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DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA &

ROBUST DESIGN OF PRODUCTS


AND PROCESSES FOR QUALITY
Glser Kksal
EM507
METU, Ankara
2009

OUTLINE

DFSS
DMAIC vs. DFSS
Different DFSS roadmaps
DMADV Roadmap
How To implement DFSS

Robust design examples


A review of design of experiments and
orthogonal arrays
Taguchis robust design approach
Loss Fuunctions
Signal-to-Noise Ratios

Robust design case study: Cookie recipe


design

Slides 3-16 are selected from the following presentation:

DFSS DMAIC
To improve the existing
processes in order to satisfy
customer requirements.

AI

DF
SS

DM

To design new products


or processes, or to
improve the designs of
existing ones in order to
satisfy customer
requirements

Six
Six Sigma
Sigma

Process Management
To achieve the business results,
managing the processes efficiently.

Optimization

Characterization

DMAIC
Define
Define

Define the problem with outputs and potential


inputs

Measure
Measure

Analyze the existing process: Is the process


measured correctly? If so, what is the capability
of the process?

Analyze
Analyze

Analyze and identify the important factors that


cause the variation of the process: Where and
when do the defects occur?

Improve
Improve

Optimize the output by optimizing the inputs: To


reach at the six sigma process, what should be
the levels of each factor?

Control
Control

Which controls should be done in order to


continue process at six sigma?

Improvement Strategies
Customer
Requirements

DFSS
NO

Is the gap
small?

Process
Capability

YES

DMAIC

Fundamental
Redesign

Iterative
Improvement

Design a new product / process


Broad approach
Blank sheet of paper approach
High risk
Longer time span
Addressing many CTQs
Goal: Quantum Leap

Fix an existing process


Narrow Focus
Use current process model
Low risk
Shorter Time Span
Addressing few CTQs
Goal: Improvement

When to Go for DFSS


Changing customer expectations: by the time the current
problems are solved, new problems will occur
Technology development: new technologies allow to meet all
customer requirements at lower cost or gain a competitive
edge
Next generation: the existing products remaining lifetime is
very short, a successor will be needed soon
System limits: the performance gap is due to system /
business model configurations that cannot be changed or the
available technology does not allow to meet CTQs
Process entirely broken: the existing process is unable to meet
many CTQs, too many successive DMAIC projects required

Influence on cost, cycle time and


quality
MANUFACTURING TRANSACTION
%20-30
DESIGN
MANU.-TRAN.

DESIGN
%70-80

Different DFSS Methodologies


Several roadmaps have been proposed.
They are very similar to each other. The underlying tools
are the same

DFSS Methodology: DMADV

D
Define
efine the
theproject
projectgoals
goals and
andcustomer
customer requirements.
requirements.
M
Measure
easureand
anddetermine
determinecustomer
customerneeds
needsand
and

specifications;
specifications; benchmark
benchmarkcompetitors
competitorsand
andindustry.
industry.

A
Analyze
nalyze the
theprocess
processoptions
options to
tomeet
meet the
the customer
customer needs.
needs.
D
Design
esign(detailed)
(detailed)the
theprocess
processto
tomeet
meet the
thecustomer
customer
needs.
needs.

V
Verify
erifythe
thedesign
designperformance
performanceand
andability
abilityto
tomeet
meet
customer
customer needs.
needs.

DFSS Methodology: DCCDI

D
Define
efine the
the project
project goals.
goals.
C
Customer
ustomer analysis.
analysis.
C
Concept
oncept ideas
ideas are
are developed,
developed, reviewed
reviewed and
and
selected.
selected.

D
Design
esign is
is performed
performed to
to meet
meet the
the customer
customer and
and
business
business specifications.
specifications.

IImplementation
mplementation is
is completed
completed to
to develop
develop and
and
commercialize
commercialize the
the product/service.
product/service.

DFSS Methodology: IDOV

IIdentify
dentify the
the customer
customer and
and specifications
specifications (CTQs).
(CTQs).
D
Design
esign translates
translates the
the customer
customer CTQs
CTQs into
into
functional
functional requirements
requirements and
and into
into solution
solution
alternatives.
alternatives.

