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AIRCRAFT GENERAL KNOWLEDGEAIRCRAFT STRUCTURES

By Ejigayehu Lemma(Ass Ins)

INTRODUCTION
DEFINITION
1. AIRCRAFT
. Any structure, machine which is designed

to be supported in the air either by


dynamic reaction with the air or by its own
buoyancy.
. Eg. Aero planes, airships, gliders, balloons

Airframe
basic assembled structure of any aircraft

(except that of lighter than air aircraft) or rocket


necessary to support the aerodynamic and
inertia loads imposed by the weight of the
vehicle and its contents.
Includes the fuselage, wings, tail boom, nacelle,
cowling, fairings, stabilizers, control surfaces
and landing gear.

Brief History of Aircraft


Construction
Early dreamers
Greek myth Daedalus with his son Icarus,

flew with wings made of feathers and wax.

Leonardo Da Vinci made suggestive drawings

of the orinthopter, a parachute and a


helicopter around 1500 a.d.

The Montogolfier brothers made their hot air

balloon from linen cloth lined with paper and


flew their unmanned balloon in June, 1783

Otto Lilienthal

made about
2000 successful
flights with
gliders made of
willow wands and
waxed cotton in
the 1890s

The Wright

brothers made
their successful
flight in 1903, at
Kitty hawk, north
Carolina

The early flying machines produced by the

Wright brothers, and others had wings made


of bent wooden ribs covered with fabric and a
body of open framework made of strips of
bamboo held together with piano wire.

Contd
The next generation of airplanes before the

first world war were built with a wood truss


and had wings braced with struts and
wires.
The occupants sat in open cockpits

Contd
The Welded thin walled steel tubing truss

came as a major breakthrough in the later


years of the first world war replacing the
wood.
The stressed skin construction were the
skin carries all of the structural loads was
developed and widely used in the 1920s
and 1930s

Contd
Thin sheets of wood veneer were molded in

to a ply wood structure forming the fuselage


Laminated wooden rings were built at critical
locations to provide attachment points for the
wing, engine and landing gear
The wood was later replaced with aluminum
alloy sheets which were riveted into thin
sheet metal formers.

Contd
The development of pressurized

transport jet aircraft created new


challenges in aircraft structure design
In 1954, two de Havilland comets vanished

during flight suffering damages caused by


pressurization loads around rectangular
cutouts
A new system of fail safe construction was
developed where doublers are installed at
strategic locations and dual alternate load
paths are provided.

Modern aircraft

CLASSIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT
LIGHTER THAN AIR
2. HEAVIER THAN AIR
1.

Lighter than Air


Supported in the air by their own buoyancy
A.Balloons: - non-porous spherical bags filled

with light air


- Gas filled
- Hot Air

B. Airships :- are engine driven and can be


Steered.

Heavier than Air


Supported in the air by the dynamic

reaction of the aircraft structure with the


air

Contd
Can be classified as
1. Fixed wing aircraft
. Have pairs of fixed wings to generate lift
forward movement of the wing through
the air generates lift

Eg. Airplane, glider

Contd

Classification of fixed wing airplanes


Monoplane - has a single pair of fixed

wings
Biplane has two pairs of wings
Sea plane lands on water surface
Amphibian can land both on water
surface and on land.

Contd
2. Rotary Wing
A rotating airfoil shaped wing generates lift

E.g. Helicopter, Autogiro

Contd
Main Structural Components of fixed wing

aircraft

The fuselage
The wing
The landing gear
The stabilizers
Flight control Surfaces

Contd
These structural components are an

assembly of structural members


The structural members are designed to
carry loads or resist stress
Stress- The internal force of a material to
resist stress

Basic Stresses
Tension
Compression
shear

Tension
is the stress that resists a force that
tends to pull a material apart

Compression
is the stress that resists a crushing force

Shearis a stress that resists the force tending


to slide one layer of material over an
adjacent layer

Contd
2. Combination stresses
Bending is a combination of tension and
compression
Torsion- is a stress that produces twisting

System Design Philosophy


The design and construction of modern aircraft is

controlled by the regulation detailed in JAR 23 for


aircraft with a mass of 5700KG and less, and JAR
25 for Air Transport aircraft and aircraft of a mass
greater than 5700Kg.
This regulations classify aircraft structure in to
Three Groups
Primary structure:- stressed and could cause

catastrophic in the event of failure


Secondary structure: stressed but to a lesser degree.
Tertiary structure: not stressed or nominally stressed
and do not cause any catastrophic failure in the
event of failure.

