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CHAPTER VII: PRACTICAL

NATIONALISM IN DAPITAN
KYNA B. DAVID
CYRILLE AGNES A. TARROJA

Rizal was exiled in Dapitan after his


summons to Malacanang Palace. In the four
years that he stayed in Dapitan, he
demonstrated practical nationalism and his
fellow Filipinos living there to do the same.

When Dr. Rizal


was
exiled
in
Dapitan, he was in
the prime of life
and was already a
famous
man,
having (to use
Captain
Ricardo
Carniceros words)
attained a certain
level of popularity
in Philippines.

He had passed only 31


summers;
had
obtained the best
education here and
abroad; had earned a
reputation as a great
poet, essayist, and
novelist; had become a
skilled physician and
ophthalmologist; had
proven himself an
accomplished painter
and sculptor; and had
even been admitted
into a number of elite
societies in Europe.

In short, it would
not be incorrect to
say that he had
become
a
complete
man
and a citizen of the
world. Rizal varied
accomplishments
would serve him
well during his
sojourn in Dapitan

RIZAL BOARDS WITH THE


COMMANDANT
In Dapitan, Rizal was given
two choices of residency:
with the parish priest in the
Jesuit mission house or
with
politico-military
commander of the district
in the Case Real.

Casa Real

RIZAL BOARDS WITH THE


COMMANDANT
Fr. Antonio Obach, S.J., the
parish priest, imposed
certain conditions before
before
extending
hospitality to Rizal: that he
should make a public
retraction of his religious
errors, issue statements that
were unmistakably proSpanish,
undergo
the
spiritual exercises of St.
Ignatius, and make general
confession.

Fr. Antonio Obach, S.J.

RIZAL BOARDS WITH THE


COMMANDANT
As Rizal considered many of
such
conditions
unacceptable and was thus
unwilling to satisfy them,
he chose to board with
Governor Carnicero for
about eight months. The
governor was also a
physician, a bachelor, and a
free thinker, like Rizal.

Don Ricardo Carcinero

INDEPENDENT LIFE IN TALISAY


In the following month, Rizal
won P6,200.00 in the
lottery, which he joined
together with Captain
Carcinero. He sent a third
of this amount to his
mother, and with the
remaining amount, he
bought 16 hectares of land
from the different owners
who had abandoned them.

Three (3) pesetas amount


Rizal allotted for lottery tickets
every month.

INDEPENDENT LIFE IN TALISAY


P20,000.00 lottery prize.
P6,200.00 of it was given to
Rizal.
P2,000.00 of his share he
gave to his father and
mother.
P200.00 to his friend in
Basa in Hong Kong.
The rest he invested thru
purchasing
agricultural
lands from the coast of
Butuan mail boat which
Talisay about kilometer brought the news about Rizals
away from Dapitan
winning in the lottery

INDEPENDENT LIFE IN TALISAY


This was his only vice.
Wenceslao E. Retana
(His
first
Spanish
biographer and former
enemy)

Rizal was a lottery addict

INDEPENDENT LIFE IN TALISAY


He built his own house; planted coffee and
cacao; established a hospital and a school for
bright boys; collected botanical and zoological
specimens for some museums in Europe;
gathered more than 200 species of seashells,
tilled the soil; and embarked on the business of
buying and selling abaca, copra, etc.

A TYPICAL DAY FOR RIZAL IN


DAPITAN
Rizal fortunately recounted in writing a graphic
account of his typical day in Talisay and in the
poblacion. Such account was found in his
letter to Blumentritt on December 19, 1893

A TYPICAL DAY FOR RIZAL IN


DAPITAN
From my house I can hear the murmur of a crystalline rivulet
that drops from high rocks, and I can see the shore, the sea
where I have two small boats canoes or barotos, as they are
called here. I have many fruit trees: mangoes, lanzones,
guayabanos, batuno, nanca, etc. I have rabbits, dogs, cats, etc.
I get up early, at five oclock, inspect my fields, feed the
chickens, and wake up my workers and get them to work. At
half past seven, we breakfast on tea, pastries, cheese, sweets,
etc., then I examine and treat my poor patients who come to
see me, after which I dress up and go to town in my baroto to
visit my patients there. I return at noon and have my luncheon,
which will have been made ready for me. Afterwards, I teach
my boys until four oclock and spend the rest of the afternoon
in the fields. At night, I read and study.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A PHYSICIAN
As
there
were
hardly
physicians in Dapitan,
Rizal
practiced
his
profession in the town and
rendered
professional
services to all who needed
it, without charging the
poor.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A PHYSICIAN
During his last two years in
Talisay, his fame as a
doctor was such that
numerous patients from
Bohol,
Panay,
Cebu,
Luzon, Siquijor, Negros,
Mindanao, and even from
outside the country made
trips to Dapitan for medical
treatment

