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CHAPTER 4

Source Models

Outline & Learning Objectives


Chapter
Outline

Introduction
Liquid Discharge
Vapor Discharge
Flashing Liquids
Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling

After completing this chapter,


students should be able to do the
following:
Instructional Understand the requirements for
Learning
consequence modeling procedure
Objectives To describe the possible options of
how materials could be released
from any process due to an
accident
To apply suitable source model in
2
order to estimate the amount of

Consequences Analysis Procedure


Selection of a Release Incident
To describe release accident
Total quantity released
Release duration
Release rate

Loss of containment
Rupture or break in pipeline
Hole in a tank or pipeline
Runaway reaction
Fire external to vessel

Selection of a Source Model

Selection of a Dispersion Model

Neutrally buoyant models


Results from the models
Downwind concentration
Area affected
Duration

Flammable/Toxic
Models
TNT Equivalency
Multi-Energy Explosion
Fireball
Selection of Fire
Selection of
Results
& Explosion Model
Effect Model
Blast overpressure
Radiant heat flux
Escape
Emergency Response
Mitigation Factors
Containment dikes
PPE

Response vs dose
Probit model
Toxic response
No. of individuals affected
Property damage

Consequence Model
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Introduction
Spills of materials can lead to disaster
toxic exposure
fire
explosion
Materials are released from holes, cracks in
various plant components
tanks, pipes, pumps
flanges, valves
Source models represent the material
release process provision of useful
information for determining the consequences
of an accident
rate of material release
total quantity released
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Source Models

Several basic source models frequently used;


Flow of liquid through a hole
Flow of liquid through a hole in a tank
Flow of liquids through pipes
Flow of vapour through holes
Flow of gases through pipes
Flashing liquids
Liquid pool evaporating or boiling

Release Mechanisms
Classified into wide and limited aperture
releases.
Wide aperture large hole develops and substantial
amount of material released in a short time.
E.g. overpressure and explosion of a storage tank.
Limited aperture material is released at a slow rate
that upstream conditions are not immediately
affected.
E.g. Release from cracks, leaks etc
Relief system is designed to prevent over-pressure
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Release Mechanisms Limited


Aperture

Figure 1 Various types of limited aperture releases.


7

Release Mechanisms Influence of


physical state
For gases or vapours stored in
a tank, a leak results in a jet of
gas or vapour

Released of vapour
8

Release Mechanisms Influence of


physical state

Stream of liquid flashing partially into vapour (stored under


pressure above boiling point
Stream of escaping liquid

Released of vapour or two phase liquid


9

Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole
A mechanical energy balance describes the various energy
forms associated with flowing fluids:

dP
u

2 g

g z F Ws
g
m
c

where
P is the pressure (force/area)
is the fluid density (mass/volume)
is the avg. instantaneous velocity of the fluid (length/time)
gc is the gravitational constant (length mass/force time)
is the unitless velocity profile correction factor with the
following values: (0.5 for laminar flow), (1.0 for plug flow),
(>1.0 for turbulent flow)
z is the height above datum (length)
F is the net frictional loss term (length force/mass)
Ws is the shaft work (force length)
m is the mass flow rate (mass/time)
10

Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole
Typical simplification on the mechanical energy balance
dP P
Incompressible Fluid - Density is constant

No elevation difference (z = 0)
No shaft work, Ws = 0

Negligible velocity change (small aperture), u = 0

Liquid escaping through


a hole in a process unit.
11

Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole
Equation for velocity of fluid exiting the leak through a
small hole:

u Co

2 g c Pg

Mass flow rate Qm resulting from a hole of area A:

Qm uA ACo 2 g c Pg
The total mass of liquid spilled depends on the total
time that the leak is active.

