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Peripherals

Devices that are separate from the


basic computer
Not the CPU, memory, power supply

Classified as input, output, and storage


Connect via
Ports

parallel, USB, serial

Interface to systems bus

SCSI, IDE, PCMCIA

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Storage Devices
Primary memory
Expanded storage
Secondary storage
Data and programs must be copied to
primary memory for CPU access
Permanence of data
Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
Online storage
Offline storage loaded when needed
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Speed
Measured by access time and data
transfer rate
Access time: average time it takes a
computer to locate data and read it
millisecond = one-thousandth of a second

Data transfer rate: amount of data that


moves per second

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Hierarchy of Storage
Device

Typical Access Times

Throughput Rate

CPU Registers
Cache Memory (SRAM)

15 to 30 nanoseconds

Conventional Memory (DRAM)

50 to 100 nanoseconds

Expanded Storage (RAM)

75 to 500 nanoseconds

Hard Disk Drive


Floppy Disk
CD-ROM
Tape

Chapter 10

10 to 50 milliseconds
95 milliseconds
100 to 600 milliseconds
.5 and up seconds

600 to 6,000 KB/sec


100 to 200 KB/sec
500 to 4,000 KB/sec
2,000 KB/sec (cartridge)

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Secondary Storage Devices

Hard drives, floppy drives


CD-ROM and DVD-ROM drives
CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-RW
Tape drives
Network drives
Direct access vs. Sequential access
Rotation vs. Linear

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Magnetic Disks

Track circle
Cylinder same track on all platters
Block small arc of a track
Sector pie-shaped part of a platter
Head reads data off the disk

Head crash
Parked heads
Number of bits on each track is the same! Denser towards the
center.
CAV constant angular velocity
Spins the same speed for every track
Hard drives 3600 rpm 7200 rpm
Floppy drives 360 rpm

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A Hard Disk Layout

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Locating a Block of Data


Average seek time: time required
to move from one track to
another

Latency: time required for disk to


rotate to beginning of correct
sector
Transfer time: time required to
transfer a block of data to the
disk controller buffer

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Disk Access Times


Avg. Seek time
average time to move from one track to another

Avg. Latency time


average time to rotate to the beginning of the
sector
Avg. Latency time = * 1/rotational speed

Transfer time
1/(# of sectors * rotational speed)

Total Time to access a disk block


Avg. seek time + avg. latency time + avg. transfer time

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Magnetic Disks
Data Block Format

Interblock gap
Header
Data
Formatting disk

Disk Interleaving

Disk Interleaving
Disk Arrays
RAID mirrored, striped
Majority logic fault-tolerant computers
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Disk Block Formats


Single Data Block

Header for Windows disk

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Alternate Disk Technologies


Removable hard drives
Disk pack disk platters are stored in a plastic case that is
removable
Another version includes the disk head and arm assembly in
the case

Fixed-head disk drives


One head per track
Eliminates the seek time

Bernoulli Disk Drives


Hybrid approach that incorporates both floppy and hard disk
technology
Zip drives

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Magnetic Tape

Offline storage
Archival purposes
Disaster recovery
Tape Cartridges

20 144 tracks (side by side)


Read serially (tape backs up)
QIC quarter inch cartridge (larger size)
DAT digital audio tape (small size)
Size typically includes (2:1 compression)

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Optical Storage
Reflected light off a mirrored or pitted surface
CD-ROM
Spiral 3 miles long, containing 15 billion bits!
CLV all blocks are same physical length
Block 2352 bytes

2k of data (2048 bytes)


16 bytes for header (12 start, 4 id)
288 bytes for advanced error control

DVD-ROM
4.7G per layer
Max 2 layers per side, 2 sides = 17G
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Optical Storage
Laser strikes land: light reflected into detector
Laser strikes a pit: light scattered

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Layout: CD-ROM vs. Standard Disk


