to business
success.
As businesses expand, more sophisticated tools are
needed to manage data.
A database management system (DBMS) is a powerful

tool used to store data, secure it, protect it and make


it quickly available to people who need it.
A DBMS enables a business to squeeze more value
from the data it collects for improved decision-making.

Components of a DBMS
Software
Hardware
Data
Procedures
Database Access Language

Database Systems
The Database System Components
Hardware

Computer
Peripherals

Software

Operating systems software


DBMS software
Applications programs and utilities software

Data warehouse
Data warehouse
Stores data extracted from operational,
external, or other databases of an organization
Central source of structured data
May be subdivided into data marts

Data Warehouse

Data Warehouse

Data mining
Data mining
A major use of data warehouse databases
Data is analyzed to reveal hidden correlations,
patterns, and trends

Data mining

Data mining

Data Cubes

Data Cubes