Parts
Parts that make up a structure and systems

are also categorized depending on the


effect that failure would have on a unit or
system.
Critical parts:- must achieve and maintain
a particularly high level of integrity if
hazardous effects are not to occur at a rate
in excess of extremely remote.
The failing of a Major part might adversely
affect the operational integrity of the unit in
which it is installed.

Design Limit Load(DLL)


The Maximum Load that the aircraft

designer or component manufacturer


expects the airframe or component to be
subject to in operation

Design Ultimate Load(DUL)


An aircraft could experience loads in excess

of the DLL.
A test is carried out where the minimum
load applied to the structure must be
1.5xDLL for three seconds.
There may be permanent deformation but
it must not collapse
The difference between the DLL and DUL is
the Safety Factor.
It is expressed as the ratio of DUL to DLL

Catastrophic Failure
The regulations specify that there will be

no catastrophic failure due to


Fatigue
Corrosion
Accidental damage

To comply with this requirement designers

must evaluate the materials they intend to


use and the loads the aircraft would be
subject to during their operational life.
The result is Safe life philosophy.

Safe Life
The aircraft structure as a whole and

components within the aircraft are given


safe life. This is based on one, several or all
of the following
Cumulative flying Hours
Landings
Pressurization Cycles
Calendar time.

Fail Safe structure.


No one item with in structure takes the

entire load.

Damage Tolerant
Spreads the loads over a larger area
Any damage to the structure should be

found and repaired during normal


inspection before there is degradation of
the structures integrity.

Servicing Cycle
Aircraft inspections are based on flying

hour cycles, and a calendar date is used as


back stop.
Aircraft normally have a major servicing
every five years.

Loads and Stresses


Aircraft structural members are designed to carry

a load or to resist stress


Every part of the aircraft must be planned to
carry the load to be imposed upon it.
The determination of such loads is called stress
analysis
External loads or forces cause stress.
Stress is a materials internal resistance, or
counterforce, that opposes deformation
The degree of deformation of a material is strain.
When a material is subjected to a load or force,
that material is deformed, regardless of how
strong the material is or how light the load is.

Major stresses
Tension
Compression
Torsion
Shear
Bending
Hoop stress
Axial stress

Elasticity of Materials
When the material is deformed beyond its elastic limit

permanent deformation will occur.


In aircraft deformation can take the form of bending,
buckling, elongation, twisting, shearing or cracking
which ultimately leads to fracture and creep in
material.
Where a material is deformed below its elastic limit but
for a protracted period the material con deform this is
termed as creep. The factors that affect creep are
Material type
Load applied
Duration of load
temperature

Shock Loads
When a structure has sudden increase in

the load that is being applied to it, this is


termed as shock load.
Bird strike, heavy landing are the causes of
shock loads.
It causes permanent deformation.

Fatigue in materials
Inevitable in material that are subject to

alternating load.

Fatigue Cracking
When a structure is subjected to an

average stress scores, scratches, fastner


holes, sharp edges or sharp radial edges
can build local stress levels 2 to 3 times
greater than the average.

CORROSION AND ITS CONTROL

DEFINITION
An ever present action taking place on protected or

unprotected metals
The eating away of metals causing it to deteriorate to the

point that it is useless


Corrosion is a chemical or electrochemical reaction, which

deteriorates metals into oxides, hydroxides and metallic


salts.
The dangerous enemy of airplanes
Corrosion is a natural process that is almost impossible to

prevent but it can only be controlled.

MAIN CAUSES OF CORROSION

Corrosion is caused by:


1.

Direct chemical reaction or

2.

Electro chemical reaction

Direct chemical reaction (DCA)


.. is a local condition identical to the action of acid on metal.
.. Here the corrosion producing agents must be immediately

adjacent to the corroding metal


.. is caused from direct exposure of a metal to corrosive

gases or liquids

Cont
Electrochemical reaction (ECA)
. is usually associated with dissimilar metals (galvanic

corrosion)
. Can occur with the metals physically located some distance

with one another (the main difference with DCA)


.

It requires two metals with a difference in potential


(positive charged ion and negative charged ion).
Unbalanced atom is called an ion.

. An electrical path must exist b/n the metals ( an electrolyte

and metal to metal contact)

Cont
Hence conditions leading to ECA corrosion are:
a. Anode is a corroding plate (-ve ion)
b. Cathode causes anode to corrode (+ve ion)
c. Electrolyte path for current flow (medium which
conducts tiny amounts of electricity ) and
d. Metal to metal contact

Cont
Other causes of corrosion are:
Water and water vapor
Salt
Oxygen
Moisture and
impurities

Moisture the greatest contributor to corrosion.

