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Topic 2

Atoms, Elements and


Compounds

Learning Outcomes

Identify how matter is classified based on its atoms.


Differentiate between metals and non-metals.
Write the chemical symbols for elements.
Write the formula of molecules for elements and
compounds.
Identify similarities and differences between
elements, compounds and mixtures.
Describe alloys.
Differentiate between solution, solute and solvent.

2.1 Nature of Atoms, Elements,


Compounds and Mixtures

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies


space.

Matter, whether it is living or non-living, is made


up of atoms - the almost tiny and small building
blocks of matter.

The properties of matter relate not only to the


kinds of atoms it contains (composition) but
also to the arrangement of these atoms
(structure).

Nature of Atoms, Elements,


Compounds and Mixtures

Matter can be classified in two ways:


1. according to physical state - gas,liquid or
solid
2. according to composition (either pure
substances or mixtures)

Classification of Matter

2.1.1 Pure Substances

A pure substance (usually referred to simply as


a substance) is matter that has a fixed
composition and distinct properties.

A substance cannot be further broken down or


purified by physical means.

Examples: water, sodium chloride

Pure substances can either be elements or


compounds.

Compound & Element

A compound is a substance that can be broken


down into a simpler type of matter (elements) by
chemical means (but not by physical means).

An element is a substance that cannot be


broken down into simpler substances by
chemical or physical methods.

Electrolysis of water

Element

An element is the simplest substance with the


following three features:
i.
ii.

iii.

It consists of only one type of atom;


It cannot be broken down into simpler
substances either by physical or chemical
means; and
It can exist either as individual atoms or
molecules.

Elements

Examples of elements that consist of


individual atoms include
Metals (Al, Zn, Fe, Ca, Au..)
Noble gases (He, Ne, Ar..)

Diatomic molecules

Elements that occur as diatomic molecules: hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine

Note: A molecule consists of two or more atoms of the same element, or different elements, which are chemically bound together.

Polyatomic molecules
(poly = more than one)

Some other elements exist as more complex


molecules.
Molecules that contain two or more atoms are
called polyatomic molecules.

Elements

Elements

Three group of elements - metals, non-metals


and semi-metals

Metal elements

Examples: Potassium, mercury, lead, magnesium,


silver and sodium.

Nonmetal elements

Examples: Hydrogen, chlorine, bromine,


phosphorus, carbon and oxygen.

Semimetal elements (or metalloids)

Examples: Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic,


antimony, tellurium and astatine.

Elements

An element is the simplest substance with the


following three features:
1. It consists of only one type of atom.
2. It cannot be broken down into simpler
substances either by physical or chemical
means.
3. It can exist either as individual atoms or
molecules.

Compounds

A compound is a substance which consists of


two or more elements chemically combined
together.

Compounds

We can determine a compound by inspecting


these three features:
1. It can be broken down into a simpler type of
matter (elements) by chemical means (but
not by physical means);
2.

It has properties that are different from its


component elements;

3.

It has a constant composition throughout


and always contains the same ratio of its
component atoms.

Molecules of Compounds

Molecules of compounds are composed of more


than one kind of atom in a definite ratio.

Electrolysis of water

Electrolysis of water

Water is converted into two simpler substances


hydrogen & oxygen.

Hydrogen and oxygen are always present in the


same ration by mass, 11.1% to 88.9%.

These observations allow us to identify water as


a compound.

2.1.2 Mixtures

Mixtures are two or more substances that are


mixed together but not chemically joined.

More detailed definition:


Mixtures are combinations of two or more
substances that are mixed physically in which
each substance retains its own chemical
identity and hence its own properties.

Mixtures

In any mixture,
1. the composition can be varied
2. each substance of the mixture retains its
own composition and properties
3. may be separated into pure substances by
physical methods

The substances making up a mixture are called


components of the mixture.

Mixtures

Mixture can be further classified as either


homogenous or heterogeneous:

Heterogeneous - components are


distinguishable
Example: Vegetable soup, mixture of salt and
charcoal

Homogeneous - components are


indistinguishable; called a solution
Example: Salt water, alloys, air

2.1.3 Separating Components of


Mixture

Filtration
Evaporation
Distillation
Fractional distillation
Crystallisation
Chromatography

Filtration

Suitable for an insoluble solid and liquid


mixture

Evaporation

Evaporation is a method of separating a solid


that has been dissolved in a solvent.

