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The Human Eye And its Defects

Mrs. Mousumi
(Physics Teacher)

S. no

Group Members

Prakash

Swarag

Arup

Mohit

Kamal

Ashwin

Admission no

The Human Eye And It's Defects


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Human Eyes and Its Defects


Introduction of Eye
Defects Crossed Eyes

-Night blindness

-Visual Disturbances

Let Who Cant See, See The Wonderful World

The Human Eye And It's Defects

Introduction Human Eye

Cornea
A Thin
Membrane
Protects
Eye

Aqueous
Humour
A Fluid
Like
Structure
Which Has
Got Some
Refractive
Index

The Human Eye And It's Defects

Iris

Crystalline
Lens
It Controls
The Size
Of The
Pupil
Pupil And
Iris
Together
Control
The
Amount Of
Light
Entering
The Eye

Ciliary
Muscles
Control
Focal
Length Of
The
Crystalline
Lens So
That
Image
Forms On
The Retina

Vitreous
Humour
A Fluid
Like
Structure
Which Has
Got Some
Refractive
Index And
Give A
Spherical
Shape To
The Eye
Ball

Retina

Optical
Nerve

It Has
Light
Sensitive
Cells Rod
And Cone
Shaped
Cells
The Image
Is Formed
Here
The Light
Signals
Here Are
Converted
Into
Electrica
Lsignals

This Nerve
Cell Carry
The
Electrical
Signals To
The Brain

Crossed Eyes

The Human Eye And It's Defects

Index of Crossed Eyes


Introduction
What Causes Crossed Eyes?
Who Is at Risk for Crossed Eyes?
Symptoms and Signs of Crossed Eyes
How Are Crossed Eyes Diagnosed?
How Are Crossed Eyes Treated?
What Is the Long-Term Outlook for Crossed Eyes?

The Human Eye And It's Defects

Introduction
Crossed eyes, also calledstrabismus, is a condition in which your eyes do not line up
properly. If you have this condition, your eyes look in different directions, with each eye
focusing on a different object. The disorder is very common in children, affecting four
percent of children age 6 and younger. Its cause at birth is not known, but it does tend
to run in families. In adults, the disorder can be caused by a variety of factors,
including a brain tumor, retina damage, diabetes, or a stroke. Crossed eyes can usually
be corrected with eyeglasses and/or surgery.
Two types of crossed eyes are common in children.
One appears in infancy and the other develops as a
child grows older.
Infantile Esotropiaappears in babies during their first
year of life. One eye may cross more often than the other.
It typically runs in families and usually requires surgery to correct.
Acquired Esotropiaoccurs in children between the ages of 2 and 5 and can usually
be corrected with eyeglasses.

The Human Eye And It's Defects

What Causes Crossed Eyes?


Crossed eyes occur when the numerous muscles around the eyes do not work
in conjunction because some are weaker than others. When the
brain receives a different visual message from each eye, it
ignores the one coming from the weaker eye. Over time, you
may lose vision in your weaker eye if the condition is not
corrected.

Crossed eyes can also occur later in life and are usually
triggered by physical disorders such as a brain tumor or an eye
injury. If you have a lazy eye or are farsighted, it is also possible
to develop crossed eyes as an adult because your eyes must
strain in order to focus on objects. People with brain or
nervous
system disorders such as cerebral palsy are more
likely to have strabismus.

The Human Eye And It's Defects

Who Is at Risk for Crossed Eyes?


You are at risk for strabismus if:
your family members have the disorder
you have a brain disorder or brain tumor
your retina is damaged
you have suffered a stroke or brain injury
you are diabetic
you have a lazy eye, are farsighted, or have vision loss

The Human Eye And It's Defects

Symptoms and Signs of Crossed


Eyes
Symptoms may be constant or appear only when you (or your
child) are tired or not feeling well. Your eyes might point inward or
outward or focus in different directions.
It is common for newborn babies to experience strabismus, but if it
persists beyond 3 months of age, it is best to see a doctor. In
addition to having crossed eyes, you might also:
have impaired vision
lose depth perception
have double vision

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How Are Crossed Eyes Diagnosed?


For a strabismus diagnosis, you will visit an eye doctor who will perform a
series of tests to check the health of your eyes, including a:
corneal light reflex test to check for crossed eyes
visual acuity test to determine how well you can read from a distance
cover/uncover test to measure deviation and eye movement
retina exam to examine the back of your eyes
Early diagnosis is important for preventing vision loss. In young children, it
is best to have an eye exam before age 3. If other physical symptoms
appear along with crossed eyes, your doctor may examine your brain and
nervous system for the presence of other conditions, such as cerebral palsy
or Guillain-Barre syndrome.

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How Are Crossed Eyes Treated?


