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34 visualizzazioni45 pagineProcess Safety & Loss Prevention : Source Model

Aug 17, 2015

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Process Safety & Loss Prevention : Source Model

© All Rights Reserved

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34 visualizzazioni45 pagineProcess Safety & Loss Prevention : Source Model

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Source Models

Chapter

Outline

Introduction

Liquid Discharge

Vapor Discharge

Flashing Liquids

Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling

students should be able to do the

following:

Instructional Understand the requirements for

Learning

consequence modeling procedure

Objectives To describe the possible options of

how materials could be released

from any process due to an

accident

To apply suitable source model in

2

order to estimate the amount of

Selection of a Release Incident

To describe release accident

Total quantity released

Release duration

Release rate

Loss of containment

Rupture or break in pipeline

Hole in a tank or pipeline

Runaway reaction

Fire external to vessel

Results from the models

Downwind concentration

Area affected

Duration

Flammable/Toxic

Models

TNT Equivalency

Multi-Energy Explosion

Fireball

Selection of Fire

Selection of

Results

& Explosion Model

Effect Model

Blast overpressure

Radiant heat flux

Escape

Emergency Response

Mitigation Factors

Containment dikes

PPE

Response vs dose

Probit model

Toxic response

No. of individuals affected

Property damage

Consequence Model

3

Introduction

Spills of materials can lead to disaster

toxic exposure

fire

explosion

Materials are released from holes, cracks in

various plant components

tanks, pipes, pumps

flanges, valves

Source models represent the material

release process provision of useful

information for determining the consequences

of an accident

rate of material release

total quantity released

4

Source Models

Flow of liquid through a hole

Flow of liquid through a hole in a tank

Flow of liquids through pipes

Flow of vapour through holes

Flow of gases through pipes

Flashing liquids

Liquid pool evaporating or boiling

Release Mechanisms

Classified into wide and limited aperture

releases.

Wide aperture large hole develops and substantial

amount of material released in a short time.

E.g. overpressure and explosion of a storage tank.

Limited aperture material is released at a slow rate

that upstream conditions are not immediately

affected.

E.g. Release from cracks, leaks etc

Relief system is designed to prevent over-pressure

6

Aperture

7

physical state

For gases or vapours stored in

a tank, a leak results in a jet of

gas or vapour

Released of vapour

8

physical state

pressure above boiling point

Stream of escaping liquid

9

Liquid Discharge

Flow of Liquid through a Hole

A mechanical energy balance describes the various energy

forms associated with flowing fluids:

dP

u

2 g

g z F Ws

g

m

c

where

P is the pressure (force/area)

is the fluid density (mass/volume)

is the avg. instantaneous velocity of the fluid (length/time)

gc is the gravitational constant (length mass/force time)

is the unitless velocity profile correction factor with the

following values: (0.5 for laminar flow), (1.0 for plug flow),

(>1.0 for turbulent flow)

z is the height above datum (length)

F is the net frictional loss term (length force/mass)

Ws is the shaft work (force length)

m is the mass flow rate (mass/time)

10

Liquid Discharge

Flow of Liquid through a Hole

Typical simplification on the mechanical energy balance

dP P

Incompressible Fluid - Density is constant

No elevation difference (z = 0)

No shaft work, Ws = 0

a hole in a process unit.

11

Liquid Discharge

Flow of Liquid through a Hole

Equation for velocity of fluid exiting the leak through a

small hole:

u Co

2 g c Pg

Qm uA ACo 2 g c Pg

The total mass of liquid spilled depends on the total

time that the leak is active.

12

Liquid Discharge

Flow of Liquid through a Hole

The discharge coefficient Co is a function of

the Reynolds number of the fluid escaping the

leak and the diameter of the hole

As a guideline;

For sharp-edge orifices and Re > 30,000, Co ~ 0.61.

The exit velocity is independent of the hole size.

For well rounded-nozzle, Co = 1

For short pipe attached to vessel with length to

diameter ratio < 3, Co = 0.81.

When Co is unknown, use Co = 1 to maximise the

computed flows.

13

Example

a pipeline transporting benzene. The pressure is

immediately restored to 100 psig. At 2.30 p.m. a -inch

diameter leak is found in the pipeline and immediately

repaired. Estimate the total amount of benzene spilled.

The specific gravity of benzene is 0.8794.