All the above listed are known as corrosion producing agents.

EFFECTS OF CORROSION
Roughening of smooth surfaces
Weakening of the interior
Loosening of adjacent parts (loose joint)
Pits might become sites for crack development
Eventual failure if unchecked

APPEARANCE OF CORROSION
Greenish film on copper and brass
Surface etching and pitting with gray or white

powdery deposits on aluminum and magnesium


Red rust on ferrous metals

TYPES OF CORROSION

FORMS OF CORROSION

FORMS OF CORROSION DEPENDS ON


Type of metal
Size and shape
Function
Atmospheric condition
The corrosion producing agents

FORMS OF CORROSION
the most common forms of corrosion found on airframe structures are:

Surface (Pitting )
Galvanic (dissimilar metal)
Concentration cell
Intergranular
Exfoliation corrosion

Fretting
Filliform
Stress corrosion cracking
Corrosion fatigue

SURFACE CORROSION

Appears as roughening, etching, and pitting of the metal

surface
Can be divided as uniform etch corrosion and pitting

corrosion
Uniform etch corrosion develops into pitting corrosion if

untreated
The least damaging form of corrosion

GALVANIC CORROSION
Corrosion caused by dissimilar metals in contact in the

presence of an electrolyte
Severity depends on galvanic grouping of metals
Ex. Aluminum alloy attached with steel rivets
The anodic metal corrodes
The more active metal becomes

Anode
- The most destructive form of
Corrosion attack

FORMS OF CORROSION CONTD


GALVANIC GROUPING OF METAL
Galvanic grouping of metals lists the various metals

according to their resistance to corrosion. Group I metals


are very prone to corrosion while group IV very resistant
to corrosion.
Metal in same group less tendency of corrosion
The further apart metal in group more active corrosion
Lower group material is anodic one that corrodes

INTERGRANULAR CORROSION
Caused by delayed cooling during solution heat treatment
Occurs as the result of reaction b/n crystals (impurities)

contained in the metal structure. The impurities are usually


the result of improperly controlled heat treatment.
Corrosion attack along the grain boundaries of a metal
penetrate a greater depth than other forms of attack.
The severe form is called exfoliation

corrosion
The grain boundaries become

anodes to the base metal

TYPES OF CORROSION CONTD


EXFOLIATION CORROSION
Extreme case of intergranular corrosion (visible

intergranular corrosion)
Chiefly occurs in extruded materials such as angles
Causes materials to separate or delaminate (causes the

surface of a metal to exfoliate)

FRETTING CORROSION
Occurs when two mating surfaces normally at rest with

respect to one another are subjected to slight vibration


slip
Corrosion resulting from relative movement of small

amplitude between closely fitting parts


Also called false brinelling
Forms between close-fitting parts which move slightly

relative to one another


Protective oxide coating destroyed by rubbing action

CONCENTRATION CELL CORROSION


Corrosion attack resulting from:
the difference in the concentration of metal ions or oxygen
presence of active passive cells
This difference may be that of the solution containing different

salts at separated areas or the distribution of dissolved oxygen


or air content from point to point in a single metal
This creates a difference in potential causing current flow

which increases the action of corrosive attack


Another term for this type of corrosion is crevice corrosion

TYPES OF CORROSION CONTD


LOW OXYGEN CONCENTRATION CELL CORROSION
Attacks low oxygen areas
Under lap joint areas, & under name plates etc
High oxygen area become cathodic
Low oxygen area become anodic & corrodes

TYPES OF CORROSION CONTD


HIGH METAL ION CONCENTRATION CELL CORROSION
Attacks open areas along lap joints
Forms when water covers an aluminum airplane skin
Aluminum hydroxide (salt) forms in open area creating

corrosion

FILLIFORM CORROSION
Corrosion which appears as thread like filaments around

fastener holes
Occurs where the surface finish is broken
Special form of low oxygen concentration cell

corrosion
Takes place in relative humidity between 65% & 95%

STRESS CORROSION CRACKING


A form of intergranular corrosion that forms when metal is

subjected to tensile force under corrosive environment


Caused by improper quenching of structural parts
Stress corrosion cracking exists when:

the metal cracks at the result of the


Combined forces of internal stresses
and corrosive attack
. The stresses are tensile forces and

