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AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURE, FABRIC

COVRING, & FINISHING MATERIAL


AFC-2

INSTRUCTIONAL TIME
THEORY ....14HRS

Aircraft Wood Structure ................................7hrs


Aircraft Fabric
Covering..4hrs
Aircraft Finishing Material ...
..3hrs
PRACTICAL ..14HRS
TOTAL ...28HRS

COURSE OBJECTIVE
By the end of this course you will be able to understand
Application of wood for aircraft structure
Advantage & disadvantage/limitation of wooden aircraft
structure
Classification and Types of woods and their attributes
Different types of acceptable & unacceptable wood
structural defects and their repair method
Types of glues used for wooden construction
Precaution to be followed during gluing process

CONTENT
Introduction
Aircraft Wood classification and their types
Different terminologies on structure of wood
A/c wood structure
Requirements of a/c wood & evaluating the quality of wood
for aircraft use
Glues and Gluing
Construction & Repair of Wood Structure
Protection and Inspection of Wooden Structure

REFERENCES
Aircraft Maintenance Technician Series
Volume 1 Structures
Chapter 3 Non-Metallic Structure
AC65-9A Airframe Handbook
Chapter 5 Aircraft Structural Repair/Wood Structures

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURE


INTRODUCTION

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Introduction
Wood been early aircraft construction material
Desirable characteristics
Light weight
Strong
Long life when properly preserved
Amateur-built aircraft are often made of wood
Less expensive than metal
Less special tooling required

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Introduction contd
Amateur-built aircraft
Home built by individuals as hobby than by factories as commercial product
Subject to FAA regulation operating under 14 CFR (Code of Federal Regulation)
Part 135, but not required to meet stringent requirements
CFR:- is the codification of the general and permanent rules in USA and is
divided in to 50 titles. Title 14 deals with aeronautics & space (also known as
the FAR).

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Introduction Contd
Completely phased out by commercial manufacturers
Difficulty for automated high volume production
High cost of labor required
Solution
All metal aircraft
Current trend
Composite structures

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURE CONT


Many of lighter aircraft that were produced in 1930s and
40s have made use of wood for structural component such
as:
Wing spars
Ribs
Control surface
Fuselage
RECALL: Major a/c parts & structural (load-carrying)
members of each part.

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURE CONT.

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURE CONT.


Introduction Cont.
Since 1950 use of Mg, plastic, wood & fabric
disappeared from aircraft construction
Since 1950 use of Al decreased from 80% to 15%
Current Trend reinforced plastic and advanced
composites
Aerospace industry requires:
High strength to weight ratio
What do we mean by composite material?

CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Aircraft Wood
Based on their cellular structure woods are generally
classified into two (There are two principal types of woods)
Hard Wood
Soft Wood
- The distinction between the two is not based on the
hardness of the wood, but the cellular structure of the
wood.
- The difference in physical properties of various species of
wood are due to the cell size and wall thickness

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Hard Wood
Come from deciduous broadleaf trees (has broad leaves and
classified as deciduous shedding leaves)
Have mixture of large cells causing visible pores in the
wood and
Usually but not always heavier & denser than soft
wood
E.g. Mahogany
Deciduous : - A type of tree that shed or drop its foliage/leaf
at the end of growing season

EXAMPLE OF HARD WOOD


Mahogany
Birch
Has no smooth,
even
(uniform)
appearance
when cut in
cross section.

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Soft Wood
Comes form evergreen trees that bear cones (fircone) and has needles rather than leaves called firs.
Characterized by fiber-like cells
E.g. Sitka-Spruce

SOFT WOOD
HENCE SOFT WOODS:
Have needle like or spine like leaves
Ever greens or conifers
Generally have high strength to weight ratio
Used as a solid wood for spars and cap strip
Used as a veneer for plywood cores
Is composed primarily of fibrous cells
Has a smooth, even (uniform) appearance when cut
in cross section.

EXAMPLE OF SOFT WOOD

Spruce

Fir

White Ash/pine
There is also a third
type of tree known as
Monocotyledons
This group includes
the palm and bamboo
trees
They have little or
no structural value

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


There are many different grades and species of woods
Properties of aircraft structural wood

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Spruce
Soft evergreen tree with needle like leaves & cones
Used in making papers, medicine, A/C construction

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Douglas Fir/Noble Fir
Important and valuable timber tree (firewood tree)
Historically used for telephone poles & railway
attachment.

