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SevenQualityTools

TheSevenTools
Histograms,ParetoCharts,CauseandEffect
Diagrams,RunCharts,ScatterDiagrams,Flow
Charts,ControlCharts

IshikawasBasicToolsofQuality
KaoruIshikawadevelopedsevenbasicvisualtools
ofqualitysothattheaveragepersoncouldanalyze
andinterpretdata.
Thesetoolshavebeenusedworldwideby
companies,managersofalllevelsandemployees.

Histograms
Slide1of3

HistogramDefined
Ahistogramisabargraphthatshows
frequencydata.
Histogramsprovidetheeasiestwaytoevaluate
thedistributionofdata.

Histograms
Slide2of3

CreatingaHistogram
Collectdataandsortitintocategories.
Thenlabelthedataastheindependentsetorthe
dependentset.
Thecharacteristicyougroupedthedatabywouldbethe
independentvariable.
Thefrequencyofthatsetwouldbethedependentvariable.

Eachmarkoneitheraxisshouldbeinequalincrements.
Foreachcategory,findtherelatedfrequencyandmake
thehorizontalmarkstoshowthatfrequency.

Histograms
Slide3of3

ExamplesofHowHistogramsCanBeUsed
Histogramscanbeusedtodetermine
distributionofsales.
Sayforinstanceacompanywantedtomeasure
therevenuesofothercompaniesandwantedto
comparenumbers.

ParetoCharts
Slide1of4

ParetoChartDefined
Paretochartsareusedtoidentifyandprioritize
problemstobesolved.
Theyareactuallyhistogramsaidedbythe80/20rule
adaptedbyJosephJuran.
Rememberthe80/20rulestatesthatapproximately80%ofthe
problemsarecreatedbyapproximately20%ofthecauses.

ParetoCharts
Slide2of4

ConstructingaParetoChart
First,informationmustbeselectedbasedon
typesorclassificationsofdefectsthatoccurasa
resultofaprocess.
Thedatamustbecollectedandclassifiedinto
categories.
Thenahistogramorfrequencychartis
constructedshowingthenumberof
occurrences.

ParetoCharts
Slide3of4

AnExampleofHowaParetoChartCanBeUsed
ParetoChartsareusedwhenproductsaresufferingfromdifferent
defectsbutthedefectsareoccurringatadifferentfrequency,or
onlyafewaccountformostofthedefectspresent,ordifferent
defectsincurdifferentcosts.Whatweseefromthatisaproduct
linemayexperiencearangeofdefects.Themanufacturercould
concentrateonreducingthedefectswhichmakeupabigger
percentageofallthedefectsorfocusoneliminatingthedefectthat
causesmonetaryloss.
Actualchartisonthenextslide
Exampleandchartwereobtainedfrom:
<www.yourmba.co.uk/pareto_diagram.htm>

ParetoCharts
Slide4of4

CauseandEffectDiagrams
Slide1of4

CauseandEffectDiagramDefined
ThecauseandeffectdiagramisalsocalledtheIshikawadiagram
orthefishbonediagram.
Itisatoolfordiscoveringallthepossiblecausesforaparticular
effect.
Themajorpurposeofthisdiagramistoactasafirststepin
problemsolvingbycreatingalistofpossiblecauses.

CauseandEffectDiagrams
Slide2of4

ConstructingaCauseandEffectDiagram
First,clearlyidentifyanddefinetheproblemoreffectforwhich
thecausesmustbeidentified.Placetheproblemoreffectatthe
rightortheheadofthediagram.
Identifyallthebroadareasoftheproblem.
Writeinallthedetailedpossiblecausesineachofthebroadareas.
Eachcauseidentifiedshouldbelookeduponforfurthermore
specificcauses.
Viewthediagramandevaluatethemaincauses.
Setgoalsandtakeactiononthemaincauses.

CauseandEffectDiagrams
Slide3of4

AnExampleofWhenaCauseandEffectDiagram
CanBeUsed
Thisdiagramcanbeusedtodetecttheproblemof
incorrectdeliveries.
Diagramonnextslide
Diagramobtainedfrom:
<http://www.hci.com.au/hcisite/toolkit/causeand.htm>

Whenaproductionteamisabouttolaunchanew
product,thefactorsthatwillaffectthefinalproduct
mustberecognized.Thefishbonediagramcandepict
problemsbeforetheyhaveachancetobegin.

CauseandEffectDiagrams
Slide4of4

DiagramoftheIncorrectDeliveriesExample:

ScatterDiagrams
Slide1of4

ScatterDiagramsDefined
ScatterDiagramsareusedtostudyandidentify
thepossiblerelationshipbetweenthechanges
observedintwodifferentsetsofvariables.