they are the result of manufacturing


and assembly defects

CORROSION FATIGUE
Corrosion resulting from the combined effects of cyclic loads

(recurring stress) and corrosive environment


It can be recognized by a rough surface due to corrosive

attack and fatigue cracks originating at this same surface


Can easily be mistaken for stress corrosion cracking
The primary difference b/n them is that stress corrosion

cracking contains internal stresses and these stresses


accelerate corrosion

FACTORS AFFECTING CORROSION

FACTORS AFFECTING CORROSION

Climate (Temperate, polar, tropical, desert zone

climates)
Atmospheric condition
moisture
Size and type of metal
Foreign materials (corrosion producing agents)

CORROSIVE CLIMATES
Hot (generally corrosion and other harmful products increase as

temperature rise and low temperature in themselves pose no real


treat of corrosion)
Humid ( relatively high temperature and humidity are the

ingredients necessary for corrosion and/or fungus growth )


Marine (the primary sources of the worlds salt are the oceans ,

shipboard and coastal environments are highly conducive to the


development of corrosion problems)
Hence when high humidity and temperature conditions are
combined with salt- laden air, the corrosive environment
becomes extremely severe.

ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS AND MOISTURE


CONTENT
An atmosphere containing excessive moisture and

impurities such as salt and their compounds will have a


greater corrosive effect than dry , impurity free
atmosphere
Moisture- the greatest contributor to corrosion.

- It attacks both metals and nonmetals and


promotes

the growth of microorganisms.

SIZE AND TYPE OF METAL AND FOREIGN


MATERIAL
SIZE AND TYPE OF METAL
Thick sections are susceptible to corrosion
Active metals are easily corroded

FOREIGN MATERIAL
Soil and atmospheric dust
Oil, grease, engine exhaust residues (gases)
Salt water and moisture condensation
Spilled battery acids and caustic cleaning solutions

CORROSION DETECTION METHODS

First step in corrosion control is finding (locating) it &

determining its extent (its severity)


Most generally used detection methods are
Visual inspection
Penetrant inspection
Magnetic particle inspection for ferrous metals
Ultrasonic inspection
Radiography inspection

Forces that act on structures and


materials in flight
Lift
Drag
Mass
Thrust
Acceleration
Inertia

Other factors for consideration


Airspeed
Temperature
Altitude

On the Ground
During landing
friction
Pressurization
Thrust reversal
Breaking
Stationary
Taxiing
On take off

2. Airframe

Airframe major components

Attachment Methods
Skins, frames and formers must be joined together

using rivets or bonding


Riveting is time consuming and has disadvantage
of requiring a row of holes drilled through the skin
and the frame to which it is attached.
Technological progress has allowed large billets of
alloy to be machined(milled) to remove
unnecessary material.
This process has allowed the retention of material
to give strength and rigidity.
It is not necessary to attach frames with alloy skin.
Chemical etching of material has further refined
this process.

Aircraft construction Materials


Metals
High Tensile steels
Stainless steels
Titanium alloys
Nickel Alloys
Light Alloy
Pure Aluminum
Aluminum Alloys

Composite Materials
Manufactured from reinforcing fibers embedded in

bonding resins
The main reinforcing materials are
Glass (GFRP)
Carbon(graphite)CFRP
Boron
Aramid, known as Kevlar, KFRP, a synthetic material
Lithium is being evaluated as material

Some bonding Materials are


Epoxy Resin
PTFE

Advantages of Composite Materials


The ability to arrange the fibers to obtain

directional properties consistent with the


load
The ability to make complex shapes, since
the material is not homogeneous
Weight savings
Resistance to corrosion
High specific strength
High specific stiffness

Disadvantages of Composite
Materials
They are quickly eroded by hail, sand, etc,

so leading edges must be sheathed


Difficult to repair
Can absorb moisture if the material is not
correctly sealed

The Wing
Purpose
Produces lift
Provides attachment points for the landing
gear, engines and the aileron
Aids in lateral and directional stability

Wing Design
Design
Depends on the intended use, size, weight
and speed of the aircraft
Location is usually attached to the
fuselage

Types of wing construction


Based on number of spars
Mono spar
Two spar
Box Beam

Box beam structure

Types of wing construction contd


Based on how they are supported
1. Cantilever- doesnt need external support
2. Semi cantilever- needs external support

Cantilever, semi-cantilever, wire


braced

Contd
Based on how stresses are transmitted
Truss
Stressed skin

Truss type
The spars are separated by compression

members
The truss is held together with high
strength steel wires The compression
members carry the compressive
stresses, while the drag and anti-drag
wires carry the tensile forces.
The structure carries the entire load.
The skin is usually not a stress- carrying
member.