Treatment for strabismus depends on its severity and cause. If you have developed a lazy eye,
you might need to wear a patch over your stronger eye to force the muscles of your weaker eye
to work harder. Other common treatments include:
eyeglasses, particularly in the case of farsightedness
surgery to strengthen certain eye muscles, particularly if glasses have not corrected the
condition
eye exercises
eye drops to blur vision in the better eye
According to Dr. James McDonnell from Loyola University,
adults
do not always need to have surgery to correct this
condition. Botox,
commonly used in cosmetic procedures,
can also be applied to
weaken the stronger eye muscle, giving the weaker muscle a chance to gain strength.
In some cases, crossed eye symptoms may come and go, making it necessary to wear glasses
and frequently do eye exercises to align your eyes. The condition sometimes occurs because of
vision deterioration; in this case, you must have your vision loss corrected in order for
strabismus surgery to be effective.

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What Is the Long-Term Outlook for Crossed


Eyes?
In many cases, crossed eyes can be corrected with treatment,
though you may still have vision problems after surgery and need
to wear glasses. Seek treatment for the problem right away
because it can sometimes lead to vision loss. The condition may
also recur, so it is important to monitor it regularly.

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Night
blindness

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Index of Night blindness


Introduction
Causes of Night Blindness
Symptoms of Night Blindness
Treating Night Blindness
Preventing Night Blindness

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Introduction
Night blindness (nyctalopia) is a type of vision impairment. People
with night blindness experience poor vision at night or in dimly lit
environments. Although the term night blindness implies that you
cannot see at night, this is not the case. You may just have more
difficulty seeing and/or driving in darkness.
Some types of night blindness are treatable, and others are not.
Consult your doctor to determine the underlying cause of your
vision impairment. Once you know the cause of the problem, you
can take steps to correct your vision.

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Causes of Night Blindness


A number of eye conditions can cause night blindness, including:
near-sightedness: blurred vision when looking at faraway objects
cataracts: a clouding of the eyes lens
retinitis pigmentosa: when dark pigment collects in your retina, creating
tunnel vision
Usher syndrome: a genetic condition that affects both hearing and vision
Older adults have a greater risk of developing cataracts. Seniors are therefore
more
likely to suffer from night blindness than children or young adults.
In rare cases, vitamin A deficiency can also lead to night blindness. Vitamin A,
also
called retinol, plays a role in transforming nerve impulses into images in
the retina.
The retina is a light-sensitive area in the back of your eye.
Patients who have diseases of the liver or pancreas sometimes cannot absorb large amounts of vitamin
A. So, they are at greater risk for developing night blindness, according to Bostons Beth Israel
Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC).
Patients who have high blood glucose (sugar) levels or diabetes also have a higher risk of developing
eye diseases, such as cataracts

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Symptoms of Night Blindness


The sole symptom of night blindness is difficulty seeing in the dark.
You are more likely to suffer from night blindness when
transitioning from a bright environment to an area of low light. You
are likely to experience poor vision when driving, due to the
intermittent brightness of headlights and streetlights on the road.

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Treating Night Blindness


Your eye doctor will take a detailed medical history and examine
your eyes in order to diagnose night blindness. You may also be
asked to give a blood sample. Blood testing can measure your
vitamin A and glucose levels.
Night blindness caused by nearsightedness, cataracts, or vitamin A
deficiency is treatable. Corrective lenses, such as eyeglasses or
contacts, can improve nearsighted vision both during the day and
at night. Let your doctor know if you still have trouble seeing in dim
light even with corrective lenses.

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Treating Catracts
Clouded portions of your eyes lens are called cataracts. Cataracts can
be removed through surgery. Your surgeon will replace your cloudy
lens with a clear, artificial lens. Your night blindness will improve
significantly after surgery if cataracts are the underlying cause.

Treating Vitamin A Deficiency


If your vitamin A levels are low, your doctor might recommend vitamin
supplements. Take the supplements exactly as directed. Most people in
the developed world do not suffer from vitamin A deficiency because
they have access to proper nutrition.
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Treating Night Blindness Causes by a Genetic Defect


Genetic conditions that cause night blindness, such as retinitis
pigmentosa, are not treatable. The genetic defect that causes
pigment to build up in the retina does not respond to corrective
lenses or surgery. People suffering from this form of night blindness
should avoid driving at night.

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Preventing Night Blindness


Night blindness that is the result of birth defects or genetic conditions, such as
Usher syndrome, cannot be prevented. You can, however, properly monitor your
blood sugar levels and eat a balanced diet to make night blindness less likely.
Eat foods rich in antioxidant vitamins and minerals, which may help prevent
cataracts. Also choose foods that contain high levels of vitamin A to reduce your
risk of night blindness. Orange-coloured foods are excellent sources of vitamin A,
including:
cantaloupes
sweet potatoes
carrots
pumpkins
butternut squash
mangoes
Spinach, collard greens, milk, and eggs also contain vitamin A.

