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Diagrams

for Understanding chemical


processes
CHAPTER 1

1-Diagrams for Understanding chemical


processes
1. 1 Block Flow Diagram BFD
1.1.1.Block flow process diagram BFD
1.1.2 Block Flow Plant Diagram BFD
2. 2 Process Flow Diagram PFD
1.2.1 Process Topology
1.2.2 Stream Information
1. 2.3 Equipment Information
1.2.4 Topology & stream data & control strategy
for PFD

1.3 Piping & Instrument Diagram P&ID


1.4 Additional Diagrams
1.5 3 Dimensions Representation of Process
1.6 Detailed plant layout
1.7 The 3-D Plant Model

Diagrams for Chemical Engineers

Most effective way of communicating


information about a process is through the
use of flow diagrams
Diagrams evolve from time a process is
conceived in lab through design, construction
& plant operation
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3 diagrams are important to chemical


engineer :

1. Block flow diagram BFD


2. Process flow diagram PFD
3. Pipe& Instrument diagram P&ID

. PFD is the most useful to chemical engineers


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1.1 Block Flow Diagram BFD


BFD Convert problem from words to simple
block Diagram
It consists of Series of blocks representing
unit operations connected by input/output
streams
Important information T , P , flow ,
composition included
No details of equipment are given in this
diagram

1.1.1 Block Flow Process Diagram BFD


Example :

Toluene and hydrogen are converted in a reactor


to produce benzene and methane. The reaction
does not go to completion, and excess toluene is
required. The non-condensable gases are
separated and discharged. The benzene product
and the unreacted toluene are then separated by
distillation. The toluene is then recycled back to
the reactor and the benzene removed in the

Conventions & Format Recommended for


BFD
Operations are represented by series of
blocks
Flows by arrows giving direction of flow
Flow goes from left to right whenever
possible
Light steam ( gases ) at top & heavy streams
at bottom
Critical information unique to process are
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1.1.2 Block Flow Plant Diagram BFD


Plant BFD gives complete picture of a
whole plant
Process BFD gives picture of one process in
the plant
Only limited information for each process
unit is given to keep diagram simple
BFD is used as starting point to create PFD
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1.2 Process Flow Diagram PFD


Contains bulk of engineering data for design
of process
It differs between companies but all have same
features
Data include :
1. All major equipment with description( Name
& Number )
2. All streams are numbered
3. Descriptions of streams are included directly
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PFD should remain uncluttered & easy to


read
It is often drawn on a large sheet of paper (24
in x 36 in)
Flow summery & equipment summery
tables are provided
PFD provides main information on :
1. Topology
2. Streams data
3. Equipment data

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1.2.1 Process Topology


Location & interaction between equipment
& streams
Equipment are represented by icons
Standard ASME icons are often used
Each company has its own icons but they are
similar
Descriptive name & No are printed at top of
equipment
General format XX - YZZ A/B

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Example : P-101 A/B :


P identifies the equipment as a pump
100 indicates equipment is located in area
100 of plant
01 indicates that this specific pump is
number 01
A/B indicates 2 pumps , pump A with pump B
as backup
Equipment replaced by similar ones take the
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1.2.2 Stream Information


Diamond box located on stream with No of
stream in it
Direction is shown by arrowhead
Utilities include (electricity , air, water,
steam, inert gas, sewer, waste treatment,
flares.)
Electricity is treated separately & not shown
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Stream properties ( T , P, composition, Flow)


are shown directly on PFD for simple process or
by No of stream & tables for complicated
Two types of information : Required &
optional
Possible to use PFD & table to check mass &
energy balance
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Example 1.2
Check the overall material balance for the
benzene process shown in Figure 1.3. From the
figure, identify the input streams as Stream 1
(toluene feed) & Stream 3 (hydrogen feed) &
output streams as Stream 15 (product
benzene) & Stream 16 (fuel gas).