CLASSIFICATION SUMMARY
The two general groups of trees are:
1. Conifers softwood, needle-leaf, evergreen
2. Hardwood deciduous, broadleaf, non-coniferous
Conifers is the most common name applied to the first group
The other names are not all applicable b/c some of the woods
of this group are not soft, some do not have narrow leaves as
indicated by needle-leaf, and others are not evergreen
Coniferous trees wood is comparatively light in weight, is
easy to work, and is obtainable in large, straight pieces

CLASSIFICATION SUMMARY CONT


Hard wood
Neither this name nor the others applied to this group, are
wholly be true
Some of the woods of this group are soft
Others are not deciduous but retain their leaves
Birch, mahogany, maple, oak, poplar, and walnut belong in this
classification
Hard wood are relatively heavy in weight,
Difficult to work because of their complicated cell
structure and
Obtainable only in relatively small lengths

WOOD TYPES FOR A/C USE

WOOD STRUCTURES
Wood in a/c construction has been largely superseded by
aluminum alloys and steel.
It is still used extensively. Wood propellers are still in common
use . Wood is also used with good effect for interior cabin
paneling and flooring
ADVANTAGES
Wood construction has very definite weight advantages when
parts are lightly loaded as in gliders or light airplanes
Wood has the advantage of large bulk for a given weight,
combined with relatively great strength
The ease of working is also important when only small quantities
of planes being built

ADVANTAGES CONT.
Wood has excellent elastic properties which permit stressing
almost to the breaking point without excessive permanent
deformation
It also has the ability to resist a greater load for a short period of
time than it is capable of carrying for a long period
DISADVANTAGE
The nonhomogeneity of wood is its greatest disadvantage
The properties of wood vary even for two pieces taken from the
same tree
The properties of a pieces of wood are also dependent upon the
moisture content
Moreover the direction of the grain is of prime importance to their
physical properties

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Types of Wood
Based on their construction, woods employed for a/c
use are classified as:
Solid Wood
Laminated wood
Plywood
The above listed types of wood are the three forms
of wood commonly used for a/c use

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Solid Wood
Often used for aircraft wing spars
Disadvantage
Difficult to get single piece large enough for spar
construction that meets all the specification
Solution
Less expensive laminated/plywood construction

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Plywood
Plywood is a material made by gluing a number of plies of
thin wood together (sheets of wood glued together)
Each sheet of thin wood is known as veneer
Veneer over 1/10 inch thick is seldom used in the
manufacture of ply wood
The grains of adjacent layers of veneer run at right angles
to each other, which makes plywood equally strong in
two directions
E.g. surface plies of Mahogany or Birch & Spruce with
poplar or basswood core provide strong glue bond

PLYWOOD CONT
Made from imported African mahogany or American birch
veneer laminated to cores of poplar or basswood with
waterproof glue
Composed of uneven number of layers (plies) of wood
veneer bonded with special glues
The out side layers are called face and inner layer are
called core. The rest are called cross bands.
Plywood up to 3/16 normally has three plies
Plywood of and higher has 5 plies
Not as strong as solid wood or laminated wood

PLYWOOD CONT
Plywood is used in the construction of box spars for wings, webs
of ribs, wing and fuselage covering, specially for the leading edge
of the wing, as well as for flooring and interior cabin paneling
Ply wood most commonly used for aircraft are made from:
Mahogany
It has a reddish brown appearance
Birch
It has light yellow or cream color
Note :- Mahogany offer better gluing than birch because of its
porosity.
Thermosetting glue is used for aircraft plywood construction

PLY WOOD

PLYWOOD CONT.
Except for 2 ply plywood, all plywood is manufactured with
an odd number of plies to obtain symmetry
The center ply or plies are usually made of a soft wood
and are considerably thicker than the two face plies made
of a hardwood
A hard wood is used for the face plies to resist abrasion,
to furnish a better contact for washers and fittings, and to
take a better finish
A plywood with a metal sheet cemented to one face to take
excessive wear is often used for flooring

PLY WOODS
ADVANTAGE OF PLY WOODS OVER SOLID WOOD

Highly resistant to cracking


Not likely to warp (twist, bend, distort)
Strength is equal in any direction
Change in dimension with changes in moisture content is
negligible

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Laminated Wood
Strips of wood glued together with grain of all strips run
parallel or run in the same direction
Made up of several wood layers glued together
Layers of solid wood bonded together with an adhesive
Spars made of laminated wood are acceptable
If the same high quality wood material is used
E.g. laminated wood of strips of Sitka Spruce
Lamination of Birch is used in making wooden propeller
Lamination enhances uniformity & strength

LAMINATED WOOD
Used to form a specific shape or size
Used for:
Components that require curved shape like
Wing tips
Fuselage formers
Components which are difficult to manufacture from single
piece
Can be used in place of any solid wood provided it meets
quality specifications
Created from wood that may not have met solid wood
specifications but has had all defects removed
Subject to the same specifications as solid wood

LAMINATED WOOD

Prepare the laminates


Apply glue on the mating surface
Clamp the laminates together
Wait until the glue sets

