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Overview of Wireless Networks

By Najeeb Haider Zaidi

Wireless Network
Difference between Guided and Unguided
Medium
Wireless Communications

Rapid Growth
Cellular Systems
Wireless LANs
Wireless Sensors Networks

History of Wireless Networks

Technical Objectives

Current Wireless Systems


Cellular Telephony

Cellular Architecture

Current Cellular Network Architecture

Current Wireless Systems


Cordless Phones

Cordless Phones

Evolved in 1970s
Low Cost Low Mobility Wireless
Link to PSTN
CT-2 are used as telephone
Booth, they have extended range
and nearly the similar voice
Quality as compared to the 1st
Generation Cordless Telephony

Current Wireless Systems


Wireless Local Area Network

Wireless LAN Standards


802.11a

300MHz spectrum
5GHz frequency Range
Multicarrier Modulations
20-70Mbps Data rate (50m Range)

80MHz Spectrum
2.4GHz Frequency Range
Multicarrier Modulations
1.6Mbps Data rate (150m Range)

802.11b

802.11g

Can be used on either 2.4GHz or 5GHz band


Multicarrier Modulations
54Mbps Data rate

Current Wireless Systems


Broadband Wireless Networks

BWA
Broadband wireless access provides high-rate
wireless communications between a fixed access
point and multiple terminals.
Provides Interactive Video Services, High Speed
Data Access to Internet to the Home/Business
Users.

Types of BWA
28 GHz spectrum for local distribution systems
(local multipoint distribution systems or LMDS).
2 GHz spectrum for metropolitan distribution
systems (multichannel multipoint distribution
services or MMDS).
WiMax 10-66GHz with two sub standards
802.16d and 802.16e.

Applications of The Types


LMDS
MMDS
Mobile WIMAX

Current Wireless Systems


Satellite Networks

Satellite Mobile (Voice/Data)


1st Generation Inmarsatt and OmniTRACKS
GEO Satellites
Provides Location Updates and Alphanumeric
Messaging besides 2 way voice communications
Large and Bulky Handsets are used with 1m Parabolic
Dish

2nd Generation (Irridium, Globalstar)

LEO Satellites
Global Roaming with a single Phone Number
Smaller Handset
Data rates upto 10Kbps

Satellite Video Broadcast

Analog Video Broadcast


Digital Video Broadcast
Live Video Coverage
High Capacity VSATT Links
Digital Satellite News Gathering
Satellite Positioning

Current Wireless Systems


Low Cost Low Power Radios
Bluetooth and Zigbee

Bluetooth
Provides short range connection between wireless
devices with networking capabilities.
Connection is based on a tiny microchip which can be
installed in Laptops, Mobile phones, Palmtops and
Network Access Points
Achieves 10m range at 1mW of output power and 100m
at 100mW of output power.
The system operates at 2.4GHz unlicensed frequency
band
Provides 1 Asynchronous Data Channel at 723.2Kbps
3 Synchronous Channels each with 64Kbps data rate can
be used.

Zigbee
The ZigBee3 radio specification is designed for lower
cost and power consumption than Bluetooth .
The specification is based on the IEEE 802.15.4
standard.
The radio operates in the same band as Bluetooth, and is
capable of connecting 255 devices per network.
The specification supports data rates of up to 250 Kbps
at a range of up to 30 m.
The goal of ZigBee is to provide radio operation for
months or years without recharging, thereby targeting
applications such as sensor networks and inventory tags.

Current Wireless Systems


Ultra Wideband Radio

Ultra Wide Band Radios


Ultra Wide Band (UWB) radios are extremely wideband radios with very
high potential data rates.
The concept of ultra wide band communications actually originated with
Marconis spark gap transmitter, which occupied a very wide bandwidth.
However, since only a single low-rate user could occupy the spectrum,
wideband communications was abandoned in favor of more efficient
communication techniques.
FCC in 2002 allowed operation of UWB devices as system underlayed
beneath existing users over a 7 GHz range of frequencies.
These systems can operate either at baseband or at a carrier frequency in
the 3.6-10.1 GHz range.
The underlay in theory interferers with all systems in that frequency range,
including critical safety and military systems, unlicensed systems such as
802.11 wireless and Bluetooth, and cellular systems where operators paid
billions of dollars for dedicated spectrum use.