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DESIGN ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF

GRID TIE SOL AR MICROINVERTER

WHY THIS PROJECT ?

IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY HARVESTING

Energy

harvesting(also known asenergy


scavenging) is
the process by whichenergy is derived from
external sources captured, and stored and used
to power up
household devices, small scale industrial
equipments
and so on.

The different sources can be


Solar power,
Thermal energy,
Wind energy,
Energy from piezoelectric materials .
Biomass

SOLAR ENERGY HARVESTING.

In a typical solar energy-harvesting system,


multiple
solar panels are connected in parallel to a
single
inverter that converts the variable DC output
of
multiple PV cells into a clean sinusoidal 50-Hz
voltage
source.

DRAWBACKS OF STRING
INVERTER/CENTRAL INVERTER

The performance of the entire solar PV system is


dictated by the performance of the weakest solar
panel.
Therefore, power production is negatively affected
by non
uniformity of solar panels, sunlight variations or
partial
shading due to clouds, trees, dust on the panel.

High-voltage

DC such as 600V is
distributed in the system and has the
potential to trigger a high intensity arc
which can cause fire. This is a major issue
for installing a central inverter based solar
power system on the roof of a commercial
building.
So Central inverters are not safe for the
residential application.

A relatively new option for optimizing solar

system
efficiency and reliability is use of microinverters that
connect to each individual solar panel.
Equipping each
panel with its own micro-inverter allows the
system to
accommodate its changing load and
atmospheric
condition, which provides optimal conversion
efficiency for both the individual panels and
the entire system.

INTRODUCTION

MICROINVERTER
Micro Inverters are compact units built with
efficient
technology that convert direct current (DC) to
alternating current (AC) immediately at the
solar module.

HOW IT WORKS

1.6 REQUIREMENTS OF SOLAR MICROINVERTER

1. High step up DC- DC converter with less


amount of output ripple.
2. Isolation between the PV panel and Output of

the converter.
3. Sinusoidal inverter to convert DC Voltage to
sinusoidal Voltage of very less THD and satisfying
all grid tie requirements.

4.Output filter to remove harmonics.

SERIES CONNECTED FORWARD FLYBACK CONVERTER

The First stage of SMI is boosting the panel

voltage to a high value. For this purpose Series


connected forward flyback converter is used.
The SFFB converter has following advantages

that makes it a suitable one for SMI


High step up ratio.
Low output ripple voltage and current.
Galvanic isolation.
Simple in design and
Only one switch at the input. control becomes

easier

SERIES CONNECTED FORWARD


FLYBACK CONVERTER

SINGLE PHASE PV MICROINVERTER


In single phase PV Microinverter the SFFB

converter is coupled with single phase PWM


inverter. Control loop is employed for the
inverter switching to get almost pure
sinusoidal wave with THD to satisfy grid
interface requirement.
This microinverter can be used both for single

phase grid interface and stand alone PV


systems.

SINGLE PHASE PV
MICROINVERTER

THREE PHASE SOLAR MICROINVERTER


If the high stepped up voltage from PV panel

is connected to Three phase inverter with a


control loop then the system can be
interfaced with three phase grid.
An LC filter is used to remove Harmonics so

that the THD is less than 3% .

WAVEFORMS

The next stage after stepping up of panel

voltage to a high DC voltage is converting the


DC voltage to AC sinusoidal voltage in
accordance with grid compatibility .

ADVANTAGES OF MICROINVERTER
There is no high-voltage or high-current DC in a solar

power system using Micro inverters. So, it is much


safer for the installer, user, and the property.
No more partial shading problems if a solar panel is

partially shaded, it will not affect the performance of


other panels.
Since each solar panel has its own inverter, a failure

would mean that only one panel is not working;

One panels poor performance would not

affect its neighbors production, but if there is


a shaded panel in a system with a central
inverter then it can alter the energy output of
other panels;
Multiple orientations of panels are possible

with micro-inverters while a central inverter


usually requires its panels to all face in the
same direction

Micro inverters, however, have


their own set of challenges
including the following:
30% more costlier than central inverters .
While a Central Inverter is typically installed

on a wall or on the ground out of direct


sunlight, a Microinverter is typically attached
to the solar panel on the roof top, which can
be a very harsh environment.