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A PHYSICIAN
Among the persons he treated
were his mother, the
alferez, and an Englishman
who paid him P500,
George Taufer.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A PHYSICIAN
Dona Teodora and Maria
lived with Rizal for a year
and a half. It is here when
Rizal operated his mothers
right eye. Though the
operation was successful,
his mother had a wound
infection
after ignoring
Rizals instruction of not
removing
the bandages.
However, the infection was
immediately treated

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A PHYSICIAN
He gave free medicine
Rich patients who paid him
for his surgical skill.
He operated his mothers
eye.
Don Ignacio Tumarong,
Rizals patient who was
able to see again after his
operation and paid him
Php3,000.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A PHYSICIAN
An Englishman paid him
Php500.
Don Florencio Azcarraga, a
rich hacendero of Aklan
who was cured of eye
ailment and paid him a
cargo of sugar.
Became interested in the
local medicine.
Rizal prescribed medicinal
plants to his poor patients.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A PHYSICIAN
Now I understand very well
why a physician should not
treat the members of his
family.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A FARMER
In the early months of 1893, Rizal informed his
mother that his plantation had more than 50
lanzones trees, balanos, and 18 mangosteens. He
also planted some 1,400 coffee and 200 cacao
seedlings. He was confident that this property
alone would yield him a net profit of P2,000
annually.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A FARMER
Rizal acquired total land holdings of 70 hectares
where 6,000 hemp plants, 1,000 coconut trees and
numerous fruit trees, sugarcane, corn, coffee and
cacao were planted.
He planned to establish an agricultural colony in
Sitio Ponot because it was ideal for raising cacao,
coffee, coconuts and cattle. However, this did not
materialize due to lack of support from the
government

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A FARMER
He imported agricultural machinery from the
United States
We will establish a new Kalamba

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A BUSINESSMAN
Rizal entered into a partnership with a male Dapitan
native and with a number of Spaniard who were
in the business of buying and selling abaca, copra,
and fish. He taught the local natives and the
governor to unite for trading purposes and so that
they would become independent and free
themselves from the Chinese. Fortunately, they
made a little profit and became actively in trading,
and very satisfied.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A BUSINESSMAN
In partnership with Ramon
Carreon, a Dapitan Merchant
Cooperative Association of
Dapitan Farmers - to
improve the farm products,
obtain better outlets for them,
collect funds for their
purchases, and help the
producers and workers by
establishing a store wherein
they
can
buy
prime
commodities at moderate
prices

Ramon Carreon, a Dapitan


Merchant

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A BUSINESSMAN
Ramon Carreon, Rizals
business partner in Dapitan
Rizal
made
profitable
business ventures in fishing,
copra and hemp industries.
Hemp industry, Rizals most
profitable business
Once he shipped 150 bales of
hemp
to
Manila.
He purchased
hemp
in
Dapitan at P7 and 4 reales
per picul and he sold it
to Manila at P10 and 4 reales.

Ramon Carreon, a Dapitan


Merchant

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A BUSINESSMAN
Rizal also engaged in lime
manufacturing.
Their lime
burner had a monthly
capacity of more than 400
bags of lime
He organized the Cooperative
Association
of Dapitan
Farmers to break Chinese
monopoly.

Ramon Carreon, a Dapitan


Merchant

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A TEACHER
Rizal opened a sort of
community school, which
he operated from January
1894 to the end of July
1896. At most, he had 23
pupils,
some
staying
relatively longer but most
for only a few months. He
also taught some of his
nephews who stayed with
him in Talisay Spanish,
English,
arithmetic,
gymnastics, swimming, etc.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A TEACHER
These fortunate lads were
Emilio (son of Narcisa),
Teodosio and Estanislao
(sons of Lucia), and Mauricio
(son of Maria). He also
taught the poor but intelligent
boys
reading,
Spanish,
English, Mathematics, and
geometry
and
values,
including a better way of
earning a living.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A TEACHER
In Rizals students, the
dignity of labor was
practically inculcated by
requiring everyone to make
himself useful (Craig,
1909). Further, the school
that Rizal put up in Dapitan
was really the first school
of its type, combining the
use of English, nature study,
and industrial instruction.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A TEACHER
Rizal established in Dapitan a
school. It began with 3 pupils
who increased to 16 and
eventually 21.
16 of his pupils did not pay
tuition. Instead of charging
them fees, Rizal made them
work in his gardens and
construction projects.
Formal classes were between
2:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m. He
also applied the emperor
system like that of Ateneo.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A TEACHER
During recess, pupils built
fires to drive awayinsects,
pruned fruit trees and
manured the soil.
Outside class hours, students
had
gymnastics, boxing,
wrestling,
stone-throwing,
swimming, arnis and boating

