50%(2)Il 50% ha trovato utile questo documento (2 voti)

1K visualizzazioni70 pagineIntroduction to Digital Control
with examples,The Structure o f a Digital Control System
The Sampling Theorem
SAMPLED-DATA SYSTEMS
Closed loop system with digital compensate.Discrete time state space analysis.

Dec 16, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PPTX, PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

Introduction to Digital Control
with examples,The Structure o f a Digital Control System
The Sampling Theorem
SAMPLED-DATA SYSTEMS
Closed loop system with digital compensate.Discrete time state space analysis.

© All Rights Reserved

50%(2)Il 50% ha trovato utile questo documento (2 voti)

1K visualizzazioni70 pagineIntroduction to Digital Control
with examples,The Structure o f a Digital Control System
The Sampling Theorem
SAMPLED-DATA SYSTEMS
Closed loop system with digital compensate.Discrete time state space analysis.

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 70

In most modern engineering systems,

There is a need to control the evolution with time of one or more of the system

variables.

Controllers are required to ensure satisfactory transient and steady-state

behavior for these engineering systems.

To guarantee satisfactory performance in the presence of disturbances and

model uncertainty, most controllers in use today employ some form of negative

feedback.

A sensor is needed to measure the controlled variable and compare its behavior

to a reference signal.

Control action is based on an error signal defined as the difference between the

reference and the actual values.

The controller that manipulates the error signal To determine the desired control action has classically been an analog system,

which includes

oelectrical, fluid,

opneumatic, or

o mechanical components.

These systems all have analog inputs and outputs

(i.e., their input and output signals are defined over a continuous time interval

and

have values that are defined over a continuous range of amplitudes).

In the past few decades,

analog controllers have often been replaced by digital controllers whose

inputs and outputs are defined at discrete time instances.

The digital controllers are in the form of digital circuits,

digital computers,

or microprocessors.

Digital control offers distinct advantages over analog control. Here are

some of its many advantages:

Accuracy.

Digital signals are represented in terms of zeros and ones with typically

12 bits or more to represent a single number.

This involves a very small error as compared to analog signals where noise and

power supply drift are always present.

Implementation errors.

Digital processing of control signals involves addition

and multiplication by stored numerical values. The errors that result

from digital representation and arithmetic are negligible.

By contrast, the processing of analog signals is performed using components such

as resistors and capacitors with actual values that vary significantly from the

nominal design values.

Flexibility. An analog controller is difficult to modify or redesign once

implemented in hardware. A digital controller is implemented in firmware or

software, and its modification is possible without a complete replacement of the

original controller.

since the 1980s.

This increase in processing speed has made it possible to sample and

process control signals at very high speeds.

Because the interval between samples, the sampling period, can be made very

small, digital controllers achieve performance that is essentially the same as

that based on continuous monitoring of the controlled variable.

Cost. Although the prices of most goods and services have steadily

increased, the

cost of digital circuitry continues to decrease. Advances in very large scale

integration (VLSI) technology have made it possible to manufacture better,

faster, and more reliable integrated circuits and to offer them to the consumer

at a lower price.

To control a physical system or process using a digital controller, the

controller must receive measurements from the system, process them, and

then send control signals to the actuator that effects the control action.

In almost all applications, both the plant and the actuator are analog

systems.

Example1:

the signal converters. The signal is indicated

as digital or analog

transistors

as measuring the objective refraction of the human eye and controlling

the engine spark timing

Closed-Loop Drug Delivery System

manipulator. (b) Block diagram of a manipulator control system.

Sampling is necessary for the processing of analog data using digital

elements.

Successful digital data processing requires that the samples reflect the

nature of the analog signal and that analog signals be recoverable, at

least in theory, from a sequence of samples.

Figure shows two distinct waveforms with identical samples.

distinguishable sequences. Thus, it is obvious that sufficiently fast sampling is

a prerequisite for successful digital data processing.

