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1 
 Introduction
 Numerical Control
 Definition, advantages
 T es of NC control s stems
 Motion and Coordinate s stem
 NC art rogramming
 Fundamentals of NC rogramming
 Examle
 Loading Program in:
 Comuterized Numerical Control
 Direct Numerical Control
 Comuter-Aided art rogramming
 Comuter-Aided Part rogramming
 CAD-CAM based art rogramming

Reference: Singh, N. (1996), ³S stems aroach to comuter integrated design


and manufacturing´, John Wile & Sons.
 Relative motion between cutting tool and work iece b forcing a
shar cutting edge into the work-iece.
 Problems:
 Metals are ver hard.

 Motion between tool and work-iece should be at sufficientl high rate

 Temorar solution: Power driven machines (machine tools) are caable of generating
high forces required, but to use a machine tool, we need to
 Determine the location on the work-iece where machining is to be done.
 Controlling the ath followed during the motion of the tool or work-iece
 Controlling the rate at which the ath is traversed
 Controlling the rate at which the ath is traversed
 Further:
 A highl skilled oerator is required even for a simle job
 Inconsistenc in results
 Much longer time, deend on knowledge and skill of oerator.\ Ver difficult to
manufacture comlex roducts
 Low roductivit
 Same technological caabilities as of conventional
 machines in terms of machining, but differ in control of
machine functions.
 Elements of NC s stem
 Part rogram
 Machine control unit (MCU)
 The machine tool

 Caabilities of Machine control unit (MCU) of a NC machine:


 Positioning the tool
 Turning the sindle ON/OFF
 Setting cutting seeds/feed rates
 Turning coolant ON/OFF
 Direction and rate of slide motion, sindle rotation, etc.
 Each motion is ositioned b rotating motors b a
desired amount
 The sindle/cutting tool is driven b DC/AC motors
through reduction gear
 boxes
 Position of the motor is sensed using an encoder
(e.g. resolution is
 3500/revolution)
 Velocit of the motor is measured b a tacho
generator
 Oen-loo Control
 Steer motor is used, having a redefined amount of revolution.
 Current ulses are send from MCU to individual motors.
 Movement/rotation deends on number of ulses send.
 Advantages:
 Position is maintained just b keeing track of number of revolutions.
 Can roduce a movement of 1/1000th of an inch, for a single ulse.
 Chea and less comlex.
 Eas to maintain.
 Drawback:
 Assumtion: Motor movement is recise, i.e. motor is moving the exact
 amount deending on the number of ulses.
 No wa to correct errors, because no feedback.
 This control is not suitable for large machines requiring greater ower
 because of limitation of steer motor to generate high torque.
 Closed-loo Control
 Direct current (DC) motors are used.
 Can generate high levels of torque.
 Can be reversed.
 Unlike steer motors, it cannot achieve ver recise movement.
 Searate ositions sensors are required.
 Position information is fed back as a signal to the controller.
 Major advantage: because of feed back and servo motors T es of NC
control s stems reversible feature, errors can be corrected, b
comaring with target osition.
 Thus formed a closed loo.
 Higher accurac than oen loo s stems because of feed back.
 Alications:
 Larger NC machines because of higher loads.
 For greater accurac , an kind of load.
 Exensive and comlex.
 •-axis: Alwa s aligned with the sindle that imarts cutting ower. This
sindle might rotate the work-iece as in a lathe, it might rotate a tool
as in a milling machine. It is erendicular to work-holding surface if
there is no such sindle. Positive motion in z axis tends to increase
the searation between the work-iece and the tool

 X axis: Positioning the moving element, arallel to the work-holding


surface, horizontal (if ossible).
 On machines with rotating work-ieces, it is radial and arallel to the
cross-slide
 On machines with rotating tools,
1. If the •-axis is horizontal, the ositive x motion is to the right when
looking from the sindle to the work-iece.
2. If the z axis in vertical, the ositive x axis is to the right when looking
from the sindle to the column
 On machines with non-rotating work-ieces and non-rotating tools, the x axis is
arallel to and directed toward the rincial cutting direction

 Y-axis: be in such a direction as to comlete a right-handed Cartesian


coordinate s stem
 Point to oint

 Straight cut s stem

 Continuous ath
 Linear ath interolation

 Incremental ath
aroximation

 Interolation using
circular or other equations
 Part Program is the rogram required to machine a secific art
or comonent.
 Require intimate knowledge about the rocesses.
 NC art rogrammer should be a skill oerator and good art
rogrammer for maximum utilization of machine caabilities and
available resources like jigs and fixtures, cutting tools, without
violating the machine constraints.
 Assumed that it is the tool that undergoes the rimar motion, for
writing NC art rogram.
 Absolute ositioning mode:
 Target osition of the tool is given relative to the origin oint of
the rogram.
 Incremental ositioning mode
 Target osition for the tool is given relative to the current tool
osition
1. Fixed sequential format:
 Each statement consists of exactl the same
number of words entered in a secified sequence,
 Each word consists of a fixed number of data
characters
 Characters cannot be omitted and no extra
characters can be included
 It is essential the same as fixed sequential format
 The difference is that each word within a
statement is receded b a TA6 character
 The sequence of the words remains significant
 The saces should not be used in the actual
rogram.
 A method of coding machine
motion using ANSI format
letter s stem.
 Ease to use
 Does not require all the
words.
 Ignores saces.
 Prearator function:
 Necessar oeration conditions
 Axis motion commands:
 Control the amount of relative motion
 Feed and seed commands:
 Control the cutting conditions
 Identification commands:
 To identif secific entities in the rogram, such as
cutting tools used
 Miscellaneous commands:
 Controls various asects of the machine¶s oeration
such as turning the sindle on and off and changing
tools
 Canned c cles:
 Conventional NC:
 1-in.-wide unched aer tae: for rogram
storage and inut to NC machines
 A binar -based reresentation code
 Two standard coding schemes: EIA & ASCII
 Comuter NC (CNC)
 Storage medium
 Disla oerational arameters, coordinate
ositions, etc.
 Ke board for data entr and editing the rogram
 Distributed Numerical
Control (DNC)
 Each CNC machine
has its own memor
 The local machine
can run autonomousl
 Central comuter
la s a suervisor
role, monitoring the
oerations of
machines, etc.
 Reduces the manual calculations
 To rove the rogram b ath
simulation, identif errors
 Set of events can be rogrammed
with fewer commands, leading to
shorter rograms
 English-like structure of the
rogramming s stems makes it
easier for rogrammers to learn
 Program rearation is simlified
b use of English-like commands
that are eas to understand and
rogram. It reduces the likelihood
of errors in the rogram.
 Standard APT (Automaticall rogrammed tools)
language:
 APT source file: written b user
 APT rocessor checks the source file for errors in
 defined geometr , errors in required tool
motions
 CL file means cutter location file
 Post rocessor converts CL data into final NC
codes.
 Post rocessing
 Convert the CL data into m/c tool coordinates.
 Check for seed, feed, movement limitations.
 Develo motion command using M&G codes.
 Comuter-Aided Part Programming:
 Process machine secific functions.
 Select acceleration, deceleration, etc.
 Direct use the CAD
database for geometric
descrition of arts.
 Generate tool ath
information from the
geometric model of the
art in the CAD
database.
 Post rocessor is still
required.
 Commercial CAD/CAM
s stems with NC
rogram generation:
CATIA, CADAM, Pro/E.