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCIENTIST
The late Dr. Jose P. Bantug, in
his brochure entitled Rizal:
Scholar
and
Scientist
(1946), briefly discussed
Rizals achievements as a
horticulturist,
farmer,
botanist,
pharmacologist,
zoologist,
entomologist,
conchologist, ichthyologist,
anthropologist, ethnologist,
cartographer, archeologist,
sanitary
engineer,
and
physician-specialist.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCIENTIST
He had built up a rich
collection
of
concology
(consisting of 346 shells of
203 species)
He
discovered
rare specimens like:
Draco rizali(a flying
dragon)
Apogonia rizali(a small
beetle)
Rhacophorus rizali(a rare
frog)

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCIENTIST
He
conducted
anthropological,
ethnographical,
archaeological,
geological
and geographical studies.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCIENTIST

The Three Rare Species

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCIENTIST

Fishes Caught in Dapitan

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCIENTIST
As Rizal found Dapitan and its
environs teeming with flora
and fauna specimens, he
was able to send valuable
collections of reptiles, birds,
crustaceans,
coleopteran,
seashells, butterflies, etc. to
Ateneo and some selected
European museums.

Dresden Museum

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCIENTIST
For these remittances, his
European
friends
compensated him by way of
books
on
science,
philosophy, and literature,
and with such surgical
instruments as he could use
in his field of specialization.

Dresden Museum

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCIENTIST
Rizal sent specimens he
found to the museum
of Europe especially the
Dresden Museum. In turn,
he received scientific books
and surgical instruments.

Dresden Museum

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCIENTIST
Among the other scientific achievements of Rizal in
Dapitan were the invention of a machine that
could produce 6,000 bricks a day, the discovery of
a formula for making bakhaw paste, the making
(with the aid of Fr. Sanchez) of a huge relief map
of Mindanao, which he displayed in the town
plaza, and the extension of assistance in providing
the people of Dapitan with potable water.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCHOLAR AND WRITER
In spite of his various activities in Dapitan, Rizal
still found time for literary and linguistic pursuits.
He studied the Bisayan and Malayan languages.
In February 1893, he reported to Blumentritt, I
am learning Bisayo, and I am beginning to
speak a little with inhabitants here. Rizal also
contributed to the fields of philology and
etymology.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCHOLAR AND WRITER
In some of his letters to Blumentritt, he explained to him the
meaning and derivation of certain terms, such as Magingadaw,
Lanaw, Dapitan, Bathala, catalonan, and babailan. Rizals
other writings during his deportation include four poemsTo
Don Ricardo Carnicero, My Retreat, Hymn to Talisay,
and Song of the Traveler; four letters to Rev. Pablo Pastels,
S.J. on philosophy and religion; translations from German into
Spanish of Prof. Blumentritts Ethonographia de la Isla de
Maguindanao and Ampliacion a Mi Mapa; fragments of three
novel, two of which are entitled Dapitan and Makamisa; the
constitution and by-laws of the Society of Dapitan
Argriculturists; and the genealogy of the Rizal family.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCHOLAR AND
WRITER
Hymn to Talisay, a
poem Rizal wrote in honor
of Talisay which he made
his pupils sing. Rizal
conducted his school in a
Talisay.

Talisay

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCHOLAR AND
WRITER
My
Retreat,
upon
restoring her eyesight, Dona
Teodora returned to Manila.
Seeing how busy Rizal is,
she regretted neglecting her
muses. She requested Rizal
to write poetry. As a
response, Rizal wrote Mi
Retiro relating his serene
life as an exile in Dapitan.

