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London 2012 Velodrome Stadium

LONG SPAN STRUCTURE

Guide By :
Prof. R.P.Hire
Prof. S.S.Bodhankar

Submitted By :
Name 1) Akshay R.Surve(28)
2) Arjun Nambiar (34)

London 2012 - Velodrome


N

One of the most elegant new sports


halls of Olympia 2012 is the
Velodrome by Hopkins Architect. In
contrast to various other competition
venues, the cycling arena with 6,000
seats created on the former East
way Cycle Circuit site has been
designed as a permanent building.
Architects: Hopkins Architects, London
Structural engineers: Expedition Engineering Ltd.,
London;
schlaich bergermann partner, Stuttgart (cable net)
Location: Olympic Park, Stratford
Coordinates:55 50' 50" N

04 12' 28.95" W

CONCEPT
concept was for the venue was to evoke
the geometry of the cycling track in the
form of the building, which after much
refinement resulted in the double-curved
roof form (nicknamed the Pringle)

13m
SECTION AB

SECTION CD

138 m
D

130 m
A

PLAN

Seats: 6,000
Built-up area: 21,700 m
Roof area: 12,000 m
Spiral strand cables: 36 mm in
diameter; 14 km in length
Weight of steel construction: 1,029
t
Span width: 136 m
Dimensions: 138 x 130 m; height of
13.7 m above ground, 2.6 m below
ground
Construction
costs: approx. EUR 130 million

WIND VELOCITY
Humidity 81%
Wind
Speed

Avg:
SW 8 mph

Barometer

31.82 in
(1210.8 mb)

Dew point

65F
(19.5C)

Breath of fresh air

In summer and midseason,


the building will be ventilated
using natural ventilation alone
it does not need heating.
The natural ventilation system
follows a similar pattern to the
mechanical ventilation.
Insulated dampers will open to
allow fresh air to enter through
the lower set of louvers set
into the faade

ROOF LIGHT:

Simulation of lux levels from the rooflights. Designers were


looking to achieve 300 lux of natural light distributed
evenly on the track to minimize need for artificial light
during legacy use.

Sketch showing how proposed skylights (blue vertical stripes) will be integrated
into the cable net structure.

SOIL TYPE:
Alfisols, commonly known as fine red mixture clay soil
Maximum safe bearing capacity =

10,000 kg/m2

TYPE OF FOUNDATION
RAFT FOUNDATION.
PILE FOUNDATION.
CONCRETE PIERS

Raft Foundation

Pile Foundation

CONSTRUCTION:

Some 48,000 cubic meters of material was excavated to create the


bowl for the Velodrome, enough to fill 19 Olympic-sized swimming pools
More than 900 piles were driven up to 26 meters beneath the ground
to complete the foundations of the venue
More than 2,500 sections of steelwork were installed to complete the
steel structure of the Velodrome
.

Sustainability elements:
The building has been designed to be lightweight and efficient to reflect
the efficient design of a bicycle
Use of abundant daylight through strategically positioned rooflights
reduces need for artificial lighting and allows natural ventilation
Water saving fittings built into design to allow collection of rainwater for
reuse in building, helping reduce water consumption
Lightweight cable-net roof structure weighs 30kg/m2 compared to
65kg/m2 for the Beijing Velodrome, helping create a highly efficient building

VELODROME FOUNDATIONS PROGRE

Raft Foundation

The 6,000 seat venue will host the Olympic and Paralympic indoor Track
Cycling events.
More than 900 piles have been driven to depths of up to 26m to complete
the foundations of the London 2012 Velodrome the Olympics main
cycling venue.
Pile Foundation

Concrete Piers

FORM:

FORM :
- As tension structures are very sensitive to
movement at the supports, the Velodrome roof
needed a stiff steel compression ring, which
was in turn borne by raking trusses that also
supported the seating.

Use Software :
-The trusses in turn were rigidly mounted on the
concrete base structure.
Designers used GSA Analysis modeling software
(Oasys) throughout the design process, from form
finding the cable net to static analysis to checking the
vibration characteristics of the completed building.

