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Introduction to


Automation Pyramid

Action Level / Sensing (cell level): first level of instrumentation. It is formed by

measuring elements (sensors) and control (drives) distributed in a production.
They are more related items with the productive process because the actuators
are responsible for executing orders of control elements for modify the productive
process, the sensors measure variables in the production process such us: liquid
level, flow, temperature, pressure, position. As examples of actuators have
engines, valves, heaters.
Control level (field level): at this level the elements capable of managing the
actuators and sensors of the previous level, such as PLCs or application specific
equipment based on microprocessors and robots, machine tools or motor
controllers are located. These devices are programmable and allow actuators and
sensors work together to be able to perform the desired manufacturing process.
Devices of this level of control with the lower-level sensing/action possess
sufficiently important to make production processes themselves. . It is important
to having good characteristics of interconnection to be bonded to the upper level
(supervision), usually through fieldbus.

Supervision Level (Ground level): at this level is possible to visualize

how they are performing plant processes, and through SCADA
(Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) environments have a "virtual
image of the plant" so that it can go so detailed or summary screens by
being able to have a "virtual panel" where possible alarms, faults or
alterations in any of the processes carried out are displayed.
Level Management (factory level): This level is characterized by:
Manage the complete company production, communicate different plants,
maintain relations with suppliers and customers, provide the basic slogans
for the design and production company, it PCs, workstation. A widely
accepted basic axiom is: "The CIM has to be planned" top down "(" topdown "), but should be implemented" bottom up "(" bottom-up "). s and
servers of various kinds are used.

Automatism: System that allows executing one or more actions without
intervention manual.
Automation: Application of automated systems performing a process
Elements of an automatic system:

Power source: The operations and movements of automatic systems

represent a energy expenditure that must be provided by an external
medium. Often it referred to that power source that supplies power to
working organs acting on the process. The functions of the automatic
system also need a energy support.
Organs Command / Control: Represents the system that decides when
to perform actions that actions to apply, and where appropriate, the value
must take some of the parameters defining an action or task.
Sensory organs: These are systems whose mission is to capture or
measure certain values or magnitudes during operating the process.
these organs provide information to control members so that they can split
Action: action on the means or process operations are often. They could
be repeated indefinitely. Usually human actions that can be replaced by
mechanical actions taken by the working bodies.

Monitoring and Control Techniques

Continuous processes: The magnitudes that determine the
evolution of the process change continuously over time. There is
a similarity between the ongoing processes and systems analog

Discrete or discontinuous processes: The

magnitudes that determine the evolution of the
process change discrete or discontinuously and
often take only certain values. The system
evolves by events. These processes are also
known as discrete event processes. In the
discrete processes it acts on specific objects also
called discrete elements.
Example: carrier tape

The tape will be driven to the right if S1 detects the presence of an object at the beginning
of it, and it stops when S2 detect the object. The tape will be driven to the left if S2 detects
the presence of a object at the beginning of it, and stop when S1 detects the object.
Magnitudes that define the evolution of the process are: detection object at the beginning;
detection of the object at the end and start or stop the engines. These quantities can only
take two values, detected or not detected, running or stopped
Batch processes: Are discrete processes that involve more than one element or blank for
processing in a single product.
Automatic regulation: Action mechanisms that allow for a continuous process to
magnitudes that reaches a certain value. When this value remains constant over time it
says it is a problem of regulation When this value varies over time it says it is facing a
servomechanism problem
Example: Regulation problem, constant temperature in an installation

Servomecanism problem: Moving a camera to follow a object

Controlling an automation system: Sequential Control Industrial automation concept is usually

applied to control discrete processes. The control elements are discrete and process information. They
provide discrete commands on the working bodies. Control systems acquire a sequential structure:
The process is divided into a number of stages.
- Each state is activated and deactivated sequentially.
- Each active state has associated a series of actions.
Many times, in controlling a process they are involved magnitudes continuous nature and
magnitudes of discrete nature. In these cases it is necessary to apply both strategies as secuentials
regulation. It is what is known hybrid control.


Open Loop Control: The command or control organs acting on the process
according to previously established targets. Does not exist transmission of
information from the process control organs

Example: heating food in the microwave.

Closed loop control: Control systems consider the information received

from the process to modify them depending on the action to take.

Example: Any problems or servocontrol.

Types of Sequential Control: asynchronous State transition occurs only
due to changes in process variables.
Example: control of a motor via a relay.

Synchronous: Transitions in the state variables and occur on a

synchronized by pulses of a fixed frequency clock.

