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FOUNDATION ENGINEERING - I

Bearing Capacity of Shallow Founations

Course Instructor :

Syed Zishan Ashiq


Lecture No. 04
August 2015

Mirpur University of Science & Technology Mirpur AJK


Department of Civil Engineering

Bearing Capacity Failures


General shear
Dense soils,
Rock, NC clays
Defined failure
surf.
Local
Fast shear
failure
Intermediate case
+/- gradual failure
Punching
Loose sands,
weak clays (dr.)
F. surf. not defined

Bearing Capacity Failures

Sand
Circular foundations

Deep
foundations

(Vesic, 1963 and 1973)


We design for the general shear case (for shallow foundations)

Bearing Capacity Theory


LIMIT EQUILIBRIUM
1. Define the shape of a failure surface
2. Evaluate stresses vs. strengths along this surface

Bearing Capacity Theory


LIMIT EQUILIBRIUM
Ultimate bearing capacity = qult = ?
(Bearing press. required to cause a BC failure)
B
B
M A (qult Bb ) ( su Bb ) B zD Bb
2
2

Moments about point A

qult 2 su zD

qult N c su zD

BC Factor

Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory


Assumptions
D < or = B
Homogenous and isotropic
tan()

s = c +

level ground
rigid foundation
full adhesion between soil and base of footing
general shear failure develops

Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory


Terzaghi developed the theory for continuous foundations (simplest, 2D problem).

qult c' N c ' zD N q 0.5 ' BN


From model tests, he expanded the theory to:

qult 1.3c' N c ' zD N q 0.4 ' BN

qult 1.3c' N c ' zD N q 0.3 ' BN

Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

Nc = cohesion factor
Nq = surcharge factor
N = self wt factor

fn ()

Groundwater level effects


groundwater
affects

Shear strength
by
i.

Reduction in apparent cohesion - cap (sat. soil for lab


tests)

ii. Decrease in

Groundwater Level Effects


Case I:

' w

D1 D
Case II : ' w 1

Case III :

'

'
For total stress analysis:
regardless of the case
(gw effects are implicit in cT and T)

Factor of Safety
Safe BC = qs

qult
qs
FS

soil type

FS = function of
uncertainty

structure type
soil variability
extent of site characterization

BC of Shallow Foundations in practice


(per Mayne 97)

Undrained
*

qult N c su

Nc*

= 5.14 for strip footing


= 6.14 for square or
circular footing

The value of su is taken as the average within a depth = to


1B to 1.5B beneath the foundation base

su
1
0.8
sin ' OCR
'v 2

(Mayne, 1980)

BC of Shallow Foundations in practice


(per Mayne 97)

1
*
q

'

N
Drained: ult

N* = fn (foundation
shape and )

Consider gw cases
(I, II, or III to determine )

BC of Shallow Foundations in Practice


(per Mayne 97)

Sands: Perform drained analysis


Clays: Perform both
1. Find B so that FS = 3
Get q
Get q ult (by BC analysis)
Set FS ratio and solve for B

Consider (drained vs. undrained) and methods for


obtaining OCR and f ---- CPT?

Problem Formulation BC Design


2. Find B and D so that FS = 3
Get q
Get q ult (by BC analysis)
Set FS ratio and solve for B

Determine this
for various D
values

Important too:
i.

Foundation shape (cost and labor)

ii. Moment loads and eccentricity


iii. Weight of the foundations

Allowable Bearing Capacity

Thank you for


listening
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