DIFFERENT TERMINOLOGIES AND


STRUCTURE OF WOOD

TERMINOLOGY OF WOOD

TERMINOLOGY OF WOOD
Bark is the external cover
Sapwood is part of the
tree which is alive or
partially alive and still
carries sap/liquid
Heartwood is part of the
tree which is dead and
does not carry any sap. It
supports the tree
Annual ring

TERMINOLOGY OF WOOD
ANNUAL RINGS concentric layers of wood that can be seen at
the end of a tree trunk/stem that has been cut perpendicular
to its length.
(Concentric rings called annual rings of alternately light and
dark represents growth)
SPRINGWOOD formed in the first season of the year, has large
cells. Light rings Spring wood representing fast growth.
SUMMERWOOD formed in the later growing season, denser
and stronger. Dark rings Summer wood - Represent slow
growth
SHAKE a separation between the annual ring layers

TERMINOLOGY OF WOOD

Annual rings

TERMINOLOGY OF WOOD
GRAIN indicates the direction of the wood fibers relative
to the axis of the tree or longitudinal edge of a piece of cut
lumber (wood, timber, board, plank).
COMPRESSION WOOD a wood in which the fibers have
been damaged by compression load
KNOT a portion of a branch or a limb/member of a tree
which has been incorporated in to the body of the tree (is a
deformation of grains caused by the growth of a branch)
PIN KNOT a knot resulting from growth of a twig/branch
CHECK a radial crack that runs across the grain line

TERMINOLOGY OF WOOD

TERMINOLOGY OF WOOD
DECAY disintegration of actual wood substance by the
action of fungi
SPLIT lengthwise separation of fibers
SPIKE KNOT a knot that runs through the depth of a
beam perpendicular to the annual ring
COMPRESSION FAILURE a structural failure in wood
caused by the application of too great compressive load
KNOT is a deformation of grains and structure in a tree
trunk/stem caused by the growth of a limb/branch

A/C WOOD STRUCTURE

STRUCTURE OF WOOD
A tree trunk/stem is composed of four distinct parts:
1. A soft central core called the pith
2. concentric rings immediately surrounding the pith called
heart wood, which in turn surrounded by
3. Sapwood followed by
4. The bark

TERMINOLOGY OF WOOD

STRUCTURE OF WOOD CONT


The pith, or medulla - as it is technically called, is
evident in the sections of young trees for which it serves as
a food storage place
In mature trees the pith is nothing but a point or a small
cavity
Heartwood or duramen - is a modified sapwood
Each year as a new annular ring is added to the sapwood
the heart wood also increases

STRUCTURE OF WOOD CONT


Heartwood - is heavier, tougher, and darker than
sapwood
In a living tree the heart wood is subject to attack by fungi,
but after cutting it is more resistant to insect attack, decay,
stain, or mold than sapwood.
Sapwood or alburnum - is the younger, lighter, colored,
more porous wood located just under the bark of the tree

STRUCTURE OF WOOD CONT


The cells of sapwood are alive and serve for the storage
and transformation of food
Sapwood is more pliable/flexible than heartwood and is
preferable when severe bending must be done
Sapwood is as strong as heartwood except in the case of
very old trees in which the sapwood is inferior
Bark is the husk or outer cover that protects the tree
Bark does not serve any useful structural purpose

STRUCTURE OF WOOD CONT


Wood is composed of a great number of minute structural
units or cells
These cells vary considerably in size and shape within a
piece of wood and b/n species
The thickness of the cell walls and their arrangement
together with associated materials such as water,
determine the physical properties of the wood
Due to its cellular structure, wood has good bending
strength and stiffness for a given weight
But it has low hardness

STRUCTURE OF WOOD CONT


The difference in physical properties of various species of
wood are due to the cell size and wall thickness
For any particular wood the strength is proportional to its
specific gravity
All trees except monocotyledons, grow annually by the
addition of a concentric layer of wood around the outside
surface of the sapwood
An examination of any tree trunk or log will show these
concentric layers, which are called annual rings

STRUCTURE OF WOOD CONT


GRAIN:- The grain of wood is determined by the direction of the
fibers
It always runs along the length of a piece of lumber but it is not
always straight
The strength of a piece of wood without reasonably
straight grain is greatly reduced
A/C wood specifications require that the grain shall not deviate
more than 1 inch in 15 inches from a line parallel to the edge of
the lumber
Spiral grain is a defect often found in lumber/wood
Spiral grain occurs when the fibers take a spiral course in the tree
trunk/stem as if the tree had been twisted