Therefore, the spectrum of the sampled waveform is a periodic function of

frequency ws. Assuming that f(t) is a real valued function, then it is well known

that the magnitude |F( jw)| is an even function of frequency, whereas the

phase F( jw) is an odd function.

frequency range 0 to ws/2 can be recovered by an ideal

low-pass filter as shown in Fig

In practice, the sampling rate chosen is often larger than the lower

bound specified in the sampling theorem. A rule of thumb is to choose

ws as s = km, 5 k 10

The choice of the constant k depends on the application. In many

applications, the upper bound on the sampling frequency is well below the

capabilities of state of- the-art hardware. A closed-loop control system

cannot have a sampling period below the minimum time required for the

output measurement; that is, the sampling frequency is upper-bounded by

the sensor delay.

For a linear system, the output of the system has a spectrum given by the

product of the frequency response and input spectrum.

Because the input is not known a priori, we must base our choice of

sampling frequency on the frequency response.

The frequency response of a first-order system is

choice of sampling frequency of s is sufficiently fast for

oscillations of frequency wd and time to first peak p/wd.

Example 1

Given a first-order system of bandwidth 10 rad/s, select a suitable

sampling frequency and find the corresponding sampling period.

Solution

A suitable choice of sampling frequency is ws = 60, wb = 600 rad/s.

The corresponding

sampling period is approximately T = 2p/ws 0.01 s.

Example 2

A closed-loop control system must be designed for a steady-state error not

to exceed 5 percent, a damping ratio of about 0.7, and an undamped

natural frequency of 10 rad/s.

Select a suitable sampling period for the system if the system has a sensor

delay of

1. 0.02 s

2. 0.03 s

Solution

Let the sampling frequency be

SAMPLED-DATA SYSTEMS

Computers used in control systems are interconnected to the actuator

and the process by means of signal converters.

The output of the computer is processed by a digital-to-analog

converter.

We will assume that all the numbers that enter or leave

the computer do so at the same fixed period T, called the sampling

period.

Thus, for example, the reference input shown in Figure is a sequence

of sample values r(kT).

The variables r(kT), m(kT), and u(kT) are discrete signals in contrast to

m(t) and y(t), which are continuous functions of time.

Sampled data (or a discrete signal) are data obtained for the system

variables only at discrete intervals and are denoted as x{kT).

A system where part of the system acts on sampled data is called a

sampled-data system. A sampler is basically a switch that closes every

T seconds for one instant of time

Consider an ideal sampler, as shown in Figure The input is r(t), and the

output is r*(t), where nT is the current sample time, and the current

value of r*(t) is r(nT)

.We then have r*(t) = r(nT)8(t nT), where 8 is the impulse function

Let us assume that we sample a signal r(r), as shown in Figure, and

obtain r*(t).

Then, we portray the series for r*(t) as a string of impulses starting

at t = 0,spaced at T seconds, and of amplitude r(kT).

For example, consider the input signal r(t) shown in Figure . The

sampled signal is shown in Figure) with an impulse represented by a

vertical arrow of magnitude r(kT).

sampled signal r*(t) to a continuous signal p(t). The digital-to-analog

converter can usually be represented by a zero-order hold circuit, as

shown in Figure.

The zero-order hold takes the value r(kT) and holds it constant for

kT < t < (k + 1)7, as shown in Figure for k = 0.

Thus, we use r(kT) during the sampling period.

A sampler and zero-order hold can accurately follow the input signal if

T is small compared to the transient changes in the signal

shown in Figure.

Finally, the response of a sampler and zero-order hold for an

exponentially decaying signal is shown in Figure for two values of the

sampling period.

Clearly, the output p(t) will approach the input r{t) as T approaches zero,

meaning that we sample frequently.

The impulse response of a zero-order hold is shown in Figure 13.8. The

transfer function of the zero-order hold is

The z-Transform

The z-transform is an important tool in the analysis and design of

discrete-time systems.

It simplifies the solution of discrete-time problems by converting LTI

difference equations to algebraic equations and convolution to

multiplication.

Thus, it plays a role similar to that served by Laplace transforms in

continuous-time problems.

The z-transform can be derived from the Laplace transform as shown

in Definition 2.2. Hence, it shares several useful properties with the

Laplace transform, which can be stated without proof.

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.