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Types of plant pathogens

Necrotrophic pathogen

Biotrophic pathogen

Hemibiotrophic

Plants cannot do many things

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Plants have disposable body parts; we dont

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Basic defenses of a plant

Living in the apoplast

Hypersensitive responses kill small parts of the leaf

res2.agr.gc.ca/ecorc/ corn-mais/images/fig-22.jpg

http://ppathw3.cals.cornell.edu/PhotoLab/Stills/Tobacco/Tobacco.jpg

Hypersensitive response

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Systemicacquiredimmunity

Involvessalicylatebutthisisnot
thefactoractingthroughthe
plant

Vernooij, B. et al. 1994, Plant Cell 6: 959-965

TMV plaques in scion leaves

X/N

N/X

N/N

X/X
Vernooij, B. et al. 1994, Plant Cell 6: 959-965

Crunchersvssuckers

JAinductionbyinsectsand
necrotrophs

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Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants, Buchanan et al. ed, 2000

Arginine and threonine depletion in the gut

ProcNatlAcadSciUSA.2005Dec27;102(52):1923742.

Pseudomonas syringae alters


the immune balance of the plant

The gene-for-gene resistance model

RRorRr

rr

Avr1

Nodisease

Disease

avr1

Disease

Disease

The gene-for-gene resistance model

RRorRr

rr

Avr1

Nodisease

Disease

avr1

Disease

Disease

Similarity between R genes and Toll

Staskawicz B.J. et al. Science, 2001 5525: 2285-9

Bacteria secrete proteins into the plant cell


Cytoplasm using a type III secretion system

Host cytoplasm

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Bacterial cell

Crunchersvssuckers

Mi1isanRgenegivingresistanceto
nematodeandaphidinfection

Wild type:
Aphid infested

Carrying Mi-1

Vos, P. et al. 1998 Nature Biotechnology 16: 1365-69

Fungimustbreakthroughthe
surfaceoftheleaf
http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/pp/faculty/hoch/images/black_r
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ot6.gif

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Arabidopsis
powdery mildew
Erysiphe cichoracearum

Host infection
on Arabidopsis

Barley
powdery mildew (Bgh)
Blumeria graminis f.sp hordei

Nonhost infection
on Arabidopsis

Host infection
on Barley

From:MonicaStein,Somervillelab,Stanford

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Structure of the penetration peg

Erysiphe cichoracearum on Arabidopsis


Spore

Appressorium

Hypha
haustorium

Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei on Arabidopsis

A) germination and attempted


penetration
Nonhost:
90%

Host:
95%

Spore

B) penetration and haustorial


development
Host:
90%

hyphae

Nonhost:
2%

Host:
90%

cell death

D) Conidiation
Host:
90%

haustorium

Nonhost:
4%

C) Hyphal elongation

hyphae

conidia

Appressorium

Nonhost:
0%

Cytological Characterization

host

(Zimmerli,L; Stein,M; Lipka,V; Schulze-Lefert,P; Somerville,SC,


Plant Journal (2004))

Papillae

callose deposition in response


to pathogen attack was
dramatically different between
host and nonhost inoculation.
H

Nonhost haustoria were


rapidly encased in callose
From:MonicaStein,Somervillelab,Stanford

nonhost

Callose is deposited at infection sites

pen mutants
WT

pen1

From:MonicaStein,Somervillelab,Stanford

pen3 plants allow more hyphal growth


than other pen mutants
WT

pen3

From:MonicaStein,Somervillelab,Stanford

Phenotype Quantification
30

% of germinated spores

25

**
**

**

20

Wt

pen1
48M3

15

pen2
136N4

**

10

0
1

Penetration

Elongated Hyphae

From:MonicaStein,Somervillelab,Stanford

pen3
114N4
P<.0001
**P<.01
*

The story is complicated: Mutation of


the callose synthase increases
resistance to a fungal pathogen

Nishimura, M.T. et al. Science 2003 301: 969-72.