GRAIN CONT.
Diagonal grain is produced when the direction of sawing is
not parallel to the bark
Interlocked grain occurs when adjacent layers of wood are
spirally inclined in opposite direction. This condition is found
mostly in hardwood trees
Wavy and curly grain are the result of the wood fibers in a
tree following a contorted/distorted course
The grain is always distorted when knots or wounds are
grown over
These type of irregular grain weaken the wood and cause
irregular shrinkage and rough surfacing when machined

STRENGTH OF WOOD
The strength of wood depends upon a great many factors:
The absence or limitation of defects is a primary
consideration
The density of the wood as indicated by its specific gravity
is a very definite indication of its quality and strength
Its moisture content affect its strength probably more
than any other one item

The rate of growth of the tree as shown by the number


of annual rings per inch

WOOD STRENGTH CONT


The strength of wood varies with density
Wood must be kiln dried to satisfy aircraft quality
As moisture decreases, strength increases
Kiln drying ensures that wood has an acceptable moisture
content
Moisture can cause wood to swell and crack.
It also can allow fungus to develop and cause decay.
In some instances the strength of a piece of wood is dependent
upon the locality in which it was grown

Great care must be taken in selecting a piece of lumber for a/c


use when its strength is all important

REQUIRMENTS OF A/C WOOD


&
EVALUATING THE QUALITY OF
WOOD FOR AIRCRAFT USE

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Requirement of Aircraft Wood
Sitka spruce is reference wood for aircraft structure
Typical requirement for aircraft spruce & approved
substitute are found in FAA advisory circular 43.13-1B
Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices
Aircraft inspection and repair

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Requirement of Aircraft Wood cont.
Typical requirements in evaluating wood for a/c use:
Moisture (water) content between 8 and 12%
Minimum annual rings per inch 6
Maximum slope of the grain (grain deviation or
slope) 1inch in 15inches
Its strength
Type of cut - Cuts with edge grain

DETERMINING QUALITY CONT


The slope of grain shall not be steeper than 1 inch in 15 inches
Wood must be sawn vertical grain
Flat grain is more susceptible to warping/distortion than
vertical grain
No fewer than 6 annular rings per inch
Assures that there is adequate strength due to spring and
summer wood growth
Too much of springwood or summerwood will make the
wood unusable

REQUIREMENT OF AIRCRAFT WOOD


CONTD
Evaluating Wood for Aircraft Structure
End section evaluation
Concentric rings called annual rings of alternately
light and dark represents growth
Light rings Spring wood representing fast growth
Dark rings Summer wood
Represent slow growth
Denser and heavier

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Evaluating Wood for Aircraft Structure contd
Wood fibers swell as they absorb moisture and shrink as they lose
it
Changes are greater along annular rings than across
Cutting direction determines the final strength & characteristic of
the wood
Planks cut tangent to annular ring (Flat grain)
Distort or warp as moisture content
changes
Planks cut across annular rings (Vertical grain)
Change dimension very little as moisture content changes

SAWING/CUTTING WOOD
In sawing logs into planks, the wood can be sawed in either
of two ways:
1. Radial sawing - along any of the radii of the annual rings
which will expose the radial or vertical grain surface or
2. Tangential sawing - tangent to the annual rings.
Tangentially cut lumber is commonly called plain-sawed or flat
grain surface. Plain sawing (unacceptable for aircraft)
A modification called quarter sawing is actually used
Quarter sawed lumber shrinks and swells less than
tangential lumber, and develops fewer flaws in seasoning
Quarter sawing also wastes considerable material and is
therefore more expensive than tangential sawing

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Aircraft Wood Cutting contd
Best cut is in such a way that most of the grain lie at 45
to 90 degree with the face of the board
Also called quarter sawing
A log is quarter sawn to produce maximum number of
planks with vertical C grain
Two methods are shown below

TYPE OF CUT

The way a board is cut has an effect on the strength and


shrinkage characteristics of the wood
Aircraft solid wood should be cut so that the annual rings are
parallel to the edge of the board

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL WOOD DEFECTS


Aircraft Structural Wood defects - permitted
Cross grain Spiral/diagonal grain or combination
If not exceed 1 inch in 15 inches
Checked using free flowing ink
Wavy, curly and interlocked grain
Slope not exceeding 1:15
Mineral Streak/line or stripe
If careful inspection fails to reveal any decay (not allowable
if decay is present)

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Aircraft Structural Wood defects permitted cont.
Knots Sound hard knot up to 3/8 maximum if
Not in the edges or flanges
Not causing grain divergence more than 1:15
No knot or other defect with in 20 inches
Closer for smaller knots
Knots greater than must be used with caution

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Aircraft Structural Wood defects permitted cont.
Pin knot / clusters
If small and produce small effect on grain direction
Pitch pocket in the center portion of the beam if
Minimum 14 apart when in the same growth ring
Do not exceed 11/2 length, 1/8width & 1/8 depth
Not located on edges or flanges

