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# Overview of lecture

What is ANCOVA?
Assumptions
Examples
Limitations

Analysis of covariance
an extension of ANOVA in which main
effects and interactions are assessed
on DV scores after the DV has been
adjusted for by the DVs relationship
with one or more Covariates (CVs)

Analysis of covariance
Analysis of Covariance is used to
achieve statistical control of error
when experimental control of error is
not possible.
The Ancova adjusts the analysis in
two ways: reducing the estimates of experimental
error
adjusting treatment effects with respect
to the covariate
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Analysis of covariance
In most experiments the scores on the covariate
are collected before the experimental treatment
eg. pretest scores, exam scores, IQ etc

## In some experiments the scores on the covariate

are collected after the experimental treatment
e.g.anxiety, motivation, depression etc.

## It is important to be able to justify the decision

to collect the covariate after the experimental
treatment since it is assumed that the treatment
and covariate are independent.

Assumptions of ANCOVA
There are a number of assumptions
that underlie the analysis of covariance
All the assumptions that apply to between
groups ANOVA

## normality of treatment levels

independence of variance estimates
homogeneity of variance
random sampling

## The assumption of linear regression

The assumption of homogeneity of regression
coefficients
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Basic requirements
CVs should also be uncorrelated with
the IVs (e.g. the CV should be
collected before treatment is given)
in order to avoid diminishing the
relationship between the IV(s) and
DV.
How would this affect the analysis?

Covariate
A covariate is a variable that is
related to the DV, which you cant
manipulate, but you want to account
for its relationship with the DV

Applications
Three major applications
Increase test sensitivity (main
effects and interactions) by
using the CV(s) to account for
more of the error variance
therefore making the error
term smaller
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Applications
Adjust DV scores to what they would
be if everyone scored the same on
the CV(s)
This second application is used often in
non-experimental situations where
subjects cannot be randomly assigned

Applications
Subjects cannot be made equal through
random assignment so CVs are used to
adjust scores and make subjects more
similar than without the CV
This second approach is often used as a
way to improve on poor research
designs.
This should be seen as simple
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descriptive model building with no

Applications
Realize that using CVs can adjust DV
scores and show a larger effect or the
CV can eliminate the effect

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To
conduct
an
ANCOVA
Open file: Ancova.sav
Select Analyze
General
Linear Model
Univariate
Click Sales to Dependent
Variable box.
Click gender to Fixed Factor(s)
box.
Click years to Covariate box.

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To
conduct
an
ANCOVA
Click options
In the Display box, click Desc,
Etimates, Obs and Homog.
Click continue and ok.

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Output ANCOVA

## Levenes test is not

significant ( p > .05),
indicating that
homogeneity of variance
assumption has not been
violated.

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Output ANCOVA

## The output indicates no main effect ( p > .05) for

gender, but a significant relationship exists between
sales and years of experience, F(1,19)=23.616, p < .
05.
So it can be said that when your control for years of
experience, gender has no influence on the amount
of sales made per year.
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## Limitations to analysis of covariance

As a general rule a very small number of
covariates is best
Correlated with the dv
Not correlated with each other (multi-collinearity)

## Covariates must be independent of treatment

Data on covariates be gathered before treatment is
administered
Failure to do this often means that some portion of
the effect of the IV is removed from the DV when
the covariate adjustment is calculated.

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What else?
Good Luck!!!

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## ANCOVA for Experimental

Study
Covariate for pre test.
Open file prepos.sav

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