12

Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole
The discharge coefficient Co is a function of
the Reynolds number of the fluid escaping the
leak and the diameter of the hole
As a guideline;
For sharp-edge orifices and Re > 30,000, Co ~ 0.61.
The exit velocity is independent of the hole size.
For well rounded-nozzle, Co = 1
For short pipe attached to vessel with length to
diameter ratio < 3, Co = 0.81.
When Co is unknown, use Co = 1 to maximise the
computed flows.
13

Flow of Liquid through a Hole


Example

At 1 p.m. the plant operator notices a drop in pressure in


a pipeline transporting benzene. The pressure is
immediately restored to 100 psig. At 2.30 p.m. a -inch
diameter leak is found in the pipeline and immediately
repaired. Estimate the total amount of benzene spilled.
The specific gravity of benzene is 0.8794.

Flow of Liquid through a Hole


Example Solution
The drop in pressure observed at 1 p.m. is indicative of a
leak in the pipeline. The leak is assumed to be active
between 1 p.m. and 2.30 p.m., a total of 90 minutes. The
area of the hole is

d 3.14 0.25in 1ft 144in

4
4
3.41 10 4 ft

The density of the benzene is,

0.8794 62.4lb m / ft 3 54.9lb m / ft 3

Flow of Liquid through a Hole


Example Solution
Using the leak mass flow rate equation given (slide 12)
and a discharge coefficient of 0.61 is assumed for this
orifice-type leak, the mass flow rate is
Qm ACo 2 g c Pg

3.41 10 4 ft 0.61

lb
ft lbm
lb
in
100 f 144
( 2 ) 54.9 m 32.17

3
lb f s
in
ft
ft

1.48 lbm
s benzene spilled is
The total quantity of

1.48 lb m (90 min)(60 s min) 7990lb m


s

1090 gallons

Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a
Tank

An orifice-type leak in a process vessel. The energy due to the


pressure of the fluid height above the leak is converted to
kinetic energy as the fluid exits through the hole. Some
energy is lost due to frictional fluid flow.
17

Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a
Tank
Equation for instantaneous velocity of fluid exiting the
leak :

u Co

g c Pg
ghL
2

The instantaneous mass flow rate Qm resulting from a


hole of area A:

Qm u A ACo

g c Pg
ghL
2

18

Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a
Tank

The liquid level height in the tank at any time t;

Co A 2 g c Pg
g Co A
o
hL h
2 ghL t
t
At

2 At

o
L

The mass discharge rate at any time t;

Qm u A ACo

g c Pg
o
gCo2 A2
2
ghL
t
At

19

Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a
Tank
The time te for the vessel to empty to the level of the
leak is found;

1 At
te


Co g A

2 g c Pg
g c Pg
o
2
ghL

If the vessel is at atmospheric pressure, Pg = 0;

1 At
te

Co g A

2 ghLo
20

Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a


Tank
Example

A cylindrical tank 20-feet high and 8-feet in diameter is


used to store benzene. The tank is padded with nitrogen
to a constant, regulated pressure of 1 atm gauge to
prevent explosion. The liquid level within the tank is
presently at 17 feet. A 1-inch puncture occurs in the
tank 5 feet off the ground due to the careless driving of
a fork lift truck. Estimate
a. the gallons of benzene spilled,
b. the time required for the benzene to leak out, and
c. the maximum mass flow rate of benzene through
the leak.

The specific gravity of benzene at there conditions is


0.8794.

Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a


Tank
Solution

The density of the benzene is

(0.8794)(62.4l b m ft 3 )
54.9 lb m ft 3

The area of the tank is

d (3.14)(8ft )
At

50.2ft
4
The area of the leak4is
(3.14)(1in )(1ft 144in )
3
A

5
.
45

10
ft
The gauge pressure is 4
Pg (1atm)(14.7 lb f in )(144 in ft ) 2.12 10 3 lb f ft

Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a


Tank
Solution
a. The volume of benzene above the leak is
V At hLo ( 50.2 ft)( 17 ft 5 ft )( 7.48 gal ft 3 ) 4 ,506 gallons

This is the total benzene that will leak out.


b.