Example Solution

The drop in pressure observed at 1 p.m. is indicative of a

leak in the pipeline. The leak is assumed to be active

between 1 p.m. and 2.30 p.m., a total of 90 minutes. The

area of the hole is

4

4

3.41 10 4 ft

Example Solution

Using the leak mass flow rate equation given (slide 12)

and a discharge coefficient of 0.61 is assumed for this

orifice-type leak, the mass flow rate is

Qm ACo 2 g c Pg

3.41 10 4 ft 0.61

lb

ft lbm

lb

in

100 f 144

( 2 ) 54.9 m 32.17

3

lb f s

in

ft

ft

1.48 lbm

s benzene spilled is

The total quantity of

s

1090 gallons

Liquid Discharge

Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a

Tank

pressure of the fluid height above the leak is converted to

kinetic energy as the fluid exits through the hole. Some

energy is lost due to frictional fluid flow.

17

Liquid Discharge

Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a

Tank

Equation for instantaneous velocity of fluid exiting the

leak :

u Co

g c Pg

ghL

2

hole of area A:

Qm u A ACo

g c Pg

ghL

2

18

Liquid Discharge

Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a

Tank

Co A 2 g c Pg

g Co A

o

hL h

2 ghL t

t

At

2 At

o

L

Qm u A ACo

g c Pg

o

gCo2 A2

2

ghL

t

At

19

Liquid Discharge

Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a

Tank

The time te for the vessel to empty to the level of the

leak is found;

1 At

te

Co g A

2 g c Pg

g c Pg

o

2

ghL

1 At

te

Co g A

2 ghLo

20

Tank

Example

used to store benzene. The tank is padded with nitrogen

to a constant, regulated pressure of 1 atm gauge to

prevent explosion. The liquid level within the tank is

presently at 17 feet. A 1-inch puncture occurs in the

tank 5 feet off the ground due to the careless driving of

a fork lift truck. Estimate

a. the gallons of benzene spilled,

b. the time required for the benzene to leak out, and

c. the maximum mass flow rate of benzene through

the leak.

0.8794.

Tank

Solution

(0.8794)(62.4l b m ft 3 )

54.9 lb m ft 3

d (3.14)(8ft )

At

50.2ft

4

The area of the leak4is

(3.14)(1in )(1ft 144in )

3

A

5

.

45

10

ft

The gauge pressure is 4

Pg (1atm)(14.7 lb f in )(144 in ft ) 2.12 10 3 lb f ft

Tank

Solution

a. The volume of benzene above the leak is

V At hLo ( 50.2 ft)( 17 ft 5 ft )( 7.48 gal ft 3 ) 4 ,506 gallons

b.

te

1 At

Co g A

2 g c Pg

1

50.2 ft

( 0.61 )( 32.17 ft s) 5.45 10 3 ft

ft.lb m

2 32.17

lb f .s

2484 ft

2.12 10

lb

54.9 m

ft 3

g c Pg

o

2

ghL

lb f

ft

ft

2 32.17

12 ft

s

Tank

Solution

or to invoke an emergency procedure to reduce the impact of

the leak. However, the maximum discharge occurs when the

hole is first opened.

c. The maximum discharge occurs at t = 0 at a liquid level

of 17.0 feet. The mass flow rate is:

Qm AC o

g c Pg

o

2

ghL

Qm 10.4 lb m s

Vapour Discharge

Flow of Vapour through a Hole

Gas and vapour discharges are classified into throttling

and free expansion releases.

For throttling releases, the gas issues through a

small crack with large frictional losses; very little of

energy inherent with the gas pressure is converted

to kinetic energy.

For free expansion releases, most of the pressure

energy is converted to kinetic energy; the

assumption of isentropic behaviour is usually valid.

Source models for throttling releases require detailed

information on the physical structure of the leak; they

will not be considered here. Free expansion release

source models require only the diameter of the leak.

25

Vapour Discharge

Flow of Vapour through a Hole

through the hole. The gas properties (P,T) and velocity change

during the expansion

26

Vapour Discharge

Flow of Vapour through a Hole

The mass flow rate is given by the following

expression:

1

2/

2gc M P

P

QM C0 AP0

Rg T0 1 P0

P

CP CV

The above expression describes the mass flow

rate at any point during the isentropic

expansion

27

Vapour Discharge

Flow of Vapour through a Hole

For safety studies, the maximum flow rate of vapour

through the hole is required

Pressure ratio resulting in the maximum flow through the

hole or pipe is given by the

Pchoked 2

Po

1

( 1 )

pressure).

For downstream pressure < Pchoked

Fluid velocity at the throat of the leak is the velocity of

sound at the prevailing conditions

Velocity and mass flow rate are independent of the

downstream conditions.

28

Vapour Discharge

Flow of Vapour through a Hole

Gas Pressurized within

Process Unit

External Surroundings

P < P choked

Po

To

At Throat:

U0=0

P = Pchoked

U = Sonic Velocity

sonic at the throat. The mass flow rate is independent

of the downstream pressure.