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Aircraft Structural Wood defects - Not Permitted
Decay
Start as stains or discolorations and end up being Rot
/disintegration
Spike knot/check
Running completely thru depth of beam
Perpendicular to annual rings
Appear frequently in quarter sawed lumber

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Aircraft Structural Wood defects - not permitted
contd
Checks, Shakes and Splits
Checks longitudinal cracking across annual rings
Shakes longitudinal cracking between annual rings
Splits longitudinal cracking induced by stress

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Defects not permitted cont.
Compression Wood
Very detrimental to strength & difficult to recognize
Characterized by high specific gravity
Has appearance of excessive growth of summer
wood
Show little contrast in color between & summer and
spring wood

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Defects not permitted contd
Compression Failure
Caused by natural overstressing forces during growth
Also by rough handling of logs and planks
Characterized by buckling of fibers appearing as
streaks at right angle to the grain

WATER CONTENT OF WOOD


Free water
Water that flows up and down the tree carrying
nutrients
Cell water
Trapped within the walls of the wood cells and is part
of the tree

KILN DRYING
It is a process of drying wood in an oven controlling the
temperature and the humidity
Aircraft woods moisture content
Free water - none
Cell water - between 8 and 12 percent .
Too low cell water causes
Poor glue penetration
Too much cell water causes
Weak wood structure
Unnecessary weight
Easy attack by fungus

GRAIN ARRANGEMENT
- The grain lines should be
parallel to the edge of the
board but a deviation or
slope of 1:15 is allowed.
-

The grain lines shall not


deviate more than 1 inch
in 15 inches from a line
parallel to the edge of the
lumber

NOTE
It has been determined through research that Sitka spruce is
generally the best wood for aircraft structure due to its
Strength
Lightness
Stiffness per unit weight
Toughness when compared to other species
Other substitutes
Douglass fir
Noble fir
Western hemlock
White cedar

GLUES AND GLUING

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Glue and Gluing
Glues - chemicals with the ability to bond wooden aircraft
structures together
Glues are used for joining wood in aircraft construction and
repair
Wood aircraft depend entirely on glued joints for their
strength
Glued joints should carry full strength across the joint under
all stress conditions
Specification & gluing procedure AC43.13-1B, Ch1

GLUES AND GLUING


In wooden a/c construction glue plays a very prominent
part
Many wood joints depend wholly upon the joining power
of glue for their strength
It must retain its strength under adverse conditions
- As when wet
- Hot, or
- Attacked by fungus and
It must not deteriorate rapidly with age.

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Types of Glue
FAA approved for use on certificated aircrafts
Plastic resin (Urea resin - all purpose glue for a/c work)
Resorcinol
Epoxies need specific approval by FAA inspector before use on
certificated aircraft
Vegetable and liquid glues such as fish glue are not satisfactory for a/c
work

TYPES GLUES CONT


CASEIN GLUES
Casein glue was the all purpose glue in a/c construction
prior to the development of urea resin glue
Casein is obtained from curdled/thickened milk and is
combined with other materials to form a glue (it is usually
sold in powdered form)
- Manufactured from milk product
- Highly water resistant
- Attacked by microorganisms

TYPES GLUES CONT


SYNTHETIC GLUES

Are not attacked by microorganisms

1.

Resorcinol formaldehyde

2.

Urea formaldehyde

3.

Phenol formaldehyde

4.

Epoxy formaldehyde

Component of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

ASSEMBLY METHODS OF WOOD PART


WITH GLUE

OPEN ASSEMBLY

- Glue is applied to both surface to be joined


- Surfaces are exposed to free circulation of air
for a specified length of time
- This reduce the time required for the glue to set
up
CLOSED ASSEMBLY :- The pieces are laid
together as soon as the glue is spread.
86

GLUES AND GLUING PROCEDURE


A part is regarded as satisfactorily glued
If there is continuous contact of glue film and wood, not
broken by foreign particles or air bubble
If the strength of the joint is equal to the strength of the
wood
Advantages of adhesive bonding(gluing)
1. Are economical
2. Distribute the stress over bonding surface
3. Resist moisture and corrosion

REQUIREMENTS FOR STRONG GLUE BOND

The most important requirements for strong and durable


structural bonds are:
1.

Selecting good quality aircraft standard glue

2.

Preparation of the wood surface before applying the


adhesive

3.

Performing a good bonding technique consistent with


the manufacturers instructions

SURFACE PREPARATION FOR GLUING

To assure a sound glue bond the wood must be:


1.

Free of any surface contaminant

2.

Have proper moisture content which is between 812 %.

3.

Clear of loosened or chapped grains

4.

Free of machine marks

5.

Free of any paints, oils ,waxes

6.