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From the flow summary table, these flows are


listed as (units are in (103 kg)/h):
Input:

Output:

Stream 3

0.82

Stream 15

8.21

Stream 1

10.00

Stream 16

2.61

Total 10.82 103 kg/h Total

10.82 103 kg/h

Balance is achieved since Output = Input

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Example 1.3

Determine the conversion per pass of toluene


to benzene in R-101 in Figure 1.3.
Conversion is defined as:
= (benzene produced)/(total toluene
introduced)

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From PFD, the input streams to R-101 are


shown as Stream 6 (reactor feed) & Stream 7
(recycle gas quench),output stream is Stream 9
(reactor effluent stream).
From the information in Table 1.5 (units are
kmol/h):
C7H8 introduced = 144 (S 6) + 0.04 (S7) = 144.04
kmol/h
C6H6 produced =116 (S9)7.6
(S6)0.37(S7)=108.03 kmol/h
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1.2.3 Equipment Information

Final element of PFD is the equipment


summary
It supplies data for detail design & cost
estimate
Table 1.6 presents basic information needed for
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1.2.4 Topology & stream data & control


strategy for PFD
Up to now information on PFD is kept to
minimum
Includes information on major control loops
Information Flags on streams with data
Flags are easy to remove & change
Data are shown in tables as well
Data important for operation & safety
included in PFD diagram as flags
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Flags reduce number of streams in tables


( pump , HE)
Often T , P & flow rates for streams above
normal
Important to keep PFD uncluttered & easy to
follow
PFD prepared by the operating company
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Example 1.6
In the benzene process, the feed to the reactor is
substantially hotter than the rest of the process &
is crucial to operation of process. In addition, the
reaction is exothermic & reactor effluent
temperature must be carefully monitored. For this
reason S 6 (entering) and S 9 (leaving) have
temperature flags
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Example 1.7
The pressures of the streams to and from R-101 in
benzene process are also important. The
difference in pressure between the two streams
gives the pressure drop across the reactor. This,
in turn, gives an indication of any
maldistribution of gas through the catalyst
beds. For this reason, pressure flags are also
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Example 1.8
Follow S 13 leaving top of the benzene column in
benzene PFD given in Figure 1.5 & in Table 1.5.
This stream passes through the benzene
condenser, E-104, into reflux drum,V-104. The
majority of this stream then flows into the reflux
pump, P-102, and leaves as S 14, while the
remaining noncondensables leave the reflux
drum in S 19. The mass flowrate & component
flowrates of all these streams are given in Table
1.5. The stream leaving E-104 is not included
in stream table. Instead, a flag giving T (112C)
was provided on diagram (indicating
condensation without subcooling). An additional
flag, showing P following the pump, is also
shown. In this case the entry for S14 could be
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1.3 Pipe & Instrument Diagram P&ID

P&ID is called also Mechanical Flow Diagram


MFD
It is Final diagram for installation of equipment
All mechanical data of plant except data in table
1.8
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Pipes ( size, schedule, material, insulation )as in


Fig1.7

Ps Internal pressure in the pipe


s Ultimate tensile strength of the material of
pipe

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Physical size of unit operations is reflected by


size of its symbol in the diagram
Utilities connections identified by numbered box
in P&ID
Keys of utility connections are shown in table in
P&ID
Variables that can be measured are shown by
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All controls end with a control valve


All controls are based on effect of change in
flow on a variable
Direction of valve depends on desired change in
variable
Response time & type ( differential, integral,
proportional ) is left to instrumentation
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P&ID is last stage of process design


1. Mechanical + Civil engineer construct & install
equipment
2. Instrument engineer specify, install & check
control system
3. Pipe engineers develop plant layout &
elevation drawing
4. Project engineers develop plant & construction
schedule
. P& ID is used as a checklist for equipment