Dona Teodora

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCHOLAR AND WRITER

The Song of the Traveler, upon receiving the


acceptance of his offer to go to Europe then to
Cuba to help in the curing of patients suffering
yellow fever, he wrote a poem El Canto del
Viajero. It was with this joyous thought of
resuming his travels that he wrote his heartwarming poem.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCHOLAR AND WRITER
In Dapitan, he learned Bisayan, Subanun and
Malay languages. He knew 22 languages, as
follows:
TagalogIlokano Japanese
Hebrew
Bisayan Subanun Portuguese Sanskrit
Spanish Latin
Sweddish
Dutch
Greek English Russian Catalan
French German Italian
Arabic Malay Chinese

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCHOLAR AND WRITER

Map of Mindanao made by Rizal and the company

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A SCHOLAR AND WRITER

Map of Mindanao made by Rizal and the company

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS AN ARTIST
While in Dapitan, Rizal did not neglect his talent in
painting and sculpture. In fact, the picturesque
scenery stimulated his artistic propensities.
Among the statuettes that his deft hands produced
were those of a wild boar, busts of Captain
Carnicero and his his wife, a reclining figure of
Josephine Bracken, St. Paul holding a cross, a
Dapitan girl cutting grass, Mothers Revenge (a
mother dog biting a crocodile), and the head of a
Dapitan girl.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS AN ARTIST
Contributed paintings to the Sisters of Charity who were
preparing the sanctuary of the Holy Virgin.
Made sketches of persons and things that attracted him in
Dapita.
Modeled a statuette called The Mothers Revenge to
stress the moral of the incident where a puppy of his dog,
Syria, was eaten by a crocodile.
Constructed a statue of a girl called The Dapitan Girl, a
woodcarving of Josephine Bracken (Rizals wife).
Made a bust of St. Paul for Father Pastel.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS AN ARTIST

Bust of captain Carnicero

Josephine Bracken

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS AN ARTIST

Bust of St. Paul

Dapitan girl cutting grass

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS AN ARTIST

Bust of Fr. Guerrico

Mothers Revenge (a mother dog biting a


crocodile)

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A COMMUNITY LEADER
As a political prisoner, Rizal could have continued
lodging and boarding for free with the politicomilitary governor of the district as long as his
deportation was in force. He was no ordinary man,
though; he had a strong sense of dignity and selfrespect. He wanted to show his enemies, the rulers,
and also set a shining example of his countrymen,
that he was the master of his own destiny, and that he
could rise above misfortune and adversity. He also
wanted to show them that he could be financially
independent and could stand on his own feet.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A COMMUNITY LEADER...
Rizal also served as a community leader in Dapitan. He devoted
much effort to improving the community and the conditions of
the people there. Towards this end, he dedicated himself to a
number of worthy enterprises: He tilled the soil and planted rice,
corn, abaca, and many fruit trees on his plantations; constructed a
number of residential and little hospital-houses; practiced his
profession as a physician and an eye surgeon; engaged in the
business of buying and selling abaca, copra, and other goods;
operated a community school for the bright boys of the town;
helped the people live in a more sanitary and healthful way;
assisted in the beautification of the public square and provided
lights in the streets at night; and above all, set himself as an
example of an honest, law-abiding, and hardworking citizen.

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS
A
COMMUNITY
LEADER...
As a Perito Agrimensor
(expert surveyor), Rizal
applied his engineering
knowledge by constructing
a system of waterworks to
furnish clean water to the
towns people.

Water System for Dapitan

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS A COMMUNITY LEADER

Water System for Dapitan

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS
A
COMMUNITY
LEADER...
Mr.
H.F.
Cameron,
American
engineer
who praised Rizal for his
engineering ingenuity

Mr. H.F. Cameron

RIZALS ACTIVITIES IN DAPITAN


AS
A
COMMUNITY
LEADER...
Malaria is spread by the
mosquitoes which thrive in
swampy places
Php500 was used for lighting
system,
using
Coconut
oil lamps
Beautification of Dapitan
Beautified the town of
Dapitan by remodeling the
town plaza and making a
huge relief map of Mindanao
out of earth, stones and grass.

Dapitan Town

RIZAL DEBATES ON RELIGION


Throughout the four years that Rizal stayed in Dapitan,
he sustained a lively discussion on religion via
correspondence with Fr. Pablo Pastells, a Jesuit of
Ateneo and a former teacher of his. In this he more
than held his own. His letters on the topic of religion
are most enlightening. Fr. Sanchez and another priest
offered him a professorship in the University of Santo
Thomas, a hundred thousand pesos, and a hacienda if
he would retract what he had written in his novels
about the friars in the Philippines, but all these were
no avail.