Should be smooth and true

GLUING WOOD

Glues are supplied in liquid or powder form

Powder glues must be mixed with water and catalyst

Wood to be glued must be seasoned to the proper moisture


content.

Thin pieces of wood, such as laminations, should have a


lower moisture content (5 10%) than thicker pieces (8
12%) in order to compensate for the relatively greater
amount of moisture they absorb from the glue.

Wood should be machined after seasoning when it is to be


glued

The surface must be smooth and square

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Gluing
Good glued joint should be stronger than the wood
i.e. when glue joint is broken, fibers should tear
before glue separation
Surface should be perfectly flat and smooth
Apply glue according to mfg instruction
Clamp parts together to appropriate amount of pressure

AIRCRAFT WOOD STRUCTURES CONTD


Proper Gluing Procedure
Mix glue according to mfg instruction
Apply one coat of glue to one or each surface
Force it into the wood with putty knife
Apply second coat and assemble parts
Clamping pressure for soft woods 125 to 150 psi
Clamping pressure for hard woods 150 to 200 psi
Ensure both piece at same level of moisture content by
Keeping both piece in same room at least overnight.

GLUING PRESSURE

The function of pressure on a glue joint:


To squeeze the glue in to a thin continuous film between
the wood layer
To force air from the joint
To bring the wood surface in to intimate contact with
the glue
More important is :
Both piece be at same level of moisture content

PRESSRE APPLICATION

GLUING PRESSURE

The method of applying pressure depends on the size,


shape, and contour of the surface

Prepare the laminates


Apply glue on the mating surface
Clamp the laminates together
Wait until the glue sets

AIRCRAFT WOOD WORKING


TOOLS:
(HAND & POWER TOOLS)

96

AIRCRAFT WOOD WORKING TOOLS


- woodworking is the forming or shaping of wood to
create, restore or repair useful object
- The quality of wood structure repair depends on:
selection of the proper tools and the skill of the repair
man
HAND TOOLS
Many of the repairs
of aircraft wood structure
are still made with hand tools.
97

CUTTING SAWS
SAWS :- There are many varieties of manually operated saws designed
for all kinds of cutting

Wood saws are generally made with one of the two type of teeth: Teeth for Crosscut saws and Teeth for Ripsaws

SAWS CONT.
CROSS CUT SAWS :- are designed for cutting across the
grain of the wood.
The teeth of the crosscut are filed at an angle to produce
sharp and knifelike edge and are alternately bent out wards
One tooth bent to the left and one to the right
The bending of the teeth is done to provide set for clearance
This set causes the saw to make a cut, a little wider than the
saw blade so there will be adequate clearance for free
movement

CROSSCUT SAW & RIP SAW

100

SAWS CONT.
RIPSAW:- The teeth of ripsaw are filed to form small chisels
Designed to cut parallel to the grain of the wood
The ends of the teeth are almost straight across
The chips are carried out of the cut by the teeth.
Unlike cross cutting, which shears the wood fibers, a ripsaw
works more like a chisel, lifting off small splinters of wood
NOTE: if a ripsaw is used for
crosscutting, a very rough
cut will result . If a crosscut
saw is used for ripping the
teeth will load up and cause
the saw to cut very slowly

BRACE AND AUGER BIT

Brace:- is a tool in which the auger bit is mounted to


provide for hand driving of the bit

The shell of the brace is a threaded cylinder or sleeve,


placed over the jaws into which the bit is inserted
The shell & jaws together form the chuck

102

BRACE AND AUGER BIT CONT

Wood bit or Auger bit:- is used for boring holes in wood.

The most critical part of the bit are:- feed screw, cutting edge and
spurs (cutting parts).
When the cutting parts are kept sharp & even in dimension, the bit
will cut most effectively

103

CLAMP
C-clamp :- is used to hold two or more pieces of materials together
temporarily while glue or other adhesive is setting and also used to hold a
workpiece aganist the bench when performing different activities
Parallel clamp :- is used to hold a spliced spar in position and under
pressure while the glue is drying

104

NOTES
1. When boring with an auger bit:
Clamp a flat piece of scarp wood tightly against the back side of
the wood
Bore through from one side until the feed screw breaks through
the other side. Then back the bit out and bore through from the
other side
2. The pressure of the C- clamp must be evenly distributed over an
area of the C- clamp jaws.
3. The pressure should never be released once it has been applied to
prevent air from entering the joint and reducing the effectiveness
the bond
105

HAMMERS

Nail hammer also called


carpenters hammer used to
drive nails or to remove nails

Magnetic tack hammer:Is particularly useful to the


aircraft maintenance
technician because it is light
and it will hold steel tacks or
small nails on its magnetic
face.

