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The Study of Words

Aya's prop/Int to Ling (4)

The Smallest of the linguistic
unit which can occur on its own
in speech or writing

Aya's prop/Int to Ling (4)

Meaning of Words
1. Orthographic Word
A word which has a space on either side of it. The definition applies
only to written medium.
2. Morphological Word
It is a unique form. It considers form only and not meaning.
e.g. Ball and Balls
3. Lexical Word
It comprehend the various forms of items which are closely related
by meaning.
e.g. chair and chairs are two morphological words but one
lexical word.
4. Semantic Word
It involves distinguishing between items which may be
morphologically identical but differ in meaning.

Aya's prop/Int to Ling (4)

Word Formation (1)

1. Reduplication
The process is similar to the derivation, in which the initial syllable is
e.g. papa, goody-goody, zig-zag, nitty-gritty, etc
2. Conversion/Functional Shift
It is conversion of one part of speech without addition of suffix
e.g. v>n run, drive, walk
n>v telephone, contact, etc
3. Compounding
The combination of two or more free root (plus associated affix)
e.g. ice cream, stonewall, homebody, etc
4. Blending
Involving two process of word formation, compounding and Clipping
e.g. smoke + fog smog
motor + hotel motel etc.

Aya's prop/Int to Ling (4)

Word Formation (2)

5. Back Formation
Deriving morphologically simple word from a form which they
e.g. emotion emote
editor edit etc
6. Shortening
Dropping part of the word
e.g. mike < microphone
burger < hamburger
fax < facsimile
flu < influenza
Taking the initial letters and pronounce it a word
Taking the initial letters and pronounce it as letters
e.g. pm, AD
7. Root Creation
Can be formed from onomatopoeic or natural sound
e.g. cuckoo, hiss, etc Aya's prop/Int to Ling (4)

Word Class/Part of
There are nine parts of speech/word classes in English;
1. Noun
It refers to person or things
e.g. Andy, pen, book, etc
2. Determiners
It refers to adjective-like word which precedes both adjective
and nouns (article, possessives, numbers, and indefinite
e.g. this, those, the, one, two, some, all, my, your etc
3. Pronoun
It replaces noun
e.g. I, you, they, me, us, mine, hers, myself, himself etc.
4. Adjective
It refers to words that modify noun
e.g. polite, blue, my, our, book store
Aya's prop/Int to Ling (4)

Word Class/Part of





It refers to words that show action of the subject
e.g. run, read, call etc
It refers to words that modify verbs, adjective, adverb, or whole sentences
e.g. slowly, soon, unfortunately, etc
Words that show the relationship of a noun to another noun in the
e.g. in, on, between, before, etc
It refers to words that join words, phrases, clauses, or sentences
e.g. and, but, because, etc
Words that express emotion that dont have any grammatical relationship
to the sentence
e.g. Wow, Oh my! etc

Aya's prop/Int to Ling (4)