CD-ROM

Chapter 10

Hard Disk

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CD-ROMs
General Speed

Seek Time
(milliseconds)

Single-Speed

600

150K per second

2X

320

300K per second

3X

250

450K per second

4X

135-180

600K per second

6X

135-180

900K per second

8X

135-180

1.2 MBps

10X

135-180

1.6 MBps

12X

100-150

1.8 MBps

16X

100-150

2.4 MBps (maximum)

24X

100-150

3.6 Mbps (maximum)

32X

100-150

4.8 Mbps (maximum)

Chapter 10

Data Transfer Rate

10-17

Types of Optical Storage


WORM Disks
Write-once-read-many times
Medium can be altered by using a medium-powered laser to
blister the surface
Data stored in concentric tracks, sectored like a magnetic
disk
CAV

Medium-powered laser blister technology also used


for
CD-R, DVD-R, DVD-ROM
CD-RW, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, DVD+RAM

Magneto-Optical Disks

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Displays
Pixel picture element
Size: diagonal length of screen
Resolution (pixels on screen)
VGA: 480 x 640
SVGA: 600 x 800
768 x 1024
1280 x 1024
Picture size calculation
Resolution * bits required to represent number of
colors in picture
Example: 16 color image, 100 pixels by 50 pixels
4 bits (16 colors) * 100 * 50 = 20,000 bits

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Display Screen
Screen size: measured
diagonally
Resolution: minimum
identifiable pixel size
Aspect ratio: x pixels to
y pixels
4:3 on most PCs
16:9 on high definition
displays

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Color and Displays


Pixel color is determined by intensity of
3 colors Red Green Blue or RGB
4 bits per color
16 x 16 x 16 = 4096 colors

24 bit color (True Color)


16.7 million colors

Video memory requirements are


significant!
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CRTs and Text Monitors


CRTs (similar to TVs)

3 stripes of phosphors for each color


3 separate electron guns for each color
Strength of beam brightness of color
Raster scan

30x per second


Interlaced vs. non-interlaced (progressive scan)

Text monitors

24 lines x 80 chars
A character is the smallest unit on a screen
Very little memory required
Fast for remote transmissions

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Interlaced vs Noninterlaced

Chapter 10

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Diagram of Raster Screen


Generation Process

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Display Example

Chapter 10

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LCD Liquid Crystal Display


Fluorescent light panel
3 color cells per pixel
Operation
1st filter polarizes light in a specific direction
Electric charge rotates molecules in liquid crystal
cells proportional to the strength of colors
Color filters only let through red, green, and blue
light
Final filter lets through the brightness of light
proportional to the polarization twist
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LCD Operation

Chapter 10

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LCDs (continued)
Active matrix
One transistor per cell
More expensive
Brighter picture

Passive matrix
One transistor per row or column
Each cell is lit in succession
Display is dimmer since pixels are lit less
frequently
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Printers
Dots vs. pixels
300-2400 dpi vs. 70-100 pixels per inch
Dots are on or off, pixels have intensities

Types

Typewriter / Daisy wheels obsolete


Dot matrix usually 24 pins, impact printing
Inkjet squirts heated droplets of ink
Laserjet
Thermal wax transfer
Dye Sublimation

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Creating a Gray Scale

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Laser Printer Operation


1. Dots of laser light are beamed onto a drum
2. Drum becomes electrically charged
3. Drum passes through toner which then sticks to
the electrically charged places
4. Electrically charged paper is fed toward the drum
5. Toner is transferred from the drum to the paper
6. The fusing system heats and melts the toner onto
the paper
7. A corona wire resets the electrical charge on the
drum
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Laser Printer Operation

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Laser Printer Operation

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Other Computer Peripherals


Scanners
Flatbed, sheet-fed, hand-held
Light is reflected off the sheet of paper

User Input Devices


Keyboard, mouse, light pens, graphics
tablets

Communication Devices
Telephone modems
Network devices
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