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Summarize the essential argument

Loewen is making in Ch. 6. How do
the main ideas in chapters 5 & 6
compare? To what extent do you
think its more harmful to have
hidden racism in textbooks or is it
equally or even more harmful to
have left out antiracism in
textbooks? Why?

Share + Discuss

They Say, I Say

Introduction and Chapter 1

Entering the Conversation


State Your Ideas as a Response to

Academic writing is argumentative
To argue effectively, you need to use the
ideas of others as the basis of your own
In order to make an impact as a writer,
we need to identify how our ideas are
responding to what they say.
Using the they say, I say format can
help you to disagree with others, to
challenge standard ways of thinking,

Ways of Responding
There can be a variety of ways to
respond to what others say. For
example, you may:
Disagree with what they say
Agree with what they say
Both agree and disagree with what they

Putting in Your Oar

The purpose of looking at writing
from this view is to become a critical
thinker who:
Is not passively recounting ideas
Can participate in conversations and
Can build informed ideas
Can become an engaged member of society.

Share out of some of group
responses to ex. 2 from Introduction

They Say


Starting with What Others Are

It is often important to start with what others
are saying in order to explain what you are
responding to (18).
Doing this provides a context or frame into
which your ideas or arguments can provide a
new voice.
Its a good idea to present your own position
and the one its responding to together, and to
think of the two as a unit (19). This
presentation should happen at the beginning of
your text, preferably in the introduction.

Keep What They Say in

In addition to presenting what they say at
the beginning of your text, it is very important
to continue to keep those ideas in view (25).
One way of doing so is to create a return
sentence that keep[s] returning to the
motivating they say (26).
Return sentences help to ensure that your
argument is a genuine response to others
views rather than just a set of observations
about a given subject (26).

Small Group
Review the template examples
interspersed throughout Ch. 1. With
your group, create and fill out your
own template which can be used to
create a summary about an
important idea in Ch 5 or 6 of
Loewen (or a They Say) along with a
thoughtful response (or I Say) about
the significance of either hidden
racism or ignored antiracism.

As He Himself Puts It or the Art of


They Say, I Say Ch 3

The Art of Quoting

A quote is the use of an outside
sources exact words in an essay,
enclosed in quotation marks, to
support or clarify the writers
The use of a quote can lend
credibility to your summaries and
ensure that you are using the
source fairly and accurately.

Using Quotes
A common error regarding quote
occurs when writers assume quotes
speak for themselves.
There are two ways of avoiding this
Choosing quotations which directly
support your ideas
Framing your quotes by telling who said
them, what they mean, and explaining
their connection to your text.

Quoting Relevant Passages

In order to pick effective quotes, you
first need to think about how a quote
will support a particular point you are
You may also find that as your paper
evolves you might need to find new
quotes to support your ideas and
delete old quotes which no longer fit
with your ideas.

Frame Every Quotation

Because quotes do not speak for themselves,
you must speak for them by framing them.
A quote which is missing a frame is
sometimes called a hit and run quote, a
dangling quote, or a dropped quote.
To avoid a dropped quote you need to create
a quote sandwich:
Top slice Signal or introductory phrase
Meat The quote
Bottom slice explanation of the quote

Signal phrases and

When writing a signal phrase it is
important to identify who is speaking
and where the quote is form.
Example: In his essay W-O-R-K, Braaskma

When explaining a quote it is important

to retell what the quote is saying and tell
how it supports your point.
Example: Braaskma is saying that work is
often interpreted in different ways. Similarly,
I argue that

Blending quotes into your

Advanced writers will often blend a
quote into a sentence of their own in
order to highlight the relationship
between ideas.
Example: Voting for this proposition will
change the way businesses share
financial information, and as Smith
argues, will impact the relationships
between credit markets and consumer
credit services.

Adding to Your Group

Review the templates in the handout
from Ch. 3 of They Say, I Say.
Pick a quote from either Ch. 5 or Ch.
6 of Loewen which goes with the
argument/analysis your group has
already put forth in your template.
Create a quotation sandwich for
your chosen quote.

Sources Exercise
Share answers
Be prepared to research and bring to
share 2 sites with reliable information
related to your groups template
from tonight.

Essay Exam #1
Focusing your essay:
Developing quotation sandwiches/improving your
evidence to support your focus.
For next time: You will be revising your in-class
essay #1 (regardless of the grade you received).
Your revision needs to be 4-6 pages in MLA
Format.Review all of the links on the writing
commons site regarding focus/thesis. Make sure to
gather more evidence and to work on expanding
and explaining your evidence so that it advances
your thesis.