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INSPECTION AND

MEASUREMENT OF TOOTH
THICKNESS
RAJEEV U P
rajeevullatt@gmail.com

GEAR MEASUREMENT
Gears are the devices meant for power
transmission.
For proper working the gears should be measured
and inspected in each steps as:

Raw materials.
Machining the blanks.
Heat treatment.
The cutting and finishing operations.

The accuracy depends on:


The measuring equipment available.
Errors in the tooth surface finish

GEAR INSPECTION
Inspecting the dimensions and the surface
for getting a designed thread.
Two types
Analytical: slow process which check all
individual elements. Less preferred
Functional: carrying out running test
with master and deciding. Much
preferred

MEASUREMENT OF TOOTH
THICKNESS

Defined as the length of an arc, which is difficult to


measure directly.
This is the most important measurement a gear should
undergo.
The tooth thickness is generally measured at pitch
circle and is therefore, the pitch line thickness of tooth.
Gear tooth thickness varies from the tip of the base
circle of the tooth,
The instrument must be capable of measuring the
tooth thickness at a specified position on the tooth.

METHODS FOR MEASUREMENT


1. GEAR TOOTH VERNIER CALLIPER.
2. CONSTANT CHORD METHOD.
3. BASE TANGENTIAL METHOD.
4. BY DIMENSION OVER PINS.

MEASUREMENT BY GEAR TOOTH VERNIER


CALLIPER

Its very conveniently measured by a gear tooth vernier


caliper.
The gear tooth vernier has two vernier scales and they are
set for the width (w) of the tooth and the depth (d) from
the top.
Each of which is adjusted independently by adjusting
screw on graduated bars.
It measures the tooth thickness at the pitch line.
It can also measure chordal addendum, the distance from
top to chord.
Only used to verify the theoretical measurements.

GEAR TOOTH VERNIER CALLIPER


In fig.
w=AB=2AD
<AOD=x=

Where N is the no.of teeth

w=2AD=2*AO.sin x=2R.
Module m==2R/N
Therefore
R=N.m/2
w=2=N.m.
Also d=OC-OD
But OC=OE+addendum=R+m=(Nm/2)+m
And

OD=R=

Therefore
d=

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS

This method is simple and inexpensive.

However it needs different setting for a variation in number


of teeth for a given pitch.

Accuracy is limited by the least count of instrument.

The wear during use is concentrated on the two jaws.


The calliper has to be calibrated at regular intervals to
maintain the accuracy of measurement.

CONSTANT CHORD METHOD


Defined as The chord joining those points, on opposite faces of
tooth, which make contact with the mating teeth when the
centerline of the tooth lies on the line of the gear centers.
Constant chord measured where the tooth flank touches the
flank of the basic rack.
The teeth of the rack are straight and inclined to their Centre
line at the pressure angle.
Tooth thickness of rack along pitch line is equal to the arc tooth
thickness of gear round its pitch circle.
Property used :
The gear tooth and rack space are in contact in the
symmetrical position at the points of contact of the flanks,
the chord is constant at this point irrespective of the system of

ADVANTAGES
For all number of teeth value of constant chord is
same.
It readily lends itself to a form of comparator which
more sensitive than the gear tooth vernier

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THANK YOU