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# Bipolar Junction Transistors

## Bipolar Junction Transistors

1. Understand bipolar junction transistor operation
in amplifier circuits.
2. Analyze simple amplifiers using the load-line
technique and understand the causes of
nonlinear distortion.

Tubes

Triode Tube

Amplification

Chip Evolution

Transistors

## Bias Conditions for PN Junctions

The base emitter p-n
junction of an npn
transistor is normally
forward biased

## The base collector p-n

junction of an npn
transistor is normally
reverse biased

## Bias Conditions for NPN Junctions

Equations of Operation

v BE
iE I ES exp
VT

## From Kirchoffs current law:

iE iC iB

Equations of Operation
Define as the ratio of collector current to emitter
current:

iC

iE
Values for range from 0.9 to 0.999 with 0.99 being
typical. Since:

i E iC i B 0.99i E i B i B 0.01i E
Most of the emitter current comes from the collector
and very little (1%) from the base.

Equations of Operation

v BE
iE I ES exp
VT

iC

iE

v BE
iC I ES exp

VT

Equations of Operation
i E iC i B

iC
i B i E iC i E 1
iE

i E (1 )

v BE
i B (1 ) I ES exp

VT

Equations of Operation
Define as the ratio of collector current to base
current:

iC

iB 1
Values for range from about 10 to 1,000 with a
common value being 100.

iC i B
The collector current is an amplified version of the
base current.

Equations of Operation

v BE
iE I ES exp
VT

v BE
iC I ES exp

VT

v BE
i B (1 ) I ES exp

VT

iC i B

iC

0.99
iE

iC

100
iB 1

## The base region is very thin

Only a small fraction of the emitter current flows into the base
provided that the collector-base junction is reverse biased and the
base-emitter junction is forward biased.

Exercise 13.1
A certain transistor has = 50, IES = 10-14A, vCE = 5 V, and iE = 10
mA. Assume VT = 0.026 V. Find vBE, vBC, iB, iC and .

## 1 For operation with iE I ES

10 2

718.4 mV
26 mV ln

14
10

0.718V 5V 4.282V

v BE
i E I ES exp

VT
v BE

iE
VT ln
I ES

v BC v BE vCE

50

0.980
1 51
iC i E 9.80mA
i
9.80mA
iB C
196 A

50

v BE
iE I ES exp
VT

Exercise 13.2
Compute the corresponding values of if = 0.9, 0.99 and 0.999

1
0.9

1 0.9

9
0.9

0.99

1 0.99

99
0.99

0.999

1 0.999

999
0.999

Exercise 13.3
A certain transistor operated with forward bias of the base-emitter
junction and reverse bias of the base-collector junction has iC = 9.5
mA and iE = 10 mA. Find the value of iB, and .

i B i E iC 0.5 mA
iC 9.5mA

0.95
i E 10mA
iC

19
iB

Common-Emitter Characteristics
vBC
vCE

v BC v BE vCE
if vCE v BE v BC 0 reverse bias

Common-Emitter Input
Characteristics

v
i B (1 ) I ES exp BE

VT

Common-Emitter Output
Characteristics

iC i B for 100

## A small change in vBE results in a large change in iB if the

base emitter is forward biased. Provided vCE is more than a
few tenths of a volt, this change in iB results in a larger
change in iC since iC=iB.

Common-Emitter Amplifier

## Load-Line Analysis of a Common

Emitter Amplifier (Input Circuit)

VBB vin t RB iB t v BE t

## Load-Line Analysis of a Common

Emitter Amplifier (Output Circuit)

VCC RC iC vCE

Inverting Amplifier

As vin(t) goes positive, the load line moves upward and to the
right, and the value of iB increases. This causes the operating
point on the output to move upwards, decreasing vCE An
increase in vin(t) results in a much larger decrease in vCE so that

iBQ = 25 A

## Assume VCC = 10V

VBB = 1.6V
RB = 40 k
RC = 2 k
Vin = 0.4sin(t)

VBB vin t RB i B t v BE t
1.6 vin 40kiB v BE
i B 0 and vin 0 v BE 1.6
v BE

1.6V
0 and vin 0 iB
40 A
40k

iBmax= 35 A

## Assume VCC = 10V

VBB = 1.6V
RB = 40 k
RC = 2 k
Vin = 0.4sin(t)

VBB vin t RB i B t v BE t
1.6 vin 40ki B v BE
i B 0 and vin 0.4 v BE 2
v BE

2V
0 and vin 0.4 i B
50 A
40k

iBmin= 15 A

## Assume VCC = 10V

VBB = 1.6V
RB = 40 k
RC = 2 k
Vin = 0.4sin(t)

VBB vin t RB i B t v BE t
1.6 vin 40kiB v BE
i B 0 and vin 0.4 v BE 1.2
v BE

1.2V
0 and vin 0.4 i B
30 A
40k

iBQ = 25 A
iBmin= 15 A
iBmax= 35 A

VCEQ = 5V

VCEQ = 5V

iCEQ = 2.5 mA

VCEmin = 3V
VCEmax = 7V

10 2k iC vCE

## Voltage waveforms for the common emitter amplifier.

The gain is -5 (inverting).