RIZAL DEBATES ON RELIGION


The
debate
started
when Pastells sent Rizal
a book by Sarda along
with an advice that
Rizal should desist from
his
majaderas
(foolishness) in viewing
religion
from
the
perspective
of
individual judgement
and self-esteem.

RIZAL DEBATES ON RELIGION


The debate can be read in
four (4) letters.
Rizal was bitter against the
friars because they commit
abuses under the cloak of
religion.
Father Pastells tried to bring
back to Catholicism Rizal
by telling him that human
intelligence is limited, thus
he needs the guidance of
God

AN EXILE IN DAPITAN
Rizals work experiences in Dapitan enhanced
his concept of practical nationalism. He was
more than ever fully convinced that selfimprovement and community development are
the beginning of national governance.

REACTION TO KATIPUNAN AND TO ITS


PLAN OF STAGING A REVOULUTION
On June 21, 1897, Dr. Pio Valenzuela visited Rizal in
Dapitan together with a blind man. He wanted to inform
him about the establishment of the Katipunan and to seek
his support for the revolution that they were planning to
stage against the Spaniards. Rizal did not accept the ideas
of the Katipunero because he believed that an armed
uprising against the Spaniards was premature then, for
several reasons, among these his belief that the Filipino
people were not ready for the revolution at that point, and
insufficiency of funds and ammunition. Rizal gave Dr.
Pio Valenzuela some advice, however, if they were intent
in pushing though with their plan.

REACTION TO KATIPUNAN AND TO ITS


PLAN OF STAGING A REVOULUTION
He advised him to seek the support of the elite and the
influential people in Manila for the revolution so
there would be unity among the people, which was
important for the success of the revolution, and that
Antonio Luna be made to lead the revolution.
Rizal was presented with many opportunities to escape
from Dapitan and thereafter to head the revolution,
but he did not take such opportunities as he
considered escaping a cowardly act and insisted that
he would rather not lead the revolution.

REACTION TO KATIPUNAN AND TO ITS


PLAN OF STAGING A REVOULUTION
Pio Valenzuela, emissary
to Dapitan in order to
inform Rizal of the plan
of Katipunan during the
meeting at a little river
called Bitukang Manok.

Pio Valenzuela

REACTION TO KATIPUNAN AND TO ITS


PLAN OF STAGING A REVOULUTION
Venus, steamer Valenzuela boarded to reach Dapitan
Raymundo Mata, blind man who came with
Valenzuela to camouflage his mission
Rizal objected Bonifacios project because:
The people are not ready for a revolution
Arms and funds must first be collected before
raising the cry of revolution.

RIZAL VOLUNTEER AS A MILITARY


DOCTOR IN CUBA
August 1, 1896 was sad day for Dapitan for everybody
in this little town had become Rizals friend,
especially his students and neighbors. He bade them
all a sad farewell as he left Dapitans shores, having
volunteered to serve as a military physician in the
revolution that was raging then in Cuba. He knew he
was never going to see Dapitan and its people again.
Several of his pupils accompanied him to Manila.

RIZAL VOLUNTEER AS A MILITARY


DOCTOR IN CUBA
He proceeded to Spain aboard the boat Isla de Panay,
but upon his arrival at Barcelona, he was thrown into
a dungeon called Muntjuich. He was then ordered
back to Manila, heavily guarded and in chains. On his
way to Spain, he could have escaped to Singapore
upon the instigation of some Filipinos there, but he
refused to consider such a course

RIZAL VOLUNTEER AS A MILITARY


DOCTOR IN CUBA
When Cuba was under revolution and raging yellow
fever epidemic, Rizal wrote to Governor General
Ramon Blanco offering his services as military
doctor.
Governor Blanco later notified Rizal of the
acceptance of the offer. The notification came along
with an instruction of acquiring first a pass for Manila
from the politico-military commander of Dapitan.

RIZAL VOLUNTEER AS A MILITARY


DOCTOR IN CUBA

Gen. Ramon Blanco

RIZAL VOLUNTEER AS A MILITARY


DOCTOR IN CUBA
Espaa, steamer which brought Rizal to Manila from
Dapitan
Rizal was accompanied by Josephine, Narcisa,
Angelica (Narcisas daughter), his three nephews and
six pupils.
As farewell, the town brass of Dapitan played the
dolorous Funeral March of Chopin.
He stayed in Dapitan for four years, thirteen days and
a few hours.

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