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TISSUE

An association of cells and


intercellular materials
morphologically and
physiologically integrated
for the performance of
specific functions

EPITHELIUM
A tissue
consisting
almost totally
of an
aggregation of
cells in
apposition,
specialized for
absorptive,
secretory,
excretory, or
protective
functions, and

An example of

CHARACTERISTICS OF
EPITHELIA: SEPARATION
True
epithelia are
separated
from the
underlying
CT
Epithelioid
tissue lacks
the BL but is
similar
BL usually
PAS+

The periodic acid/Schiff (PAS)


reaction

BASEMENT MEMBRANE
Sometimes also
called basal
lamina
Not exactly the
same but close
enough

A definitive
characteristic
Isolates
epithelium from
underlying CT
All true
epithelia have it

BASEMENT MEMBRANE
Sometimes also
called basal
lamina
Not exactly the
same but close
enough

A definitive
characteristic
Isolates
epithelium from
underlying CT
All true
epithelia have it

CATEGORIES OF EPITHELIA: COVERING &


LINING

Neatly classifiable
Lines hollow organs and forms sheets:

Epidermis
of skin, Lining of glandular ducts, Lining of blood vessels

CATEGORIES OF EPITHELIA:
GLANDULAR OR SECRETORY

Forms
solid
masses

Usually
secretory

Not neatly
classified
Exocrine &
endocrine
glands

Pancreas: an example of
glandular epithelium

CHARACTERISTICS OF EPITHELIA:
PROLIFERATION & HIGH TURNOVER
Cells shortlived:
typically
days to
weeks.
Most epithelia
also have
significant
regeneration
capability.
Right: Proliferating
cells in intestine,
BRDU stain

CHARACTERISTICS OF
EPITHELIA: POLARITY

Cells have a
top and
bottom
i.e., different
activities
take place at
different
places.
Most obvious
in epithelial
sheets

CHARACTERISTICS OF
EPITHELIA: POLARITY
APICAL

Cells have a
top and
bottom
i.e., different
activities
take place at
different
places.
Most obvious
in epithelial
sheets

LATERAL

BASAL

CHARACTERISTICS OF
EPITHELIA: VASCULARITY

Epithelial sheets
(C&L) are AVASCULAR
Nourished by diffusion only
The reason for rapid loss
& replacement

CHARACTERISTICS OF
EPITHELIA: VASCULARITY

EPITHELIAL
MASSES
(Secretory
epithelium)
ARE
VASCULAR
All cells
near a BV!

CHARACTERISTICS OF
EPITHELIA: VASCULARITY

EPITHELIAL
MASSES
(Secretory
epithelium)
ARE
VASCULAR
All cells
near a BV!

FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIA
Secretion: Mainly glandular but C&L forms can be secretory
Secretory sheets found in reproductive tract, conjunctiva & GI tract

GOBLET CELLS

Common in many
epithelial sheets!
Secretes mucinous
material

FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIA

Interchang
e with the
environme
nt: Gas

exchange
Nutrient
absorption
Skin
functions

FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIA
Protection:
UV barrier
Physical barrier to infection
Pigmentation/camouflage

FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIA

Excretion:
Disposal of nitrogenous waste by sweating

FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIA
Stimulus Reception:
Chemotactic sensations: olfaction and gustation

OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM

TASTE BUDS IN TONGUE

CLASSIFICATION
OF C&L
EPITHELIA

ONLY TWO
CRITERIA
SHAPE of cells
in the TOP
layer
NUMBER of
layers
1 = simple
>1 =
stratified

CLASSIFICATION
OF C&L EPITHELIA
BY SHAPE

SQUAMOUS
Cells have a
Fried Egg
shape;
irregular
outlines
EXAMPLES:
Lining of blood
vessels
Mesothelium
covering internal
organs

SIMPLE
SQUAMOUS
Single Layer of
Cells
Squamous
shape
Example:
Lining of a
blood vessel