106

PLANE
One of the most essential
tools for the woodworker
Used to smooth the
surface of wood by
shaving.
There are three common
types of bench plane which
are categorized by their
length
block plane

7 in.

smooth plane
Jack plane

7-9 in.

11-15 in.

107

APPLICATION OF PRESSURE WHEN


SMOOTING BY USING PLANES

108

POWER TOOLS FOR WOOD WORKING The following power tools are some of the many which have
great importance
1. Circular saw :- is employed principally for:
- Ripping:- cutting parallel to the grain of wood; Beveling;
Crosscutting
2. Bench saw:- is provided with an adjustable fence & a
protractor to provide for a wide variety of sizes and angles
- The fence (rip fence) is designed to the board being ripped
- The work moves against (in a direction opposite) the
rotation of the saw

109

CIRCULAR SAW
The saw blade for a
circular saw is a disk of
steel with teeth cut on
the rim.
The teeth of a ripsaw
have the appearance of
sharply angled chisels
The teeth of a crosscut
saw are ground with a
bevel on opposite sides
of the alternate teeth

110

POWER TOOLS CONT


3. Band saw:- is used primarily for cutting curved outlines and
is better swited for cutting very small pieces than is the
bench saw (has smaller teeth thinner & narrower)
4. Jig saw: - is used primarily for very fine and intricate work
on comparatively small parts
- It can also be used for cutting very small curves and
irregular outlines in sheets of wood
5. Disk sander:- is a valuable tool for producing fine wood
work
- Is generally used to smooth rough cut surfaces & to aid in
shaping small parts.

CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR OF


WOOD STRUCTURES

BENDING AND FORMING WOOD


It is necessary to achieve the desired shape of components
while maintaining the structural strength
Wood structures made by bending are stronger than those
made by forming
Whether the curved wooden parts are steamed and bent or
laminated and bent without steaming, the grain follows the
curvature of the a/c part
The degree of being shaped depends on: - Size of the piece
Type of wood and - Technique used in bending the wood
(hand bending for slight curvature & forming die and
holding strap for pronounced curvature)

FORMING DIE AND HOLDING STRAP

BENT DONE BY USING A FORMING DIE AND


HOLDING STRAP
(Bending stock around forming die)
The wood to be bent is
fitted snugly/tightly
b/n the bulkheads and
then bent over the
forming die
The wood having been
bent, should remain in
the forms until it has
cooled and dried
enough to keep its
shape

WOODS FOR BENDING


Commonly used woods for bending are:

Sprus, Ash & Oak

Airframe component made of bent solid wood


- Wing tip bow
- Rib cap strip
- Fuselage stringers

Solid wood is bent only for a very large radius

Curved laminated structure are used for:

Tip bows
Former
Bulkheads

NOMENCLATURE FOR WOODEN WING

WOODEN FUSELAGE

WOOD STRUCTURE PROBABLE DFECTS


FOUND DURING INSPECTION

DRY ROT AND DECAY


Caused by fungus in damp or wet wood

SEPARATED GLUE JOINT


Improperly glued

CRACKS
Caused by shrinkage of the wood or stress applied to it

SURFACE CRUSHING
Caused when the wood is struck by hard object

WOOD STRUCTURE DEFECTS CONT.

COMPRESSION FAILURE
Caused by a compression force acting essentially
parallel to the grain of the wood

STAINING
Caused by moisture indicating that a glue joint has
failed or that the protecting coating is deteriorating.

CORROSION
Caused due to the presence of moisture in attachment
points of hard wares

INSPECTION METHODS
Visual inspection
Likely locations are any possible points for moisture
entry
Overall check for swelling or warping
Check finish for any cracking or defects that may expose
wood to outside environment
Tapping/beating
Suspected areas will sound hollow or be soft
Probing/questioning
If soft or mushy/sappy then the wood is rotted.

INSPECTION METHODS
Odor
Musty or moldy smells when removing access panels
indicates moisture or fungal growth
Moisture meters
Any reading over 20% indicates probable fungal growth
Destructive testing of sample bonded joints
Testing sample bonds after making repairs is highly
recommended to test adhesive strength

WING SPAR CONSTRCTIOn


1. SOLID SPAR
Solid rectangular spars
Externally or internally routed/channeled or directed spar
Laminated solid spars

WING SPAR CONSTRUCTION


2. BUILT UP SPARS
Combination of solid wood and play wood
I- beam
C- beam
Box beam

RIBS CONSTRUCTION
Two types of construction
Three piece construction
Nose, center and trailing edge sections are built separately
and fastened with glue and nails.
Single piece construction
Ribs are constructed in one unit and slipped over the spars
Wood rib is usually assembled in a rib jig to facilitate production
and ensure accuracy without making repeated measurements.
During rib assembly, cap strips are inserted between the blocks
to hold them in proper position for attachment of the vertical
and diagonal members and the plywood gussets.
Gussets are attached to the cap strips, vertical and diagonal
members with nails and glue.