Truss Type

Basic wood wing structure and


components.

Cont
Drag wires (run from rear spar outboard to front

spar inboard)
Anti-drag wires (run from rear spar inboard to front
spar outboard)
The skin on the top surface of the wing has to be
stiffer than the lower side. The upper surface is
exposed to compressive stress, while the lower side
is subjected to tensile stress.

Former ribs attach to the spars to give

shape
The structure is covered with fabric

Stressed skin
A metal skin is riveted to stringers and ribs
The stringers are also riveted to the skin and

the ribs

The ribs transfer the stresses to the spars

Sandwich (bonded honeycomb)


Metal bonded honeycomb
Fiber glass
composite

Structural members of the wing


Spar- longitudinal members of the wing
Main structural member of the wing
Can be made of wood or metal
Takes bending moment

Spar contd
Types
Solid wood
Laminated wood
Extruded metal
Built up metal
. Spar shapes
Box

Beam
I beam

Cross sectional areas of wooden


spars

Typical metal spar shapes

Spars

e web wing spar with vertical stiffeners


A fail-safe spar with a riveted spar web.

Stringers Are also longitudinal members


Give the wing rigidity
Manufactured from aluminum alloys.

Ribs
are chord wise members
Extend from the leading edge to the trailing

edge or from front spar to the rear spar


Give shape to the wing
Transmit loads from the covering to the
spars
Pass concentrated loads from engines,
landing gears and control surfaces in to the
skin and spars.
Can be made of wood or metal

Typical wing ribs

Types of wing Ribs


Built up
Stamped

Skin
carries primary aerodynamic loads

False ribs
Extend from the front spar to the leading

edge
Give streamlined shape to the leading edge
Transfer stresses to the front spar

Wing plan forms


Straight wing
Tapered wing
Swept wing (forward or back)
Delta Wing

Wing Configuration
Low wing
High wing
Mid Wing
Dihedral wing
Gull wing
Inverted gull wing

The empennage
Includes the tail boom, vertical stabilizer, and

the horizontal stabilizer

Construction

The fuselage terminates at the tail cone with similar but more
lightweight construction.

Vertical stabilizer

The stabilizers
Horizontal stabilizer
Vertical stabilizer

Horizontal stabilizer
Purpose- provides longitudinal stability and
control
Provides attachment point for the elevator
Construction- similar to the wing
Truss
Stressed skin
Bonded honey comb

Vertical Stabilizer
Purpose
provides directional stability and control
. Provides attachment point for the rudder

. Construction. similar to the horizontal stabilizer

. Location
. usually attached at the rear of the fuselage

Control Surface
Are hinged or moveable surfaces to control

the attitude of the aircraft

Primary control surfaces


1.The elevator
2.The ailerons
3.The rudder

The Elevator
Purpose
provides longitudinal control (pitch control)
Location
usually mounted on the trailing edge of the

horizonal stabilizer.

Elevator construction
Construction
Fabric covered truss
Stressed Skin
Bonded honeycomb

Can be actuated mechanically by control

cables, electrically or hydraulically


Operation is operated by moving the
control yoke or wheel forward or backward

Elevator movement
Moving the control yoke forward, deflects the

trailing edge of the elevator downwards,


which moves the nose of the aircraft
downwards.
The opposite holds true when the wheel is
moved backwards.

Transferring control surface inputs


from the cockpit

2. The aileron
Purpose provides lateral control (roll
control)
Location- usually mounted on the trailing
edge of the wing

Ailerons contd
Fabric covered truss
Stressed skin
Bonded honey comb

Operation operated by moving the control yoke or


wheel to the right or to the left
. Moving the control yoke to the left deflects the
trailing edge of the left aileron up and the trailing
edge of the right aileron down, decreasing the lift
on the left wing and banking the aircraft to the left
. The opposite holds true when the wheel is moved
to the right
. Can be actuated mechanically by control cables,
electrically or hydraulically

3. The rudder
Purpose provide directional control (yaw
control)
Location usually mounted on the trailing
edge of the Vertical stabilizer

Contd
Construction
Fabric covered truss
Stressed skin
Bonded honeycomb
Can be actuated mechanically, electrically

or hydraulically
Operation- operated by pushing rudder
pedals in the cockpit
Pushing the right pedal deflects the trailing
edge of the rudder to the right turning the
nose of the aircraft to the right.

