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THE SOLID ROCK

KIMBERLY ROSE J. MALLARI

PARTS OF THE LITOSPHERE

The dense CORE

The less dense MANTLE

CRUST

light and very thin outer skin of


the earth.

It takes 100 years to produce


2.5cm of soil.

Earths crust in irregular.

Beneath the soil are layers of


rock.

Earths Litosphere

PROPERTIES OF ROCKS

The Rock Cycle

Proposed by James Hutton.

Crystallization molten
material called magma cools and
solidifies.

Weathering the effects of air,


water and other agents will break
these rocks slowly.

Lithification conversion into


rock. rocks are compacted by
the weight of overlaying layers.

Igneous turns into Sediment and


turns into Metamorphic.
The Rock Cycle

IGNEOUS ROCKS

Are formed from the cooling and


crystallization of hot molten
magma.

Composed of oxygen (46%),


silicon (27%), aluminum (8%),
iron (6%), calcium, (4%),
potassium (3%), sodium (3%)
and magnesium (3%).

Vesicular igneous rocks that


contains holes. Produced as
gases escaped from upper part
of lava flow.

Obsidian igneous rocks with glassy


appearance.

Porphyry igneous rocks with large


crystals embedded with fine crystals.

Igneous Rocks Examples

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Are formed when weathered products


of pre-existing rocks are lithified.

Conglomerate gravel-sized
particles predominate in the rock.

Derived form the Latin word


sedimentum which means settling
referring to the settling out of material
from fluid.

Breccia If the pieces are


angular.

Sandstone sandsized particles


predominate in the rock.

There rocks account for about 75% of


the rocks on the Earths surface.

Shale much more fine-grained


particles.

Fossils, the eveidence or remains of


prehistoric life, are usually found
embedded in sedimentary rocks.

Siltstone fine-grained consisting


of clay-sized sediments.

Classified into two groups:

Clastic broken fragments from preexisting roks ranging in size from fine
clay particles to large boulders.

Sedimentary Rocks Examples

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

Nonclastic second group.

Chemical precipitates formed


when mineral matter in solution
precipatates from water.

Biochemical Sediments
produced when water dwelling
in plants and animals extracr
from the water dissolved mineral
matter.

Organic Sediments end product


of large amounts of particularly
decayed plant material buried for
long periods od time.

Coal important example of an


organic sediment.

Bituminous coal most important


among our coal resources.

Anthracite formed when


bituminous coal undergoes
metamorphism.

Coal Development Process

METAMORPHIC ROCKS

Are formed under the conditions


of heat and pressure similar to
the environment in which
igneous rocks are formed.

Changes may occur at depths


from 12-16 km beneath the
surface. Temperatures range
from 150C 800C.

Kinds of metamorphism:

Contact metamorphism involves


rocks that come into contact with
a small magma body.

Regional metamorphism
metamorphism to intense
temperatures and pressure when
mountains form.
Metamorphic Rocks

Kinds of Metamorphic Rocks

Foliated Rocks

Includes slates, schists, phyllites


and gneiss.
Slates do not go under
recrystallization.

Gneiss recrystallized with faint


banding.

Phyllite fine rocks but mica


flakes make the phyllite shiny.

Schist rockes that show some


recrystallization and different
bands.

Nonfoliated rocks

Do not have banding.

Marble changed from pure


limestone.

Quartzite forms from sanstone.

Serpentine metamorphosed
peridodite orbasalt.

MINERAL IN ROCKS

A substance is not called a


mineral unless it meets the
following requriements:

Mineral naturally occurring,


inorganic, crystalline solid with a
definite composition

Minerals are inorganic

They are formed in nature

They are solids

Rock-formers responsible for


most of the rock formation in the
earths crust.

Atoms of a mineral have the


same crystalline pattern

The chemical composition is the


same with only very minor
change.

Identifying Minerals
1.

Luster refers to the way light it


reflected from a mineral surface.

2.

Hardness refers to the


minerals resistance to being
scratched. Friedrich Moh, a
German mineralogist, prepared a
scale of hardness for minerals.
Each number is given a number
from 1-10 in the increasing order
of hardness.
Mohs Scale of Hardness

3.

Streak refers to the color of the


powdered mineral.

4.

Cleavage is the tendency of a


mineral to break along planes of
weak bonding.

5.

Fracture minerals that do not


exhibit cleavage are said to
fracture when broken.

6.

Color important identification of


only a few minerals.

7.

Specific gravity a number which


represents the ration of the
weight of the mineral to the
weight equal volume of water.

8.

Crystal form when the external


features of a mineral reflect it
orderly internal arrangement of
atoms, the mineral is
demonstration crystal form.