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PFD

BPD

P&ID

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1.4 Additional Diagrams


1- Utilities flow-sheet: shows all utilities
headers , inputs , outputs , connections and
types of stream
2- Vessel sketches, logic ladder diagram ,
wiring diagram , site plans , structural support
3- Plot plans & elevation diagrams: location
& elevation of major equipment
Provide space for repair, remove bundles,
replace units

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4- Piping isometrics: for every pipe in plant


drawn in 3-D with elevation & orientation of each
section of pipe
5- Scale model: 3 dimensions models used in
the past
Replaced by 3-dimensional computer aided
design CAD
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1.5

3 Dimensional Representation
of a Process

Major design is done in 2-dimensions, but for


construction 3-D model is required
To build electronic 3-D model all
information in previous diagrams must be
accessed & synthesized
Heat exchangers located to (remove &
clean)bundle easily
Pumps located for easy repair, Cranes for

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1.5

Detailed plant layout

1. Divide PFD into logical subsystem ( Feed


& reactor , purification , separation & recycle)
dotted lines in Fig 1.8
2. Create a preliminary plot plan for each
sub-section
a. Grade-level: horizontal , in-line arrangement
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In Grade level equipment aligned on both sides


of pipe rack
Pipe Rack carries all pipes & run in the middle of
unit
Vertical mounting is limited to a single level
Grade level require larger foot print or lands
Fig 1.9
Space is set according to standard code for
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3. Elevation of all major equipment


established :
Ground is less costly & gives easy access but
requires larger space
Elevation of columns for NPSH on suction of
pump to avoid cavitation from liquid at bubble
point. Thermo syphon re-boiler use difference in
density & requires elevation Fig 1.12
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4. Major process & utility pipes sketched in


Choose most direct route of pipes to avoid
clashing
Pipe rack for pipes from one end to another of
plant
Samples ports & control valves should be placed
on grade or steel access platform

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1.6

The 3-D Plant Model

Virtual Plant tour AV1 in file on CD


Figures based DME using PDMS software
Fig 1.13 isometric view of equipment,
processes, utility & steel structure
Pipe rack runs through the center of unit

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Steel platforms are shown for support


Distillation in rear
Reactor & feed in near side of pipe rack
Fig 1.14 shows elevation of equipment
Condenser vertical above for gravity flow to
reflux drum
Fig 1.15 piping & equipment for reactor

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1.7 Operator & 3-D immersive


simulator
1.7.1 Operator training simulators OTS

OTS helps operator in (start-up, shut-down,


emergency, off-design conditions)
OTS is a dynamic simulation model of process to
which human machine interface HMI is
connected

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HMI Human-Machine Interface is a pictorial


representation of process that communicates
with the dynamic model
HMI displays all the controls of the process - Fig
1.16
Errors are made & corrected without risk
Starting point is a steady state simulation,
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1.7.2

3-D Immersive Training


Simulators ITS

Model built in electronic environment from


design data on( size , location , elevation &
orientation of equipment)
All Piping , instrument , valves , sample , drains
are specified
Access through 2-D viewer or 3-D virtual
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1.7.3 Linking ITS with an OTS


Link OTS & ITS so they communicate in realtime of process, both in control room & outside
in plant
Can be simulated in virtual environment. Virtual
reality
Avatars are used to represent plant operators in
field
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Augmented Reality AR
Actual plant simulated in virtual environment
Cases simulated in VR are not possible in
actual plant
Show internals of distillation or heat exchanger
Fig 1.18
Avatars walk in plant & strip wall to see inside
equipment & Display of process data Fig 1.19
It provides training for safety , emergency ,
routine maintenance

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SUMMARY
Three principal types of diagrams BFD, PFD,
P&ID, which describe a process in increasing
details
1. BFD is useful in conceptualizing process in
large complex, it gives little stream information,
but clear overview of process
2. PFD contains all information to complete M&E
balance, Stream properties , equipment size,
major control loops

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Other diagrams are used in construction &


engineering phase of project
They contain little additional information about
process
Placement & layout within the process was
presented.
Reasons for elevating equipment & providing
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