The length of time for the benzene to leak out is:


te

1 At

Co g A

2 g c Pg

1
50.2 ft


( 0.61 )( 32.17 ft s) 5.45 10 3 ft

ft.lb m
2 32.17
lb f .s

2484 ft

2.12 10

lb
54.9 m
ft 3

g c Pg
o
2
ghL

lb f

ft

ft
2 32.17
12 ft
s

469 s ft ( 7.22 ft s ) 3386 s 56.4minutes

Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a


Tank
Solution

This appears to be more than adequate time to stop the leak


or to invoke an emergency procedure to reduce the impact of
the leak. However, the maximum discharge occurs when the
hole is first opened.
c. The maximum discharge occurs at t = 0 at a liquid level
of 17.0 feet. The mass flow rate is:

Qm AC o

g c Pg
o
2
ghL

(54.9 lb m ft 3 )(5.45 10 3 ft )(0.61) 3.26 10 3 ft s


Qm 10.4 lb m s

Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole
Gas and vapour discharges are classified into throttling
and free expansion releases.
For throttling releases, the gas issues through a
small crack with large frictional losses; very little of
energy inherent with the gas pressure is converted
to kinetic energy.
For free expansion releases, most of the pressure
energy is converted to kinetic energy; the
assumption of isentropic behaviour is usually valid.
Source models for throttling releases require detailed
information on the physical structure of the leak; they
will not be considered here. Free expansion release
source models require only the diameter of the leak.

25

Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole

A free expansion gas leak. The gas expands isentropically


through the hole. The gas properties (P,T) and velocity change
during the expansion
26

Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole
The mass flow rate is given by the following
expression:
1
2/

2gc M P
P

QM C0 AP0

Rg T0 1 P0
P

where g is the ratio of the heat capacities

CP CV
The above expression describes the mass flow
rate at any point during the isentropic
expansion
27

Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole
For safety studies, the maximum flow rate of vapour
through the hole is required
Pressure ratio resulting in the maximum flow through the
hole or pipe is given by the
Pchoked 2


Po
1

( 1 )

Pchoked is the maximum downstream pressure (choked


pressure).
For downstream pressure < Pchoked
Fluid velocity at the throat of the leak is the velocity of
sound at the prevailing conditions
Velocity and mass flow rate are independent of the
downstream conditions.
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Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole
Gas Pressurized within
Process Unit

External Surroundings

P < P choked

Po
To
At Throat:
U0=0

P = Pchoked
U = Sonic Velocity

Choked flow of gas through a hole. The gas velocity is


sonic at the throat. The mass flow rate is independent
of the downstream pressure.
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Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole

For an air leak to atmosphere (Pchoked = 14.7 psia),


if the upstream pressure is greater than
14.7/0.528 = 27.8 psia, or 13.1 psig, the flow will
be choked and maximised through the leak
Conditions leading to choked flow are common in
the process industries.
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Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole
At the choked condition, the flow is maximum:

QM choked

C0 AP0

gc M
RgT0

For sharp-edged orifices, Re > 30,000 (and not


choked), Co = 0.61.
For choked flows, Co increases as the downstream
pressure decreases. For these flows and for
situations where Co is uncertain, a conservative
value of 1.0 is recommended.
Values for the heat capacity ratio for a variety of
gases are provided in Table 4-3.
31

32

Flow of Vapour through a Hole


Example
A 0.1 inch hole forms in a tank containing
nitrogen at 200 psig and 80F. Determine the
mass flow rate through this leak.