Clipping
When iC becomes
zero, we say that the
transistor is
cutoff.
When vCE 0.2 V, we
say that the transistor
is in saturation.

## Amplification occurs in the active region. Clipping

occurs in the saturation or cutoff regions.

Clipping

Exercise 13.5
vin (t ) 0.8 sin(t )

i BQ 25A

## Find VCE max , VCEQ

and VCE min

VBB vin t RB i B t v BE t
1.6 vin 40ki B v BE
i B 0 and vin 0 v BE 1.6
v BE

1.6V
0 and vin 0 i B
40 A
40k

Exercise 13.5
vin (t ) 0.8 sin(t )

i Bmax 45A

## Find VCE max , VCEQ

and VCE min

VBB vin t RB i B t v BE t
1.6 vin 40ki B v BE
i B 0 and vin 0.8 v BE 2.4
v BE

2.4V
0 and vin 0.8 i B
60 A
40k

Exercise 13.5
vin (t ) 0.8 sin(t )

i Bmin 5A

## Find VCE max , VCEQ

and VCE min

VBB vin t RB i B t v BE t
1.6 vin 40ki B v BE
i B 0 and vin 0.8 v BE 0.8
v BE

0.8V
0 and vin 0.8 i B
20 A
40k

Exercise 13.5
i BQ 25A

VCEQ 5V

iCQ 2.5mA

i Bmin 5A

VCEmax 9V

iCmin 0.5mA

i Bmax 45A

VCEmin 1V

iCmax 4.5mA

Exercise 13.6
i BQ 15A

## vin (t ) 0.8 sin(t )

VBB 1.2V

VBB vin t RB i B t v BE t
1.2 vin 40ki B v BE
i B 0 and vin 0 v BE 1.2
v BE

1.2V
0 and vin 0 i B
30 A
40k

Exercise 13.6
i Bmax 35A

## vin (t ) 0.8 sin(t )

VBB 1.2V

VBB vin t RB i B t v BE t
1.2 vin 40ki B v BE
i B 0 and vin 0.8 v BE 2
v BE

2V
0 and vin 0.8 i B
50 A
40k

Exercise 13.6
i Bmin 1A

## vin (t ) 0.8 sin(t )

VBB 1.2V

VBB vin t RB i B t v BE t
1.2 vin 40ki B v BE
i B 0 and vin 0.8 v BE 0.4
v BE

0.4V
0 and vin 0.8 i B
10 A
40k

Exercise 13.6
i BQ 15A

VCEQ 7V

iCQ 1.5mA

i Bmin 1A

VCEmax 9.8V

iCmin 1.0mA

i Bmax 35A

VCEmin 3V

iCmax 3.5mA

## PNP Bipolar Junction Transistor

Except for reversal of current directions and
voltage polarities, the pnp BJT is almost
identical to the npn BJT.

iC i E
i B (1 )i E
iC i B
i E iC i B

## Common-Emitter Characteristics for a

PNP BJT

v BE
i E I ES exp

VT

i B (1 ) I ES exp

v BE
VT

Exercise 13.7

Find :

iC 2.5mA

50
iB
50A

Exercise 13.8

## 0.8 vin 8000i B v BE 0

Exercise 13.8
0.8 vin 8000i B v BE 0
vin 0
vin 0
vin 0.2
vin 0.2
vin 0.2
vin 0.2

iB 0

v BE 0.8

0.8
v BE 0 i B
100 A
8000
i B 0 v BE 0.6
0.6
v BE 0 i B
75A
8000
i B 0 v BE 1
v BE

1
0 iB
125A
8000

Exercise 13.8
i BQ 24 A
i Bmax 48A
i Bmin 5A

Exercise 13.8

9 3000iC vCE 0
vCE 9 3000iC

Exercise 13.8

vCE 9 3000iC
iC 0
vCE

vCE 9

9
0 iC
3mA
3000

Exercise 13.8

i Bmax 48A

VCEmax 1.8V

i Bin 5A

VCEmin 8.3V

i BQ 24 A

VCEQ 5.3V