Control surface flutter


Rapid and uncontrolled oscillation of control surface
Occurs as a result of an unbalanced surface
Caused by the interaction of aerodynamic forces, inertia

forces and the elastic properties of the surface or


structure and can lead to catastrophic failure of the
structure.
Can be prevented by mass balancing control surface to
alter the moment of inertia of control surfaces and its
period vibration (moving C.G closer to hinge)
Poorly maintained A/c (high flexibility or play of control
surface ) may flutter below limit air speed.
May be prevented by using engines as mass balance
placing them on the wing pylon forward of wing leading
edge.

Combination control surface


Ruddervators (V-tail) functions as a
rudder and elevator
Elevons- serves the functions of the
elevator and aileron
Flaperons- functions as a flap and aileron
Stabilator- a hinged moveable horizontal
stabilizer which can be used for pith
control

Secondary control surfaces

Tabs
Functionprovides a means of trimming the aircraft
Assists the pilot to move the main control

surface

Location- hingled at the trailing edge of the


main control surfaces

Contd
Construction
. Corrugated skin
. Bonded honeycomb
. Stressed skin

Types
Trim tabs
Servo tabs
Balance tabs
Spring tabs

Trim tabs
are used for trimming (fixed or adjustable)

Servo tabsassist the pilot to move the main control

surface
Operation

. are operated by the cockpit control wheel


. are deflected to a direction that is opposite

to the direction of movement of the main


control surface
. Aerodynamic forces act on the tab to move
the main control surface

Balance tabs
aid the pilot to move the main control

surface

Are deflected in the opposite direction

when the main control surface is deflected

Spring tabs
provide control assistance at high speed

Balance panels

Flight control Tabs

Auxiliary control surfaces


1.Trailing edge flaps
2.Leading edge flaps
3.Leading edge slats
4.spoilers

Trailing edge flaps


Purpose increase wing camber and area to
. Increase lift
. Increase drag
. Reduce airspeed for landing
. Shorten the landing roll
. Shorten the takeoff run

Contd
Types
Plain flap
Fowler flap
Split flap
Segmented flap

Construction
Fabric covered truss
Stressed skin
Bonded honeycomb

Contd
Location
usually hinged or mounted on the trailing

edge of the wings

Can be actuated mechanically, hydraulically

or electrically

2. Spoilers and Speed Brakes


Purpose to reduce lift
to increase drag
to aid the aileron in lateral control
to reduce speed of the aircraft during decent

and after landing

Contd
Location hinged at the upper surface of the

wings
Construction

. Stressed Skin
. Bonded honeycomb

Some a/c have speed brakes mounted on the

fuselage

3. Leading edge flaps


Purpose
. increase the camber of the wing and provide greater
lift at lower airspeeds
Location
. usually hinged on the leading edge
. normally flush with the lower surface of the wing
Can be actuated mechanically, electrically or

hydraulically

4. Leading Edge Slats


Purpose
to reduce the stalling speed and increase lift at

lower airspeeds
Location
mounted on the leading edge of the wing
Construction
similar to trailing edge flaps
Operation
normally flush with the wing leading edge
When extended move forward and open a slot to
allow air flow and prevent stalling
Some aircraft have fixed slots

The Fuselage
The main body of the aircraft to which the

wings, tail, and landing gear are attached.


Purpose
Provides space for cargo, controls,
accessories, passengers and other
equipment
Provides attachment points for the engines

Requirements
Must be strong and light in weight
Must be streamlined
Must be air conditioned or ventilated
Must be pressurized if the aircraft flies at

high altitudes must be provided with


emergency exist

Types of Construction
Three general types :- depending upon
the method by which stresses
transmitted to the structure
1. Truss
2. Monocoque
3. Semi-monocoque

Truss
A rigid frame work of bars, beams, rods,

tubes and wires. The members are joined


together by riveting or welding

Contd
Longitudinal longerons are the primary load

carrying members
Lateral bracing is placed at regular
intervals. The frame work is covered with
fabric, wood, aluminum or fiberglass

There are two types of truss


construction

1. Pratt truss
. Vertical and diagonal members connect

the longerons
. The diagonal members can be wires
(carry only tension) or rigid tubing (can
carry both tension and compression)