-Unlike most double curved surfaces, hyperbolic surfaces have a curious property: you can
make them entirely out of straight lines
-Hyperbolic surfaces are double-ruled surfaces, meaning that they are formed from two
series of parallel lines. The classic version of this is the hyperbolic parabolic, or hyper for
short, which you can form by twisting a rectangular plane

ROOF STRUCTURE
The basic structure of the roof is a cable net, a criss-cross of tensile members
held at the perimeter. Engineer Andrew Weir draws an analogy with the taut
strings of a tennis racket. This solution was chosen in large part because it will be
fast to erect, but it will also be light and efficient.
Roof Covering and Cladding
have supported little more than a fabric skin.
high level of insulation was required.
The roof will be formed of panel units or cassettes, to be detailed by the
contractor.
Most will be 3.6 x 3.6m solid units, plus strips of narrower roof light units
made up in a similar way.
Four cranes will drop the panels into place, while the roof will be temporarily
weatherproofed with fold-over strips between the cassettes.
On top of this, a vapor membrane and Calzip aluminum cladding will be
placed.
welding each 130m span will come in a single
piece 400mm wide and will be fixed to T sections
screwed to the cassettes.
The upper portion of each rib will also support the
exterior cladding in the form of 288 long, tapered
timber cassettes.
Six vertically stacked cassettes will span each bay
a width of about 8m and these will be over clad
with timber rain screen panels.

MATERIAL USE :

. The cable net forms a 3.6 m grid, with


the intersections serving as support
points for wooden cassette elements
with an aluminum standing-seam roof
surface. Compared to a conventional
structure, a saving of approximately 1,000
tones of steel was possible thanks to the
construction based on tension elements
and a ring beam.

The cable net roof is composed of


galvanized steel cables arranged in
pairs, each with a diameter of 36
mm. Hydraulic jacks were used to
tension the cable net until the ends
of the cables could be attached to
tension control bolts connected to
the circular compression member of
the primary structure

Each cable was prepared in advance and marked with the precise position of the intersection nodes
to produce a 3.60-metre grid of right-angled roof panels after tensioning. Cast steel clamps connect
intersecting cable pairs and carry support points for the roof covering

Timber frame panels make up the load-carrying layer of the roof construction.
Joints between the elements (6 centimeters in width on average) allow for movement in the 'soft'
roof construction.
A corner of each of four panels is independently supported by a bracket and a connecting plate.

5,000 m of red cedar wood were used


for the wood faade. Energy losses are
minimized by an exact fit of altogether
192 prefabricated faade elements into
the curved shape of the building
envelope. The wooden panels are fitted
with ventilation flaps and allow a
predominantly natural ventilation of the
Velodrome.

A polyester fabric coated with PVC on either side


was used to bridge the gap between upper tier and
roof, offering high durability as well as maximum
flexibility. These 'screens' hide the ventilation
technology while at the same time providing a fall
protection barrier at the rear of the tier areas for
spectators. They form a visually continuous band
around the whole bowl-shaped arena, filling the
void between the varying levels of the seating
bleachers and the curved roof.

Precast prestressed concrete is the overwhelming choice for stadiums and arenas
because of its

Unlimited design options


High strength and impermeability
Superior quality and durability
Speedy, all-weather construction
Lower cost than cast-in-place concrete
Low maintenance requirements

Conrete Grade Used : grade 80 , vtu (N/mm2) = 8


Concete Standards Used:
BS 8500 Concrete: Complementary
British Standard to BS EN 206-1 BS EN 197

Cement BS EN 206-1 Concrete: Specification, performance,


production and conformity

Building Codes Used


Regulation (EU) No 305/2010
EN 197-1:2000
EN 197-4:2004
EN 40-5:2002
CEN EN 54-7:2000
Fire detection and fire alarm systems - Part 7: Smoke
detectors - Point detectors using scattered light, transmitted
light or ionization