RIB JIG AND COMPLETED RIB


A rib jig is made by drawing a pattern of the rib on a
smooth flat plank and then nailing small blocks of wood to the
plank so that they outline the rib pattern

REPAIR OF DAMAGED PLYWOOD

Follow the manufacturer instruction

Major Types of wood structure repairs


Surface patches
Splayed patches
Flush (Scarf) patches
Plug patches

SURFACE PATCHES
Applied to outer surface of a plywood skin
Applied where damage occurs between or along framing members
It is trimmed to triangular or rectangular shape with corners
rounded
Doublers at the bottom and fabric at the top are applied
The angles of the triangle/rectangle should be rounded with a
radius of at least five times the thickness of the skin
The leading edge of the surface patch should be beveled with an
angle of at least 4:1
Surface patches are not allowed in the range 10% of the cord
length from the leading edge

SPLAYED PATCH
Is a patch fitted into a plywood to provide a flush surface.
The slope of the edges/ mating surfaces is cut at a 5 : 1 angle
Used where the largest dimension of the hole to be repaired is
not more than 15T & thickness is not more than 1/10 (0.1)
inch. No reinforcement behind the splayed patch
Two concentric circles are drawn around the damaged area with
the difference b/n the radii of the circles 5T.
The inner circle is cut out and a patch is cut and tapered to fit
the hole
After a patch is in place, a pressure plate cut to the exact size
of a patch is centered over the patch, with waxed paper b/n the
two

SCARF/FLUSH PATCHES

May be employed , where ever the damaged plywood skin has


a curvature with the radius of more than 100 times the
thickness of the skin.
Similar to splayed patch, but the edges are beveled to a slope
of 12:1 instead of 5:1 for splayed patch

In all type of large scarf patches, it is necessary to support


the glued joints with backing blocks/strips which are again
supported by means of saddle gusset at the end of framing
members ( i.e if the backing strips join the framing members).

The thickness of the backing (reinforcement) is 3T, with a


minimum thickness of inch

PLUG PATCH
The edge is cut at right angle/ perpendicular to the surface of the
skin
Because the plug patch is only a skin repair, use it only for
damage that does not involve the supporting structure under the
skin. Doubler (reinforcement ) required
The skin is cut out to round or oval hole and the patch is cut to
the exact size of a hole, and when installed, the edge of the patch
forms a butt joint with the edge of the hole.
Approved circular (round) patches have been designed for holes of
circles with diameter not more than 6 inch.
6 inches for large patches ; - 4 inches for small patches
The steps to be followed during installation are given in
OJT w/s

PLUG PATCH CONT..


Doubler is cut so that its outside radius is 58-inch greater than
the hole to be patched and the inside radius is 58-inch less

FINISHING REPAIRED WOOD SURFACE

To prevent absorption of moisture, oil or other


contaminant

To preserve the wood quality

It is done on both the interior and exterior surfaces


On interior surface finishing:
Make sure to remove all loose items
Apply two coats of spar varnish
Areas to be glued should not be covered

FINISHING REPAIRED WOOD SURFACE


Exterior surface finishing
Clean properly
Small depressions should be filled with plastic
wood
Apply two coats of spar varnish or wood sealer
After drying remove roughs
Apply as many coats(skin) as possible

CARE OF AIRCRAFT WITH WOOD


STRUCTURES
The key to success in the maintenances of the wood structure are:
Selection of best wood
Proper finishing of the wood to prevent the absorption of moisture
Moisture is the deadliest enemy of wood
Facilitates fungus growth
Causes warp and crack
Reduces structural strength
Causes corrosion

IMPORTANT FACTOR IN PREVENTING


MOISTURE (CONTROL OF MOISTURE)
Finish with an effective water resistance coating like spar
varnish
Provide a drain hole
EFFECT OF TEMPRATURE ON WOODEN STRUCTURE
Causes stresses and dimensional changes that can lead to
cracks
Loosens fittings
Evaporation of plasticizer in coatings which leads to
brittleness and cracking.

OPERATION AND HANDLING

Airplane having wood structure can be damaged by


improper operation and handling
Pilot must not exceed flight limits of the air plane
Care in landing
Careful taxing
Use of approved walkways on the a/c
Lift and push on solid structure

ASSINMENTS
1. Discuss about Protection (care of a/c with wood
structure) and Inspection of wooden aircraft structure
2. Discuss and characterize the different types of glues
commonly used in a/c assembly operations which
possess the necessary properties to a satisfactory extent
3. Explain in detail about the classification and types of
wood which are employed for construction of a/c
structure

THE END
THANK YOU