If a mixture is heated or left over a few days, the


solvent or liquid evaporates, leaving the solid as
residue.

Distillation

Distillation is a process to separate a


substance (in the form of a solution) from its
solvent.

This method is suitable for a homogenous


mixture or solution.

Distillation

Distillation

The liquid to be separated is evaporated by


boiling, and its vapour is then collected through
condensation.

The condensed vapour, which is in the form of


purified liquid, is called the distillate.

Fractional Distillation

Fractional distillation is a method to separate a


mixture of compounds by their boiling points.
This is done by heating them to certain
temperatures.

This method is suitable for liquid-liquid


mixtures with different boiling points.

Fractional Distillation
When

heated, the component of the mixture


with the lower boiling point will evaporate first
and be distilled, followed by the component
with the next higher boiling point and so on.

Fractional Distillation

Process of fractional distillation of


petroleum

Uses of the major fractions of petroleum


Fraction

Boiling point range (C )

Uses

Petroleum
gas

-161 to 20

Fuel and cooking gas

Gasoline

30 to 180

Automobile fuels

Kerosene

170 to 290

Rocket and jet engine


fuels, domestic heating

Diesel

260 to 350

Diesel fuel

Industrial fuel
oil

300 to 370

Fuel for electricity


production

Lubricating oil

Non volatile fraction

Lubricants

Paraffin wax

Solids

Candles, polishing

Residue
Bitumen

Solids

Asphalt and road


surfaces

Crystallisation

Crystallisation is a process of forming crystals


from a uniform solution.

Example: Copper(II) sulphate solution can be


separated into its components (copper (II)
sulphate and water):

Heating the solution until it is concentrated.


Cool down the concentrated solution to obtain
solid copper(II) sulphate in the form of crystals.

Chromatography

The differing abilities of substances to adhere to


the surfaces of various solids such as paper and
starch make it possible to separate mixtures.
This is the basis of chromatography.

Chromatography refers to a set of methods


used to separate different compounds which
normally involve separating chemicals and
identifying them by colour.

Chromatography
Ink is a good example for this method.
The components in ink, which is a dye mixture,
can be separated by paper chromatography

Activity 2.1

2.2 Differences between Metals


and Non-Metals

Metals

Examples: Potassium, mercury, lead, magnesium,


silver and sodium.

Metals

Metals react with non-metals to form ionic


compounds.

Most metal oxides are basic oxides, which


when dissolved in water react to form metal
hydroxides.

Metals
Metal

water.

oxides react with acid to form salt and

Non-metals

Examples: Hydrogen, chlorine, bromine,


phosphorus, carbon and oxygen.

Non-Metals

Non-Metals

Non-metals react with metals to form ionic


compounds.

Compounds composed entirely of non-metals


are molecular compounds.

Non-Metals

Most non-metal oxides are acidic oxides,


which when dissolved in water react to form
acids.
Example: Carbon dioxide dissolves in water to form
carbonic acid.

Non-metal oxides react with base to form salt


and water.

2.3 Chemical Symbols of


Elements

Chemical Symbols of Elements

Chemical Symbols of Elements

2.4 Formulae of Molecules for


Elements and Compounds
Many

elements found in nature are in


molecular form.

Diatomic molecules

Elements that occur as diatomic molecules:


hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine,
bromine, iodine

Polyatomic molecules
(poly = more than one)

Some other elements exist as more complex


molecules.
Molecules that contain two or more atoms are
called polyatomic molecules.

Formulae of Molecules for


Elements and Compounds

The chemical formula that indicates the actual


number and types of atoms in the molecule is
called the molecular formula.

Formulae of Molecules for


Elements and Compounds

Formulae of Molecules for


Elements and Compounds

Compounds that are composed of molecules are


called molecular compounds and they contain
more than one type of atom.
These substances are composed only of non-metallic
elements.

Formulae of Molecules for


Elements and Compounds

2.5 Mixtures, Substances,


Compounds, & Elements

2.6 ALLOYS

The structure of atoms in metal - packed


together very closely.

As a result, most metals have a high density.

ALLOYS

The layers of atoms in a metal can slide over


each other easily and cause the properties of
metals such as being malleable and ductile.

ALLOYS

In an alloy, the atoms of different metals have


different sizes.