O
Optimize
ptimize uses
uses advanced
advanced statistical
statistical tools
tools and
and

modeling
modeling to
to predict
predict and
and optimize
optimize the
the design
design
and
and performance.
performance.

V
Validate
alidate makes
makes sure
sure that
that the
the design
design developed
developed
will
will meet
meet the
the customer
customer CTQs.
CTQs.

DFSS Methodology: DMADV


D
Define
efine the
theproject
projectgoals,
goals, customer
customer requirements,
requirements, and
and
opportunities
opportunities

M
Measure
easurein
indetail
detailcustomer
customerneeds
needsand
andpriorities,
priorities,market
market
conditions,
conditions, and
andbenchmark
benchmarkcompetitors
competitors

A
Analyze
nalyzethe
thedata
datacollected,
collected,prioritize
prioritizeCTQs,
CTQs,determine
determine
relations
relationsbetween
betweenCTQs
CTQsand
andparts/processes
parts/processes

D
Develop
evelop concept,
concept,innovative
innovativesolutions,
solutions, and
and optimal
optimal
solutions
solutionsto
toproduct
product and
andprocess
process design
design

V
Validate
alidatethe
thesolutions
solutionsand
and implement
implement

DFSS Methodology: DMADV


TOOLS

DEFINE
MEASURE
ANALYZE
DEVELOP
VALIDATE

Project management
QFD
Benchmarking
Value analysis
Financial analysis
SIPOC
IPDS
FMEA
TRIZ
Design scorecards
MSA
Basic statistical techniques
DOE
Optimization
Simulation
Robust design
Tolerance design
Reliability engineering
Design for manufacture and assembly

All methodologies are similar


Define the
project
goals,
customer
requirements
, and
opportunitie
s

Define
Define

Measure in
detail
customer
needs and
priorities,
market
conditions,
and
benchmark
competitors

Measure
Measure

Identify
Identify

Analyze the
data collected,
prioritize
CTQs,
determine
relations
between CTQs
and
parts/processe
s

Develop
concept,
innovative
solutions, and
optimal
solutions to
product and
process
design

Validate
the
solutions
and
implement

Analyze
Analyze

Develop
Develop

Validate
Validate

Design
Design

Optimize
Optimize

Verify
Verify

How is it implemented?
2 weeks of DFSS training
Six Sigma BB or GB knowledge required for participation
2 project groups and 1 project per group
In between training and after training there are a lot of MBB coachings (2-3 days/project-month)

Six Sigma Black Belt


BB
BB Week
Week 11

BB
BB Week
Week 22

Six Sigma Green Belt


GB
GB Week
Week 11

BB
BB Week
Week 33

BB
BB Week
Week 44

Design For Six Sigma


DFSS
DFSS Week
Week 11 DFSS
DFSS Week
Week 22

GB
GB Week
Week 22

Or combined Six Sigma / DFSS Black Belt training program


Totally 5 weeks of training
Black Belts work on the design project
Team members may participate on a common project

Robust Design Problem


To
Tomake
makesystem
systemoutputs
outputsinsensitive
insensitiveto
tovariation
variationinininputs,
inputs,
process
processand
andenvironmental
environmentalfactors.
factors.
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5

Product or
Process

Y1
Y2
Y3

X6

Inputs
(Control
Factors)

Outputs
W1

W2

W3

Noise Factors
(uncontrollable)

Robust Product Design Example


Making
Makingsystem
systemoutput
outputrobust
robustto
toenvironmental
environmentalusage
usageconditions
conditions
Sugar
Flour
Egg
Milk
Oil

Making a cake using


a cake mix

Taste
Texture

Baking
powder

Inputs

Oven type

Altitude from sea level

Customer
requirements

(controllable)
Noise factors (uncontrollable)
AArobust
robustcake
cakemix
mixrecipe
recipereduces
reducesvariability
variabilityinintaste
tasteand
andtexture.
texture.

Robust Product Design Example


Making
Makingsystem
system output
output robust
robustto
to component
componentvariability
variability

Period
Period

Utilizing the second degree relationship between system output and inputs

What
Whatshould
shouldbe
bethe
the
pendulum
pendulumlength
lengthto
to
minimize
minimizevariation
variation
ininthe
theperiod?
period?