Contd

2. Warren truss
The longerons are connected only with

diagonal members
Material
Steel and aluminum alloy

Stressed Skin Construction


All the loads are carried in the outside skin
Can be built in a clean, smooth and

efficient aerodynamic shape

Full Monocoque
Is a metal tube or cone without internal

structural members
Formers can be used to give shape
Relies on the strength of the skin to carry
stresses

An airframe using monocoque


construction

Semi Monocoque
Has additional longitudinal members

(Longerons and stringers) to reinforce the


skin
The skin is riveted to stringers which in
turn are riveted to the formers

Semi Monocoque

The Structure includes


1.Skin (plating)- aluminum alloy, titanium,

and stainless steel


2. Longitudinal Members
Stringers
Longerons

3.Vertical members
Frames or formers
bulkheads

Pressurization
Many aircraft are pressurized.
air is pumped into the cabin after takeoff

and a difference in pressure between the air


inside the cabin and the air outside the cabin
is established.
This differential is regulated and maintained.
In this manner, enough oxygen is made
available for passengers to breathe normally
and move around the cabin without special
equipment at high altitudes.

Contd
Pressurization causes significant stress on

the fuselage structure and adds to the


complexity of design.
In addition to withstanding the difference in
pressure between the air inside and outside
the cabin, cycling from unpressurized to
pressurized and back again each flight
causes metal fatigue.
Pressurized fuselage structures undergo
extensive periodic inspections to ensure that
any damage is discovered and repaired.

Stringers Length wise members


Numerous in number and smaller in size

than longerons
Run from the nose of the aircraft to the tail
of the aircraft
Provide space for fastening the skin
Types
Extruded
Cast
Formed

Contd
Cross Sectional Shapes
L- angles
Bulb angle
Hat Section
U- channel
Z- Section

Material
Aluminum alloy

Contd
Longeronsare also length wise members
Heavier than stringers
Carry primary bending loads
Similar to Stringers in shape and

construction

Contd
3. Vertical Members
1. Bulkheads are the heaviest vertical

members

Carry concentrated loads

2. Formers Give shape to the fuselage

Transfer stresses from the skin to the


bulkheads

Contd
Reinforced Shell
The structure is reinforced with a
framework of structural members

Cabin Floors

Contd
Manufactured from a series of Panels

attached to supporting beams and cross


members
Aircraft having pressurized cabin and hold
are manufactured from honey comb
structure.
This allows light weight structure to
withstand compression loads and heavy
rigidity without incurring weight penalty.

Blow out Bungs


Press fitted
To equalize the pressure in the event of

loss of pressure in one of the


compartments

WINDOWS
Modern subsonic and transonic air transport aircraft use

stepped nose profile, this allows the


Nose to be aerodynamically profiled
Windscreens to be located optically acceptable
The pilot required vision for both ground and flight
operations
Reduction in the physical size of the windscreens

Contd

Direct vision window


To comply with the regulations on

maintaining clear vision in the event of


failure of the demisting system one of the
side panel windows on each side can be
removed from within flight deck to allow
clear view.

Passenger Cabin Window

Aircraft Doors certified under JAR


23 and JAR 25

Contd
Plug type door
Close from inside
Locking pins that engage in the door frame
Cabin pressure which is greater than

ambient pushes the door more tightly in to


the frame.

Seat mounting support structure

Spar Attachment
The strongest part of the fuselage is where

the wings are attached, as this structure is


the point where all flight loads will be felt.

The Landing Gear (Under Carriage)


Purpose
Cushions the landing impact
supports the aircraft during ground operations
Dampens vibrations while towing and taxing
Posses a low coefficient of drag
Provide minimum friction between the aircraft and
ground

Location- is attached to the fuselage or the


wing

. Can be fixed or retractable

Extending and retracting systems


. Mechanical
. Electrical
. Hydraulic

Contd
Has shock absorbers to cushion the landing

impact and dampen vibrations


Shock chord
Spring gear
Spring oleo
Air oleo

Spring gear

Contd
Skis are used for take off and landing on

snow or ice
Floats are used for those aircraft which can
take off and land on water surfaces

Float
A completely enclosed water tight structure

attached to an aircraft to provide buoyancy


and stability while landing on water
surfaces.

