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Chapter 2

Industrial Control System

OUTLINE
Introduction

to Control System
The idea of control system
Control system components
Control system applications
Summary

INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM


Important for design of experimental equipment and
instrumentation used in basic sciences
(1)
Power
(3)

(2)
Program of
Instructions

Control
System

Process

Elements of an automated system

Control System
Open

loop control system Feed


forward Control system
Closed loop control system- Feedback
Control system

Feed Forward Control system


Open loop Control system
Operate without feedback loop
The control operate without measuring
the output variables

Open loop control

Input

Controller

Output

Basic idea of control

Ex. Open loop control system

Feedback Control System


Closed loop control system
Compare the actual result with the
desired result
Take actions based on the difference.

Closed loop control

Ex. Closed loop control system

CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS


Sensor
Actuator

(switch, motor)

Sensor

To use any measuring device, a


calibration procedure is required to
establish the relationship between the
physical variable to be measured and
the converted output signal.
Measuring devices can be classified
into two basic categories:
1) Analog
2) Discrete

Analog
Measuring devices produces a
continuous analog signal such
as electrical voltage

The output signal from analog


device must be converted to
digital data by an analog-todigital converter.

Example: Thermocouples,
strain gauges and
dynamometer.

Discrete

Measuring device produces an output that can


have only certain values: binary and digital.
A binary measuring device produces an on/off
signal. The most common devices operate by
closing an electrical contact from a normally
open position.
Example: Limit switches, photoelectric sensors
and proximity switches.
A digital measuring device produces a digital
output signal, either in the form of a set of
parallel status bits or series of pulses that can
be counted.
Example: Photoelectric sensor arrays, optical
encoder.

Measuring devices description


MEASURING
DEVICE

DESCRIPTION

Accelerometer

Analog device used to measure vibration and shock.

DC tachometer

Analog device consisting of dc generator that produces electrical


voltage proportional to rotational speed.

Dynamometer

Analoq device used to measure force, power and torque.

Float transducer

Float attached to lever arm. Pivoting movement of lever arm can


be used to measured liquid level in vessel.

Fluid flow sensor

Analog measurement of liquid flow based on pressure different.

Ohmmeter
Limit switch

Analog device that measured electrical resistance


Binary contact sensor in which lever arm or pushbutton closes or
open the electrical contact

Manometer/Baromet
er

Analog device to measure pressure of gas or liquid

Optical encoder

Digital device used to measure position and speed

Proximity switch

Binary non-contact sensor is triggered when nearby object


induces changes in electromagnetic field.

Strain gauge

Analog sensor used to measure force, torque or pressure based


on the change in the electrical resistance from strain of a
conducting material.

ACTUATORS

An actuator is a hardware device


that converts a controller command
signal into a change in a physical
parameter such as mechanical
(position or velocity change).
An actuator is a transducer because
it changes one type of physical
quantity.
Example: Electric current to
rotational speed of an electric motor.

Actuator classification

Electrical actuators: Include ac and dc motor, stepper


motor and solenoids which include both linear devices
(linear displacement) and rotational devices (rotational
displacement and velocity).
Hydraulic actuator use hydraulic fluid to amplify the
controller command signal for both linear and
rotational motion. Usually used for large forces.
Pneumatics actuators use compressed air as the
driving power for both linear and rotational pneumatics
actuator. It usually limited to relatively low force
applications compared with hydraulic actuators.

Actuator description
ACTUATOR

DESCRIPTION

DC Motor

Rotational electromagnetic motor. Input is direct


current. Rotary motion can be converted to
linear motion using rack and pinion or ball
screw.

Hydraulic
piston

Piston inside cylinder exerts force and provides


linear motion in response to hydraulic pressure.
High force capability

Pneumatic
cylinder

Piston inside cylinder exerts force and provides


linear motion in response to air pressure.

Solenoid

Electromechanical assembly consists of core inside


coil of wire

Stepping
motor

Rotational electromagnetic motor. Output shaft


rotates in direct proportional to pulses received.

Relay switch

On-off switch opens and closes circuit in response


to an electromagnetic force.

Control System Applications

Manufacturing
Robotic
Power
Aeronautics
Electronics and Communication
Automotive
Computing
Mathematics
Physics
Biology

Manufacturing

Numerically controlled machine tools developed at


the Control Systems Laboratory at MIT in the
1950s was a first step where control was used to
improve precision of mechanical machining.
Welding is highly automated using control and
vision systems. Machines for manufacturing
systems based on machining with lasers and
electrical arcs depend heavily on use of control.
Large manufacturing operations are made on
transfer lines, where the parts are moved along a
line to stations which perform the operations.
A complete transfer line has a few hundred
feedback loops.

Robotic

Robots are used for a wide range of tasks:


welding, painting, grinding, assembly and
transfer of parts in a production line or
between production lines.
Robots that are used extensively in
manufacturing of cars, and electronics.
There are emerging applications in the food
industry and in packaging.

Power

Control is an essential element in all


systems for generation and
transmission of electricity.
The generators were typically driven
by water turbines. To control the
speed of the generators to maintain
constant frequency.

Aeronautics

Autopilots - based on the concept of


feedback
Autonomous flight - requires
automatic handling of a wide variety of
tasks, landing, flying to the normal
flight altitude, navigation, approaching
the airfield, and landing.

Electronics and Communication

CD Players and Optical memories


Processing of the signals from the
transistors gives the radial track error
and a focus signal .

Automotive

Reducing Emissions - introduce feedback


in the engine based on measurement of the
oxygen in the exhaust.
Cruise and Traction Control - Most new
cars are provided with a system for cruise
control that keeps the speed constant.
Technology Drivers - large number of
produced parts and hard requirements for
low cost.
Autonomous Driving - developing
autonomous vehicles.