Pendulum
Pendulumlength
length

Robust Process Design Example

W2
W
2

Making
Makingsystem
system robust
robustto
toprocess
processvariability
variability

W1
W
1

What
Whatshould
shouldbe
bethe
the
amount
amountof
ofsteam
steam
blown
blownand
andamount
amountof
of
water
watersprayed
sprayedinto
into
the
theclosed
closedsystem
systemto
to
generate
generateaalevel
levelof
of
20%
20%humidity?
humidity?

%10

Water
Water

%20
%30

Steam
Steam

SS2
2

SS1
1

Guidelines for Robust Design through


Statistical Experimentation
1. Choose control factors and their levels
2. Identify uncontrollable (noise) factors and decide
on how they will be simulated
3. Select the response variable(s) and determine
the performance measures (mean, standard
deviation, SNR, etc.)
4. Setup the experimental layout (choose
appropriate design array(s))
5. Conduct the experiments and collect data
6. Analyze the data (effects, ANOVA, regression)
7. Choose optimal control factor levels and predict
the performance measure at these levels
8. Confirm the optimal levels by experimentation

Orthogonal Arrays
Ortogonal

No. of

Max. no. of

Array
L4
L8
L9
L12
L16
L16
L18
L25
L27
L32
L32
L36
L36
L50
L54
L64
L64
L81

rows
4
8
9
12
16
16
18
25
27
32
32
36
36
50
54
64
64
81

factors
3
7
4
11
15
5
8
6
13
31
10
23
16
12
26
63
21
40

Max. no. of factors at these levels


2
3
7
11
15
1
31
1
11
3
1
1
63
-

3
4
7
13
12
13
25
40

4
5
9
21
-

5
6
11
-

Ortogonal Array Construction Example


One
Onefactor
factorwith
with22levels,
levels,
66factors
factorswith
with33levels
levels

Quality (Consumer) Loss


The quality of a product is measured by estimating the
total loss to the customers due to variation in the
products functions.
For ideal quality, loss is zero.
Higher the loss, lower the quality.

(b)
(b)

LSL

=T

USL

(b)
Quality characteristic (X)

Quality Loss
= b (x-T)2
Average Quality Loss = b (2+(-T)2) (Taguchi,1989)
Loss coefficient

Smaller-the-Better Response
Loss Function L(Y)

Examples:

A 2
L( y) 2 y

L(y)

A
L 2 (y2 s2 )

Signal to Noise Ratio:

1 n 2
SNR 10 log( yi )
n i 1
10 log( y 2 s 2 )

Gas, Energy etc.


consumption
Noise
Radiation

Larger-the-Better Response
Loss Function L(Y)

1
L ( y ) A 2
y
2

L(y)

2
1
s
L A2 2 (1 3 2 )
y
y

Signal to Noise Ratio:

1 n 1
SNR 10 log( 2 )
n i 1 y i

1
s2
10 log( 2 (1 3 2 ))
y
y

Examples:
Mechanical power
Strength
Wearout resistance

Nominal-the-Best Response
Loss Function L(Y)
L(y)

Examples:

L( y )
L
y

A
2
(
y

T
)
2

A 2
2
(
s

(
y

T
)
)
2

Signal to Noise Ratio:


1. Minimize variance

SNR 10 log s 2
2. Bring the mean to the target

SNR 10 log(ny 2 )

Dimension (mm)
Strength
Voltage (V)

A Robust Design Experiment Layout

n 2 2 1
y 1n
y 2n
y 3n

....
....
....
....
....

2 2 1 2
y 12
y 22
y 32

....

1 1 1 1
y 11
y 21
y 31

1
2
3

1
2
3

1
1
1

....