Floats

skis

Landing gear arrangement


Conventional has two main wheels and one

tail wheel
Tricycle- two main wheels and a nose wheel

Conventional landing gear


Consists of
Two main wheels ( forward of the CG) and
one tail wheel
Seldom used on modern aircraft
Advantages
Provides good propeller-ground clearance
Advantageous if aircraft operates on rough field

Disadvantages
Restricted visibility
Nosing over
Ground looping

Tricycle landing gear


Two main wheels (aft of the CG) and a

nose wheel
Widely used on modern airplanes
Advantages

Allows more forceful application of the brakes

with out nosing over


Offers better visibility
Tends to prevent ground looping

Flight Controls

Introduction
The movement of flying control surfaces in response

to the movement of cockpit controls can be achieved


Mechanically:- the control surfaces are connected
directly to the cockpit controls by a system of
cables, rods, levers, and chains
Hydraulically:-the control surfaces are moved by
hydraulic power, the control valve may still be
operated mechanically
Electrically:- movement of the cockpit control sends
an electrical signal to the control surface, the
movement of the control may be achieved
hydraulically

Manual controls

Contd
It is manually controlled
Reversible:- the force applied to the cockpit

control will move the control surface and


the force applied on control surface will
move cockpit control.

Control system Checks


In some situations it is necessary for the

pilot to check part of this


Cable tension
Safety and locking of controls
Range of movements of control(freedom
and operation in the correct sense)
Friction in the system
Backlash of the system

Cable Tension
If too low the cable will be loose permitting

excessive cable movement


Too high the control will be stiff
It can be adjusted by turn buckles
The tension can be measured by
tensiometer

Tensiometer

Temperature compensation
If aircraft structural material is different

from cable material change in length will


occur
When checking for tension allowance
should be made for temperature

Safety And Locking


After tension has been correctly set turn

buckles has to be checked for safety


Sufficient thread must be engaged
between the end fittings
To enable this inspection holes are provided
in the turn buckle.
Inspection hole must be blocked to ensure
safety
Check by inserting hardened pin

Range of control movement


The limit of control movement is controlled

by mechanical stop
Primary stop: stopping control surface
secondary stop: stopping control sticks and
pedals

Control system Friction


In ground operation it is normal
During flight stick force increases due to air

loads
If friction force is too high the feel of the
controls with changing airspeed will be
destroyed.
It is caused by over tension cables or un
lubricated bearings.

Backlash
Free or ineffective movement of cockpit

control when the cockpit control is


reversed.
Control system should be free of backlash
May indicate worn or incorrect components
in the system

Control Locks
When an aircraft is parked in open strong

or gusty winds can blow the controls


against their stops to cause mechanical
damage
It has to be locked.

Duplicate Inspection of Control


syatem
If control system is disturbed in any way it

has to be checked by two separate


persons(one of them may be a pilot)

Powered Flying Controls


On some modern aircraft controls are

subjected to heavy loads due to


Heavy loads or
High speed

To reduce stick forces created by high

speed or load hydraulic or electric power is


needed.

Power operated controls

Essential components of simple


power operated controls
A hydraulic Actuator
A servo or control valve
An artificial feel unit.

Irreversible power control

Reversible powered controls


To prevent over controlling due to lack of

feel about the control action artificial feel


unit is installed
Designed to give pilot artificial feel
proportional to speed of aircraft and to the
amount of control surface movement
made.
This unit varies from simple spring loaded
to box to Q pot operating system

Spring Box artificial feel

Q pot feel mechanism

Contd
To be effective Q spot would have be very

large and nowadays this units are used


with a hydraulic spool valve selector

Artificial feel system

Artificial feel system

Artificial Feel system

Secondary Flight Controls


Lift augmenting devices high lift devices
Leading edge and trailing edge devices

Leading edge flap types


Plain
Split
Slotted
Blown
Fowler
Slotted fowler

Leading edge Devices are


Kruger flaps
Slots
Fixed slats
Retractable slats
Droop nose

Plain Flap

Zap flap

Basic flap operation in light aircraft

Flap selector valve for other than


light aircraft

Fly By wire (FBW)


Power flying control system
Uses electronic inputs to solenoid operated

servo valve rather than mechanical in put


The pilot operates flight deck control via
control stick or pedal
This in turn operates transducers which
convert mechanical input to electrical output
which is amplified processed by computers
with a processed command out put to servo
valve which controls the movement of
hydraulic actuators.

FBW block diagram

Redundancy
Safeguards to eliminate the possibility of loss of

control in the event of hydraulic or electrical


failure must be provided in modern aircraft
control
This is achieved by building some form of
redundancy in to the control system
Splitting the system in to two or three separate
sections, each powered by separate actuators
and hydraulic system is the usual method.
Computer system redundancy is also provided
in Airbus Flight control