Sei sulla pagina 1di 26

Industrial Processing

Integration of alcohol and sugar production,


Cogeneration of electricity
Brazils Ethanol Experience and its
Transferability
World Bank April 25 2006
Jos Felix Silva Junior
jfsilva@copersucar.com.br

What it will be tried to show


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Productions of sugarcane, sugar and ethanol


Operations flowsheet and productions alternatives
Fermentation and distillation basic figures
Sugarcane quality Calculated yields
Main characteristics of the integration process
Energy generated by sugar cane
Expansion of the sugar and ethanol industry
Scenario for ethanol demand
Improvements and innovation

Sugarcane Source of Green Energy

JUICE

BAGASSE

LEAVES & TOPS

SUGAR

Ethanol

CO-GENERATION
OF ELECTRICITY

Brazilian Production of Sugarcane,


Sugar and Ethanol

Crop Season 05/06 partial results

Brazilian Production of Anhydrous


and Hydrated Ethanol

Crop Season 05/06 partial results

Juice

Flowsheet of Sugar and Ethanol Production

Fermentation Process
Basic information
Final ethanol content: 9 %vol
Final yeast concentration:13%
Fermentation time:
6-11h
Average production rate : 450 m3/day
Total fermenter capacity:
3000 m3
Yield (stoichiometric): up to 91%
Temperature:
34-36C

Evolution of Ethanol Yield %

Evolution of Fermentation Time (h)

Distillation Flow Diagram

Distillation
Steam consumption: 3-5 kg / L ethanol
Yield:
> 99%
Residues:
Vinasse (12-15 L/L): recycled as ferti-irrigation
at the cane fields
Water consumption:
100-120 L / L ethanol (hydrated 93% by weight )
140-170 L / L (anhydrous 99.4% by weight)
Dehydration:
Azeotropic (cyclohexane)
Extractive (monoethyleneglycol)
Molecular sieves

Quality of Sugarcane Pol%cane

Ethanol from Molasses and Juice


SUGARCANE

Sugars = Suc + Glu + Fru

MILLING
JUICE FOR SUGAR

JUICE FOR ETHANOL

FACTORY

DISTILLERY
MASH

MOLASSES
ETHANOL
FROM
MOLASSES

SUGAR

ETHANOL
FROM
SUGARS

ETHANOL

FERMENTATION
DISTILLATION

Production Alternatives for Sugar and Ethanol


(Calculated for 1 t of cane)

Sugar & Ethanol from Final Molasses

Sugar 50% sucrose


Ethanol 50% sucrose+
RS from cane + sugars
from molasses

All Sugars to Ethanol

Integration Production of Sugar and Ethanol


Main Characteristics
Extended crop season beginning and end with
ethanol production
Cane of low content of sugar and purity goes to
ethanol production
Use of juices from different steps of the
process low purity juice from milling, etc.
No hard work to recover sugar in final molasses
No loss in final molasses

Milling Diagram

Integration Production of sugar and Ethanol


Main Characteristics
Sugar of better quality no need to recycle
molasses of low purity
Higher purity in the mash (treated juice +
molasses) for high fermentation yield
Energetic optimization bleeding of steam
for the distillery
Variation on the ratio of sugar and ethanol
produced according to the market

Energy Generated by Sugarcane


1 t of Cane Stalks (Clean)
Energy (MJ)
145 kg of sugars

300
140 kg of stalk fiber (bagasse, dry basis)

2 600

140 kg of leaves fiber (trash, dry basis)

2 600

Total

500(0.17 toe)
1 ha
82 t cana
300 million tons of cane
toe/year

600 GJ (13 toe)


50 million

Electric Power Generation Potential


Sugar mill is self sufficient in energy, using
bagasse as fuel during the crop season
Some mills produce surplus energy to sell:
Installed capacity: 2,800 MW (100 %)
Self-consumption: 2,200 MW (78 %)
Contracted: 600 MW (22 %) (Sao Paulo
500 MW > 46 plants)
Short-term potential today technology 6,000
to 8,000 MW
Long-term potential new technologies and
increase in sugarcane 15,000 to 22,000 MW
Source ANEEL (National Electric Power Agency / UNICA

Expansion of the Sugar and Ethanol Industry

New
projects

Copersucars Scenario for Ethanol Demand


30,0

24,8
22,6

millions of m3

25,0

20,6

18,6
20,0
15,0

16,8

3,5
0,9

2,9
0,9

2,2
0,8

10,0
13,8

14,8

16,2

2005/06

2006/07

2007/08

5,2
4,6

4,0
0,9

17,7

27,3

1,0

0,9

19,3

21,1

5,0
0,0

Fuel

Industrial

2008/0
9

Exports

2009/10

2010/11

Improvement and Innovation (R&D)


Work has to be done to:

Automatic process control


Treatment of the mash
High ethanol yeast
Immobilized yeast / Flocculant yeast
Reducing of the vinasse produced
Specific Membranes for dehydration
Vacuum distillation

Improvement and Innovation (R&D)


Energy
Reduction of steam consumption
500 350 280 kg/tc (needs investment)

Use of trash (leaves and tops) as fuel


High pressure and more efficient boilers and
turbine generators
Gasification of bagasse

Thank you
Jos Felix Silva Junior
jfsilva@copersucar.com.br

Sugar and Ethanol Calculated