Flow of Vapour through a Hole


Solution
For the diatomic gas nitrogen, g = 1.4. Thus,
Pchoked 0.528 200 14.7 psia 113 .4 psia
An external pressure less than 113.4 psia will result in
choked flow through the leak. Since the external
pressure is atmospheric in this case, choked flow is
expected and Equation 40 applies. The area of the hole
is

d
4

3.140.1in 1ft 2 144in 2


4

5.45 10

ft 2

The discharge coefficient, Co, is assumed to be 1.0. Also,

Po 200 14.7 214.7 psia


T0 80 460 540 o R

1 1

2.4

2.4 0.4

0.833

6.00

0.335

Flow of Vapour through a Hole


Solution
Then, using the maximum flow rate
equation:
1 1

Qm choked Co APo g c M 2
R g To 1

1.0 5.45 10 5 ft 214.7 lb f in 144 in ft

1.4 32.17 ft.lbm

1545 ft.lb

1.685lb f

Qm choked

lb f .s 28 lbm lb.mole
o

lb.mole R 540 R

2
2
5.064 10 4 lb m
lb 2
.s
f

3.79 10 2 lbm s

0.335

Flashing Liquid
Liquids stored under pressure above their
normal boiling point temperature present
substantial problems because of flashing.
If leak, the liquid will partially flash into
vapor, sometimes explosively.
Flashing occurs so rapidly that the process is
assumed to be adiabatic.
The fraction of the liquid vaporized is;

mv C p (T0 Tb )
fv

m
H v
36

Flashing Liquid
The fraction of the liquid vaporized can also be
determined using mean heat capacity and
mean latent heat of vaporization over the
temperature range To to Tb;

C p (T0 Tb )
mv
fv
1 exp

m
H v

The fraction of the vaporized water can be


obtained from Steam Table;

H final H liquid f v H vapor H liquid

37

Flashing Liquid
Two-phase flow conditions may be present for
flashing liquids escaping through holes and
pipes.
If the fluid path length of the release is short
(through a hole in a thin wall container), nonequilibrium conditions exist, and the liquid does
not have time to flash within the hole; the fluid
flashes external to the hole. The fluid (liquid)
flow through hole applies;

Qm uA ACo 2 g c Pg

38

Flashing Liquid
If the fluid path length through the
release is greater than 10 cm (through a
pipe or thick-walled container),
equilibrium flashing conditions are
achieved and the flow is choked. A good
approximation is to assume a choked
pressure equal to the saturation vapor
pressure of the flashing liquid. This
condition valid for liquids stored at a
pressure higher than the saturation vapor
pressure (P > P sat). The following
equations
sat
apply; Qm ACo 2 f g c P P

39

Flashing Liquid
For liquids stored at their saturation pressure P
= P sat, the mass flow rate is determined by;

H v A g c
Qm
v fg
TC p

40

Liquid Pool Evaporating or


Boiling
Liquids with high Psat evaporate faster; the
evaporation rate (Qm) is a function of Psat.
A generalized expression for the vaporization
rate; MKA P sat P
Qm

Rg TL

For many situations, Psat >> P such as for an


sat from a spill of liquid;
open vessel
MKAPor
Qm

Rg TL

41

Liquid Pool Evaporating or


Boiling
The concentration (in ppm) of a volatile in an
enclosure resulting from evaporation of a liquid;
C ppm

KATP sat

106
kQv PTL

For most situations T = TL;


KAP sat
C ppm
106
kQv P
The gas mass transfer coefficient is estimated
using; M 1/ 3
o
K Ko

M
Ko = 0.83 cm/s for water

42

Liquid Pool Evaporating or


Boiling

The rate of boiling is determined by assuming that all


the heat from the surroundings is used to boil the
liquid in the pool
q ;A
g

Qm

H v

The heat transfer from the surroundings can be from


the followings ;
From the ground by conduction
From the air by conduction and convection
By radiation from the sun/adjacent sources such
as fire
k s Tg from
T the ground is given by;
The heat transfer

qg

st

1/ 2

43

Conclusion
Source models represent the material
release process - information for determining
the consequences of an accident
The purpose of the source model is to
determine:
The form of material released, solid, liquid or
vapour;
The total quantity of material released; and
The rate at which it is released.
These information is required for any
quantitative dispersion model study.
Two types of release
aperture release &

mechanisms: wide
limited aperture
44

Thank you
for your attention.

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