1
2
3

Control Factors

i
1
2
3

Noise Factors

1 y m1

y m2

....

y mn

Performance Measures

y1 , s12 , SNR 1
y 2 , s 22 , SNR 2

y m , s 2m , SNR m

Cookie Recipe Robust Design (A largerthe-better robust design problem)


Objective: To find the control factor levels that maximize cookie
chewiness under uncontrollable effects of the noise factors.
Control Factors:
A: Cooking temperature
B: Syrup content
C: cooking time
D: cooking pan
E: Shortening type

Levels:
Low, high
Low, high
Short, long
Solid, mesh
Corn, coconut

Noise Factors:
Z1: Cookie position
Z2: Temperature at test

Levels:
Side, middle
Low, high

(Source: W.J. Kolarik, 1995, Creating Quality, McGraw-Hill)

The experimental design layout, and data


collected

Chewiness
measurements

Z1: side side middle middle


Z2: low high low
high

y
1 4
s
( yi y ) 2

3 i 1

log e s
1 4 1
SNR 10 log( 2 )
4 i 1 y i

Response Tables
Taguchi Analysis: y1; y2; y3; y4 versus A; B; C; D; E

Response Table for Signal to Noise Ratios


Larger is better

The following terms cannot be estimated,


and were removed.

A*B

Level
1
2
Delta
Rank

A
22,18
15,70
6,49
2

B
12,69
25,19
12,50
1

C
17,40
20,48
3,08
5

D
16,03
21,85
5,82
3

E
16,74
21,13
4,39
4

A*C
A*E

Response Table for Means

B*C

Level
1
2
Delta
Rank

B*D
B*E
C*D

A
20,250
14,000
6,250
4

B
8,750
25,500
16,750
1

C
12,750
21,500
8,750
2

D
13,750
20,500
6,750
3

E
16,250
18,000
1,750
5

C*E
D*E

Response Table for Standard Deviations


Level
1
2
Delta
Rank

A
4,774
7,781
3,007
1

B
5,437
7,117
1,680
2

C
5,756
6,798
1,042
3

D
6,132
6,422
0,289
5

E
6,665
5,889
0,776
4

Marginal Average (Main Effect) Plots


Main Effects Plot (data means) for SN ratios
A

24
21

Mean of SN ratios

18
15
12
1

24
21
18
15
12
1

Signal-to-noise: Larger is better

Variables A, B, D and E have significant effects on SNR. C does not


seem to be significant. But let us check this with ANOVA as well.

Interaction Plots
Interaction Plot (data means) for SN ratios
1

2
24
21

A
1
2

18

15
12
D
1
2

24
21
18

15
12
1

Signal-to-noise: Larger is better

Only AD interaction could be estimated and it seems to be


insignificant.

ANOVA for SNR


Analysis
Analysis of
of Variance
Variance for
for SN
SN ratios
ratios
Source
DF
Source
DF Seq
Seq SS
SS Adj
Adj SS
SS
AA
BB
CC
DD
EE
Residual
Residual Error
Error
Total
Total

11 84,126
84,126
11 312,689
312,689
11 18,981
18,981
11
11

67,643
67,643
38,553
38,553

22
5,970
5,970
77 527,962
527,962

FF
PP
84,126
28,18
84,126
28,18 0,034
0,034
312,689
312,689 312,689
312,689 104,74
104,74 0,009
0,009
18,981
6,36
18,981 18,981
18,981
6,36 0,128
0,128
67,643
67,643 67,643
67,643 22,66
22,66 0,041
0,041
38,553
38,553
5,970
5,970

Adj
Adj MS
MS
84,126
84,126

38,553
38,553
2,985
2,985

12,91
12,91 0,069
0,069

Stat DOE Taguchi Analyze Taguchi Design-Analysis


choose fit linear model for Signal to Noise ratios

Predict Results at the Optimal Levels

Stat DOE Taguchi


Predict Taguchi Results

Predict Results at the Optimal Levels

Taguchi
TaguchiAnalysis:
Analysis:y1;
y1;y2;
y2;y3;
y3;y4
y4versus
versusA;
A;B;
B;C;
C;D;
D;EE
Predicted
Predictedvalues
values
S/N
S/N Ratio
Ratio Mean
Mean

StDev
StDev Log(StDev)
Log(StDev)
35,0761
1,83763
35,0761 37,25
37,25 5,89143
5,89143
1,83763

Conduct confirmation
experiments at these
levels!

Factor
Factor levels
levels for
for predictions
predictions
AA BB CC DD EE
11

22 22 22 22

E (SNR ) T ( A1 T ) (B2 T ) (C2 T ) (D2 T ) (E 2 T )