This makes the layers of atoms slide over each


other even harder due to the disruption of the
initial orderly layers of metal atoms.

Why make alloys?


1.

To improve the appearance of the pure metal

Metals have lustrous surface.


However, the exposed metal surface quickly
loses its shine due to the formation of an oxide
layer.
Alloying helps to prevent formation of the oxide
layer and enables the metal to keep its surface
shiny.
Example: Pewter

Why make alloys?


2.

To increase the strength and hardness of the


pure metal

For example, carbon atoms which are smaller


than iron atoms are added into iron atoms during
the making of steel.

As a result, the uniformity of the arrangement of


iron atoms is disrupted and it is more difficult for
the layers of the iron atoms to slide over one
another. This makes steel harder and stronger
than pure iron.

Why make alloys?


3.

To increase the resistance to corrosion

Most metals such as iron and copper corrode


readily in the air.

Alloying can prevent metals from corrosion.

Example: Carbon, chromium and nickel are


added to iron to make stainless steel.
Why doesn't stainless steel rust?

Composition, properties and uses of alloys


Alloy

Composition

Properties

Uses

Steel

Fe 99.5%, C
0.5%

High strength

Car bodies,
bridges, ships

Stainless
steel

Fe 80.6%, C
0.4%, Cr 18%, Ni
1%

Great resistance to
corrosion

Knives, sinks,
cutlery

Pewter

Sn 91%,
antimony (Sb)
7%, Cu 2%

High strength
Resistance to corrosion
Bright shiny surface

Ornaments,
souvenirs

Bronze

Cu 90%, Sn 10%

High strength
Resistance to corrosion

Medals, art
objects

High strength
Resistance to corrosion
Low density

Aircraft, racing
mountain
bicycle

Duralumin Al 95%, Cu 4%,


Mg 0.5%, Mn
0.5%

2.7 Solution

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or


more substances.

A solution is formed when tiny individual


particles (<1 mm in diameter) of one substance
are uniformly dispersed among the individual
particles of the other substance.

2.7.1 Solution, Solute and


Solvent

A solution is a mixture obtained by dissolving the


solute in solvent.

Types of Solutions

Solution Alloys

Solution alloys are homogeneous mixtures in


which the components are dispersed uniformly.

There are two types of solution alloys:

substitutional alloys
interstitial alloys

Substitutional alloys
Atoms must have similar
atomic radii.

Interstitial alloys
Solute atoms smaller than
solvent atoms (in order to fit
into the interstitial site), e.g. a
nonmetal.

2.7.2 Saturated Solution

A solution can be categorised into three categories:


dilute solution
concentrated solution
saturated solution

Saturated Solution

A dilute solution has little solute particles dissolved in


the solvent. The solvent can dissolve the solute
particles more easily.

When we add more solute into the solvent, it can still


dissolve. At this level, we call this solution a
concentrated solution.

If we keep on adding the solute into the solvent until it


reaches a level where the solute cannot dissolve any
more at that particular temperature, then we call this
solution a saturated solution.

Saturated Solution

A saturated solution is obtained when the solution is


in equilibrium with undissolved solid.

Additional solute will not dissolve if added to such a


solution.

Saturated Solution

The amount of solute needed to form a saturated


solution in a given quantity of solvent is known as
the solubility of the solute.

This is usually expressed in grams of solute in 100


g of solvent.

Saturated Solution

For example, the solubility of NaCl in water is 36 g


per 100 mL of water at 20C.

This is the maximum amount of NaCl that can be


dissolved in water to give a stable, equilibrium
solution at that temperature.

If we dissolve 30.0 g of NaCl per 100 mL of water at


20C, the solution is said to be unsaturated
because it has the capacity to dissolve more solute.

2.7.3 Some Factors Affecting


Solubility

When a solute dissolves in the solvent, a solution is


formed.

When only a small amount (or none at all) of a


solute can be dissolved in the water, the solute is
insoluble.

When the solute is slightly dissolved in the water,


we get a suspension.

Some Factors Affecting Solubility

How much solute can dissolve in a solvent?


It all depends on the following three factors:
a) Size of the solute particles
b) Type of the solvent

c)

For example, sugar will dissolve in water but may not


dissolve in other types of solvent like paraffin.
Most solutes dissolve in water, hence water is a universal
solvent.

Temperature of the solvent