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Prevalence of night blindness and number of individuals affected

among preschool
l-age children and pregnant women in populations of countries at risk of
vitamin A deficiency 1995-2005,
globally and by WHO region
Email Address

WHO2015

WHO regional estimates indicate that the highest proportion of preschool-age children affected by
night blindness, 2.0%, is in Africa, a value that is four times of that estimated in South-East Asia
(0.5%).
This also means that Africa has the greatest number of preschool-age children affected with night
blindness (2.55 million), and corresponds to almost half of the children affected globally
. A comparable and high proportion of pregnant women affected by night blindness are in Africa
(9.8%) and South-East Asia (9.9%), each of which is estimated to have over 3 million pregnant women
affected
, or one third of the pregnant women affected globally.
Population subgroups: Preschool-age children (<5 years); Pregnant women (no age range defined).
Numerator and denominator excludes countries with a 2005 GDP US$ 15 000.
95% Confidence Intervals.

b
c

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Prevalence of night
blindness and number of
individuals affected among
preschool
l-age children and pregnant
women in populations of
countries at risk of vitamin A
deficiency 1995-2005,
globally and by WHO region

Source
WHO.Global prevalence of
vitamin A deficiency in
populations at risk 1995
2005.WHO Global Database on
Vitamin A Deficiency. Geneva,
World Health Organization, 2009.
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Visual
Disturbances

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Index of Visual Disturbances


Introduction
Types of Visual Disturbances What Causes Visual Disturbances?
Who Is at Risk for Visual Disturbances?
Diagnosing Visual Disturbances
Treating Visual Disturbances

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Introduction
Visual disturbances interfere with normal sight. The various types
of visual disturbances may be caused by several conditions and
disorders. Some are temporary and can be relieved with treatment.
However, some can be permanent.

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Types of Visual Disturbances Diplopia


Monocular
Binocular

Blindness
Colour-blindness
Blurred Vision
Halo
Pain

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Diplopi
a
Diplopia is also called double vision. If you are seeing two objects when you should
be seeing one, you are experiencing diplopia. This visual disturbance can be a
symptom of a serious health problem, so its important you see your doctor when
symptoms begin.

Two types of diplopia exist: monocular and binocular.

Monocular - Double vision that affects one eye is called


monocular double vision. It can be the result of a physical change
to the lens over your eye, the cornea, or the retinal surface

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Binocular
Double vision in both eyes may be the
result of poorly aligned eyes or nerve
damage that prevents your brain from
properly layering the images your eyes
are seeing.
Double vision can also be a result of
miscommunication in your brainif your
brain cannot overlay the two images your
eyes are seeing, you may experience
double vision. Covering the affected eye
will not solve the problem, however. You
are still likely to see a ghost image
when the damaged eye is closed
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Blindness
Partial blindness means you are able to see light as well as some
degree of whats around you. Total blindness refers to a condition
where you can no longer see light. People with vision worse than
20/200 are considered legally blind. Their vision may be corrected
with glasses, surgery, or contact lenses. In many cases, people with
partial or complete blindness cannot restore their sight.

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Colour-blindness
Individuals who are colour-blind are unable to see colours. Most
people with poor colour vision are only partially colour-blindthey
lack the ability to differentiate between specific shades of certain
colours. Total colour-blindness is rare. People who are completely
colour-blind see only shades of gray.

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Blurred Vision

Blurred vision may be the result of changing eyesight or a


symptom of another condition. Eyes that no longer align properly
cannot receive and read visual messages from your eyes.
Corrective lenses or contacts can fix most cases of blurry vision,
but vision disturbances caused by another condition may require
additional treatment.

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Halo
Halos appear as circles of light around objects.

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Pain
Pain or discomfort in your eye is different from condition to
condition. It may feel like a scratching sensation when you open
and shut your eyelid. Alternately, it may be a continuous throbbing
in your eye that is not relieved by closing your eye.

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What Causes Visual Disturbances?


Visual disturbances can be caused by several conditions. The most
common are listed here.

Types of Visual Disturbances

The Human Eye And It's Defects

Double Vision (Diplopia)


Partial or Total Blindness
Colour-blindness
Blurred Vision
Halo
Pain

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Double Vision (Diplopia)


Causes of double vision include:
An Autoimmune Disorder, Like Myasthenia Gravis, Which Prevents
The Muscles Inside Your Eyes From Being Activated By Your Nerves
Cataracts
Clouding Of Your Eyes Lens
Corneal Scarring Or Infections
Diabetes

Sudden onset of
diplopia may be
Hypertension
caused by a stroke,
Injury Or Irregularity On Your Eyes Lens And Cornea
migraine headache,
Muscle Weakness
aneurysm, or a brain
tumour
Nerve Conditions, Such As Multiple Sclerosis And Guillain-barre
Syndrome
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Partial or Total Blindness