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS
EPITHELIUM

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS
EPITHELIUM

CLASSIFICATION
OF C& L
EPITHELIA BY
SHAPE
CUBOIDAL
Cells are
APPROXIMATELY
as tall as they are
wide.
EXAMPLES:

Lining of gland
ducts
Walls of thyroid
gland follicles

SIMPLE
CUBOIDAL

CLASSIFICATION
OF C&L EPITHELIA
BY SHAPE

COLUMNAR
Cells are
distinctly
taller than
they are
wide
EXAMPLES:
Lining of
intestine
Some large
gland ducts

STRATIFIED
SQUAMOUS
More than one
layer!
TOP layer is
squamous

Very common

Epidermis of the
skin
Lining of bodily
orifices

Often found in
regions of
heavy wear
May be
hardened or
cornified
(keratinized)

STRATIFIED
CUBOIDAL
OR

COLUMNAR
Lining of
larger gland
ducts
Repro tract in
some animals

SPECIAL TYPES:
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED
Principally in
respiratory
tract, but also in
other locations
Not all cells
reach free
surface
All cells reach
basement
membrane
Truly a simple
type
NOT always
ciliated!

SPECIAL
TYPES:
URINARY
Found only
in urinary
passages
A tight
epithelium
with many
occluding
junctions
A truly
stratified
type

SPECIAL TYPES: CONJUNCTIVA


A variant
form of
stratified
columnar
Contains
goblet cells

Found
inside
eyelids
and on
surface of
eye

Cilia
What
kind of
epitheliu
m is
this?

Frequently associated with epithelial sheets


Associated with transport/protection functions

Microvilli
Found on
many cell
types; often
on epithelial
sheets
Associated
with
secretion or
absorption
function
Brush
border or
striated
border in
LM

EPITHELIALORGANS

Primarily epithelial tissue


But ALL organs have more
than one tissue type!

3-dimensional masses of
cells
Excludes epithelial sheets
Not normally capable of
autonomous function

Well vascularized
Set off from CT by a basal
lamina
Usually capable of
considerable regeneration
Always have some other
tissue present (usually CT)

Examples:

Glands of various types


Liver
Kidney

SECRETION

DEFINITION: The process by which cells take


up small molecules from the blood, and
transform them into more complex materials
that are then released from the cells.
Secretion is an active process that always
requires energy. Excretion is usually a
passive process.
Not confined to glands: epithelial sheets can
be secretory

GLANDS
GLANDS

Epithelial organs specialized for secretion


Exocrine and endocrine types: both are
classic examples of epithelial organs

CHARACTERISTICS OF SECRETORY
CELL TYPES

Basophilic cytoplasm if secretion is a peptide


Nucleus is vesicular
Large amounts of heterochromatin

Prominent nucleolus & Golgi apparatus


May show granularity in cytoplasm

MODES OF SECRETION:
ECCRINE (MEROCRINE)
NO loss of
cytoplasm in
process
Cells typically
cuboidal to
columnar
Used by MOST
exocrine and
ALL endocrine
glands

MODES OF SECRETION:
APOCRINE
Loss of SOME
cytoplasm in
process
Apical region
pinches off &
degenerates
Used by some
sweat glands
No other
examples in
mammals

MODES OF SECRETION: HOLOCRINE

One example in mammals: Sebaceous glands


ENTIRE CELL dies, forms secretion by degeneration

STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF
EXOCRINE (DUCTED) GLANDS
BASED ON TWO
CRITERIA
SHAPE OF
SECRETORY
REGION

Tubular
Coiled tubular
Acinar/alveolar
Tubuloacinar

DEGREE OF
DIVISION OF
DUCTWORK
Simple
Compound
Compound is
NOT =
Branched

SIMPLE EXOCRINE
GLANDS

Duct is NOT divided


Secretory Region MAY be
divided = Branched

COMPOUND EXOCRINE GLANDS


DUCT is divided = Compound
Secretory region usually divided