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# FOUNDATION ENGINEERING - I

## Bearing Capacity of Shallow Founations

Course Instructor :

Lecture No. 04
August 2015

## Mirpur University of Science & Technology Mirpur AJK

Department of Civil Engineering

## Bearing Capacity Failures

General shear
Dense soils,
Rock, NC clays
Defined failure
surf.
Local
Fast shear
failure
Intermediate case
Punching
Loose sands,
weak clays (dr.)
F. surf. not defined

## Bearing Capacity Failures

Sand
Circular foundations

Deep
foundations

## (Vesic, 1963 and 1973)

We design for the general shear case (for shallow foundations)

## Bearing Capacity Theory

LIMIT EQUILIBRIUM
1. Define the shape of a failure surface
2. Evaluate stresses vs. strengths along this surface

## Bearing Capacity Theory

LIMIT EQUILIBRIUM
Ultimate bearing capacity = qult = ?
(Bearing press. required to cause a BC failure)
B
B
M A (qult Bb ) ( su Bb ) B zD Bb
2
2

qult 2 su zD

qult N c su zD

BC Factor

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

Assumptions
D < or = B
Homogenous and isotropic
tan()

s = c +

level ground
rigid foundation
full adhesion between soil and base of footing
general shear failure develops

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

Terzaghi developed the theory for continuous foundations (simplest, 2D problem).

## qult c' N c ' zD N q 0.5 ' BN

From model tests, he expanded the theory to:

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

Nc = cohesion factor
Nq = surcharge factor
N = self wt factor

fn ()

groundwater
affects

Shear strength
by
i.

tests)

ii. Decrease in

## Groundwater Level Effects

Case I:

' w

D1 D
Case II : ' w 1

Case III :

'

'
For total stress analysis:
regardless of the case
(gw effects are implicit in cT and T)

Factor of Safety
Safe BC = qs

qult
qs
FS

soil type

FS = function of
uncertainty

structure type
soil variability
extent of site characterization

(per Mayne 97)

Undrained
*

qult N c su

Nc*

## = 5.14 for strip footing

= 6.14 for square or
circular footing

## The value of su is taken as the average within a depth = to

1B to 1.5B beneath the foundation base

su
1
0.8
sin ' OCR
'v 2

(Mayne, 1980)

## BC of Shallow Foundations in practice

(per Mayne 97)

1
*
q

'

N
Drained: ult

N* = fn (foundation
shape and )

Consider gw cases
(I, II, or III to determine )

(per Mayne 97)

## Sands: Perform drained analysis

Clays: Perform both
1. Find B so that FS = 3
Get q
Get q ult (by BC analysis)
Set FS ratio and solve for B

## Consider (drained vs. undrained) and methods for

obtaining OCR and f ---- CPT?

## Problem Formulation BC Design

2. Find B and D so that FS = 3
Get q
Get q ult (by BC analysis)
Set FS ratio and solve for B

Determine this
for various D
values

Important too:
i.

## ii. Moment loads and eccentricity

iii. Weight of the foundations

listening
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