Blindness has many causes. The most


common include:
Accidents or trauma to the eyes
Stroke
Advancing age
Tumours
Optic neuritis, or
Cataracts
inflammation of the optic
nerve
Diabetes

Glaucoma
Hereditary condition
Macular degeneration

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Colour-blindness
Common causes for poor vision colour or colourblindness include:
Advancing age
Certain medications, such as those used to treat high blood pressure, erectile dysfunction, and
psychological problems
Diabetes
Exposure to certain chemicals, such as fertilizers
Glaucoma
Inheriting the condition (Colour-blindness is more common in men. The most common form of
colorblindness is red-green colour deficiency.)
Macular degeneration
Optic neuritis, or inflammation of the optic nerve
Parkinsons disease
Sickle cell anaemia

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Blurred Vision
Causes of blurred vision can include one or more of the
following:

Bacterial infection, such as trachoma


Cataract
Corneal abrasion or infection
Glaucoma
Inadequate prescription glasses or contact lens
Macular degeneration
Migraine headache
Optic nerve problem
Trauma or injury to the eye
Tumour

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Halo
Halo can be caused by any of the following:

Cataract
Damage Or Disease That Affects Your Eyes
Cornea
Glaucoma
Migraine
Ocular Migraine
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Pain
Causes of pain related to vision include:
Bacterial Infection
Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)
Glaucoma
Injury Or Inflammation In The Eyelids
Migraine Headache
Optic Neuritis, Or Inflammation Of The Optic Nerve
Problems With Contact Lens
Sinus Headache Or Infection
Stye (An Inflamed Oil Gland That Develops On Your Eyelids)
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Who Is at Risk for Visual


Disturbances?
Anyone can experience a visual disturbance at any time, but several
conditions put you at an increased risk for one or more of the most
common visual disturbances. These conditions include:
brain tumour
cataracts
diabetes
glaucoma
macular degeneration
migraines

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Diagnosing Visual Disturbances


If any of the visual disturbances begins suddenly and
unexpectedly, see a doctor as soon as possible. In some cases, the
visual disturbance may be the result of a minor problem, but many
serious conditions, such as aneurysm, glaucoma, and brain tumors
first cause vision problems.
Your doctor will likely perform several diagnostic tests to determine
the cause of your visual disturbance. These tests might include a
physical exam, eye exam, and blood tests. Imaging tests, such as
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or a computed tomography (CT)
scan may also be used to confirm a problem or further investigate
a suspected condition.

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Treating Visual Disturbances


The first step in treating a visual disturbance is figuring out the underlying
problem that is causing it. Once you and your doctor have discovered the
problem, you can develop a plan for treatment. In some cases, the
disturbance will go away naturallyblurry vision caused by a headache will
usually resolve when the headache recedes. However, your doctor may
wish to prescribe medicine to prevent future headaches or medicine you
can take when a headache begins causing visual complications.

There are several common treatments for visual disturbances. Medication


can treat underlying conditions so they no longer cause symptoms. Dietary
changes can prevent visual disturbances in people with uncontrolled
diabetes. Glasses, contact lenses, or magnifying devices may be able to
correct vision disturbances that cannot be corrected with another
treatment. If necessary, surgery can help relieve or repair damaged nerves
and muscles.
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Let Who Cant See, See The


Wonderful World

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Lets donate Our Eyes (After Death)


Our Eyes Can Live Even After Our Death. By Donating
Our Eyes After We Die We Can Light The Life Of A
Person.
About 35million People In The Developing World Are
Blind And Most Of The Them Can Be Cured. About 4.5
Million People With Corneal Blindness Can Be Cured
Through Corneal Transplantation Of Donated Eyes. Out
Of These 4.5 Million, 60% Are Children Below The Age
Of 12. So, If We Have To Keep In Mind When Eyes Have
To Be Donated?

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Eye donors can belong to any age group or sex. People who use
spectacles, or those operated for cataract, can still donate the
eyes. People who are diabetic, have hypertension, asthma patients
and those without communicable diseases can also donate eyes.
Eyes must be removed within 4-6 hours after death. Inform the
nearest eye bank immediately.
The eye bank team will remove the eye at the home of the
decrease or at a hospital.
Eye removal takes only 10-15 minutes. It is a simple process and
does not lead to any disfigurement.
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Persons who were infected with or die because of AIDS, Hepatitis B


or A, rabies acute leukaemia, tetanus, cholera, meningitis or
encephalitis can not donate eyes
An Eye bank collects, evaluates and distributes the donated eyes.
All eyes donated are evaluated using strict medical standards.
Those donated eyes found unsuitable for transplantation are used
for valuable research and medical education. The identities of both
the donor and the recipient remain confidential.
One pair of eyes gives vision to
TWO CORNEAL BLIND PEOPLE

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LET US DONATE EYES

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