Example: processes controlled by microprocessors

Mechanical Automation Systems: Usual mechanisms: Gears, belts, levers etc.
Examples: lathes, milling machines, Mechanical Watches, etc.
Neumatic Automation Systems: Usual mechanisms: compressors, valves,
Examples: Railways Brakes, tire machines shot etc

Hydraulic Systems Automation: It has similar characteristics to the pneumatic

mechanisms, only the hydraulic control has a response time of less pneumatic control.
Examples: Motor vehicle steering, hydraulic presses
Electric Automation and Electronics: It is the most common at present, electric actuation
systems They are well known, motors, electromagnetic actuators. The electric control is
usually implemented using relays. The electronic control may be implemented by
components electronic or by discrete digital logic systems programmable gate array
(FPGA). The most widespread method is electronic automatization microprocessor.
Microprocessor control: The microprocessor allows the execution of a program that is
running in sequence, this sequence is performed cyclically what is known running control

The loop execution is synchronized by the system clock, this implementation

structure allows sequential control systems.

PLC SYSTEMS: PLC: programmable electronic machine no computer staff,

to comply in an industrial environment, real-time functions logical,
combinatorial and sequential automatic. It is modular system with a CPU
and input /output.

Blocks diagram

Cycle control / treatment PLC:

- Read inputs
- Calculate outputs
-Write Outputs
Type of Operations:
- Entrance/ Output
- Logical: AND, OR
- Timers and features: TIM, CNT
- Arithmetic
- Jump
- Operating SW (ROM) is dedicated to fixed tasks cycle. (Read inputs, throw
out, timing).
-Memory Program (EPROM / RAM): It stores and associates variables
Input / Output.
-Data -Memory: Stores variables associated with inputs / outputs

Entrance Exit: are signals of 8/16 modules E / S. These modules translate signal values
and also ensure galvanic isolation

Operating cycles: During operation of the controller there are two phases:

Phase system
-Check In / Out
- Check memory
- Initiation of timers
- Initiation of Accountants

Treatment Phase: There may be different Modes (beginning of the cycle)

- Direct: The program runs over and over repeatedly and cyclically.
- Synchronous: Periodically the program is started.
- Auto sync: It requires input transitions to generate interrupts to the CPU.
So only input changes the outputs are recalculated
Management Input / Output
- Acquisition block, block issue: All entry at a time are read and then all
outputs are written to time.
- Acquisition block direct release: They read all input and outputs are
updated as They are calculated (no need to allocate memory for output
data, as is written directly).
- Direct procurement, direct broadcast: Readings are taken equations
are evaluated and updated the outputs individually PLCs typically have a
Watchdog if it is not reset before some time generates an interrupt.

Programation: It is made using a control unit or through a computer.

Exists several programming languages:

RLL (Relay Ladder Logic): It's a graphical language by screen.

ASSEMBLER: basic instructions are given to the PLC.

LD 200
AND 001
OR 002
OUT 200


Logic gates
Logic equations
Concurrent actions
AUTOMATAS NETWORK: Currently it is meant to introduce automata
networks communications. There are also modular PLCs are expanded
by adding modules.
Field Buses
System AS-I data transmission and orders for sensors and actuators.
Profibus: Allows networking of PLCs, set various master-slave process
monitoring hierarchies. Bus topology
Interbus: open system with ring topology allows exchange of information
between devices from different manufacturers


Inputs & Outputs

CPU Memory: Data Types and addressing the data memory is divided
into two distinct areas, Area Data Objects.

You could access data in different memory areas of the CPU in byte, word or
double word.

To access a bit in a memory area, you specify the direction thereof, which
comprises an area identifier, the byte address and the bit number.
Example: The figure shows: I3.4 (I = input, 3 = byte 3 4 = bit 4)

The address of a byte, word or double word of data in the memory of the
CPU is indicated similarly to the direction of a bit. The latter consists of an
area identifier, size data and the start address of the byte value


Addressing the process image of the inputs (I) Bit I [byte address]. [Bit
address] I0.1 Byte, word, double word I [size] [initial byte address] IB4
Addressing the process image of the outputs (Q) Bit Q [byte address].
[Address. Bit] Q1.1 Byte, word, double word Q [size] [tinitial byte address]
Addressing Memory variable (V) Bit V [byte address]. [Address. Bit] V10.2
Byte, Word, Double Word V [size] [initial byte address] VW100
Addressing memory area (M) Bit M [byte address]. [Address. Bit] M26.7
Byte, word, double word M [size] [initial byte address] MD20
Addressing the Special Memory (SM)Bit SM [address. byte]. [bit address]
M0.1 Byte, word, double word SM [size] [initial byte address] SMB86
Addressing the area of timers (T): Two variables associated with a timer:
Current value; Bit Timer (bit T)
Accessed using: T + timer number. Depending on the operation used, the
value is accessed or bit timer

Accessed using: T + timer number. Depending on the operation used, the

value is accessed or bit timer
Accessed using the counter address (C + number counter) .Depending of
operation used, the value is accessed or bit counter
TYPES OF CONTACTS (read inputs)

Coil Types (writing outputs)

Spetial brands


Output Enable 1 if current flow at the input 0.1