29

Vapour Discharge

Flow of Vapour through a Hole

if the upstream pressure is greater than

14.7/0.528 = 27.8 psia, or 13.1 psig, the flow will

be choked and maximised through the leak

Conditions leading to choked flow are common in

the process industries.

30

Vapour Discharge

Flow of Vapour through a Hole

At the choked condition, the flow is maximum:

QM choked

C0 AP0

gc M

RgT0

choked), Co = 0.61.

For choked flows, Co increases as the downstream

pressure decreases. For these flows and for

situations where Co is uncertain, a conservative

value of 1.0 is recommended.

Values for the heat capacity ratio for a variety of

gases are provided in Table 4-3.

31

32

Example

A 0.1 inch hole forms in a tank containing

nitrogen at 200 psig and 80F. Determine the

mass flow rate through this leak.

Solution

For the diatomic gas nitrogen, g = 1.4. Thus,

Pchoked 0.528 200 14.7 psia 113 .4 psia

An external pressure less than 113.4 psia will result in

choked flow through the leak. Since the external

pressure is atmospheric in this case, choked flow is

expected and Equation 40 applies. The area of the hole

is

d

4

4

5.45 10

ft 2

T0 80 460 540 o R

1 1

2.4

2.4 0.4

0.833

6.00

0.335

Solution

Then, using the maximum flow rate

equation:

1 1

Qm choked Co APo g c M 2

R g To 1

1545 ft.lb

1.685lb f

Qm choked

lb f .s 28 lbm lb.mole

o

lb.mole R 540 R

2

2

5.064 10 4 lb m

lb 2

.s

f

3.79 10 2 lbm s

0.335

Flashing Liquid

Liquids stored under pressure above their

normal boiling point temperature present

substantial problems because of flashing.

If leak, the liquid will partially flash into

vapor, sometimes explosively.

Flashing occurs so rapidly that the process is

assumed to be adiabatic.

The fraction of the liquid vaporized is;

mv C p (T0 Tb )

fv

m

H v

36

Flashing Liquid

The fraction of the liquid vaporized can also be

determined using mean heat capacity and

mean latent heat of vaporization over the

temperature range To to Tb;

C p (T0 Tb )

mv

fv

1 exp

m

H v

obtained from Steam Table;

37

Flashing Liquid

Two-phase flow conditions may be present for

flashing liquids escaping through holes and

pipes.

If the fluid path length of the release is short

(through a hole in a thin wall container), nonequilibrium conditions exist, and the liquid does

not have time to flash within the hole; the fluid

flashes external to the hole. The fluid (liquid)

flow through hole applies;

Qm uA ACo 2 g c Pg

38

Flashing Liquid

If the fluid path length through the

release is greater than 10 cm (through a

pipe or thick-walled container),

equilibrium flashing conditions are

achieved and the flow is choked. A good

approximation is to assume a choked

pressure equal to the saturation vapor

pressure of the flashing liquid. This

condition valid for liquids stored at a

pressure higher than the saturation vapor

pressure (P > P sat). The following

equations

sat

apply; Qm ACo 2 f g c P P

39

Flashing Liquid

For liquids stored at their saturation pressure P

= P sat, the mass flow rate is determined by;

H v A g c

Qm

v fg

TC p

40

Boiling

Liquids with high Psat evaporate faster; the

evaporation rate (Qm) is a function of Psat.

A generalized expression for the vaporization

rate; MKA P sat P

Qm

Rg TL

sat from a spill of liquid;

open vessel

MKAPor

Qm

Rg TL

41

Boiling

The concentration (in ppm) of a volatile in an

enclosure resulting from evaporation of a liquid;

C ppm

KATP sat

106

kQv PTL

KAP sat

C ppm

106

kQv P

The gas mass transfer coefficient is estimated

using; M 1/ 3

o

K Ko

M

Ko = 0.83 cm/s for water

42

Boiling

the heat from the surroundings is used to boil the

liquid in the pool

q ;A

g

Qm

H v

the followings ;

From the ground by conduction

From the air by conduction and convection

By radiation from the sun/adjacent sources such

as fire

k s Tg from

T the ground is given by;

The heat transfer

qg

st

1/ 2

43

Conclusion

Source models represent the material

release process - information for determining

the consequences of an accident

The purpose of the source model is to

determine:

The form of material released, solid, liquid or

vapour;

The total quantity of material released; and

The rate at which it is released.

These information is required for any

quantitative dispersion model study.

Two types of release

aperture release &

mechanisms: wide

limited aperture

44

Thank you

for your attention.

45

45

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