ScatterDiagrams
Slide2of4

ConstructingaScatterDiagram
First,collecttwopiecesofdataandcreateasummary
tableofthedata.
Drawadiagramlabelingthehorizontalandvertical
axes.
ItiscommonthatthecausevariablebelabeledontheXaxisand
theeffectvariablebelabeledontheYaxis.

Plotthedatapairsonthediagram.
Interpretthescatterdiagramfordirectionandstrength.

ScatterDiagrams
Slide3of4

AnExampleofWhenaScatterDiagram
CanBeUsed
Ascatterdiagramcanbeusedtoidentifythe
relationshipbetweentheproductionspeedofan
operationandthenumberofdefectiveparts
made.

ScatterDiagrams
Slide4of4

AnExampleofWhenaScatterDiagramCanBeUsed
(cont.)
Displayingthedirectionoftherelationshipwilldeterminewhether
increasingtheassemblylinespeedwillincreaseordecreasethe
numberofdefectivepartsmade.Also,thestrengthofthe
relationshipbetweentheassemblylinespeedandthenumberof
defectivepartsproducedisdetermined.
Exampleobtainedfrom:<http://www.sytsma.com/tqmtools/Scat.html>

FlowCharts
Slide1of3

FlowChartsDefined
Aflowchartisapictorialrepresentation
showingallofthestepsofaprocess.

FlowCharts
Slide2of3

CreatingaFlowChart
First,familiarizetheparticipantswiththeflowchart
symbols.
Drawtheprocessflowchartandfillitoutindetail
abouteachelement.
Analyzetheflowchart.Determinewhichstepsadd
valueandwhichdontintheprocessofsimplifyingthe
work.

FlowCharts
Slide3of3

ExamplesofWhentoUseaFlowChart
Twoseparatestagesofaprocessflowchart
shouldbeconsidered:
Themakingoftheproduct
Thefinishedproduct

RunCharts
Slide1of3

RunChartsDefined
Runchartsareusedtoanalyzeprocesses
accordingtotimeororder.

RunCharts
Slide2of3

CreatingaRunChart
GatheringData
Sometypeofprocessoroperationmustbeavailabletotakemeasurementsfor
analysis.

OrganizingData
DatamustbedividedintotwosetsofvaluesXandY.Xvaluesrepresenttime
andvaluesofYrepresentthemeasurementstakenfromthemanufacturing
processoroperation.

ChartingData
PlottheYvaluesversustheXvalues.

InterpretingData
Interpretthedataanddrawanyconclusionsthatwillbebeneficialtotheprocess
oroperation.

RunCharts
Slide3of3

AnExampleofUsingaRunChart
Anorganizationsdesireistohavetheirproductarrive
totheircustomersontime,buttheyhavenoticedthatit
doesnttakethesameamountoftimeeachdayofthe
week.Theydecidedtomonitortheamountoftimeit
takestodelivertheirproductoverthenextfewweeks.

ControlCharts
Slide1of3

ControlChartsDefined
Controlchartsareusedtodeterminewhethera
processwillproduceaproductorservicewith
consistentmeasurableproperties.

ControlCharts
Slide2of3

StepsUsedinDevelopingProcessControlCharts
Identifycriticaloperationsintheprocesswhere
inspectionmightbeneeded.
Identifycriticalproductcharacteristics.
Determinewhetherthecriticalproductcharacteristicis
avariableoranattribute.
Selecttheappropriateprocesscontrolchart.
Establishthecontrollimitsandusethecharttomonitor
andimprove.
Updatethelimits.

ControlCharts
Slide3of3

AnExampleofWhentoUseaControl
Chart
Countingthenumberofdefectiveproductsor
services
Doyoucountthenumberofdefectsinagiven
productorservice?
Isthenumberofunitscheckedortestedconstant?

Activity
ProcessFlowChartforFindingtheBestWay
Home
Constructaprocessflowchartbymakingthebest
decisionsinfindingthebestroutehome.
Refertothepriornotesonflowcharts.
Remember:Defineandanalyzetheprocess,buildastepby
steppictureoftheprocess,anddefineareasofimprovementin
theprocess.
Answerisonthenextslide
Exampleobtainedfrom:
<http://deming.eng.clemson.edu/pub/tutorials/qctools/flow
m.htm#Example>

Summary
ThispresentationprovidedlearningmaterialforeachofIshikawas
sevenbasictoolsofquality.
Eachtoolwasclearlydefinedwithdefinitions,astepbystepprocess
andanexampleofhowthetoolcanbeused.
Asseenthroughthepresentation,thesetoolsarerathersimpleand
effective.

WorksCited

HistogramsandBarGraphs.
<http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/lessons/sm3.html>
YourMBA:TheBusinessStudyReferenceSite.http://yourmba.co.uk/pareto
_diagram.htm
HciHomeServices.CauseandEffectDiagram.http://hci.com.au/hcisite
/toolkit/causeand.htm
ScatterDiagram.http://sytsma.com/tqmtools/Scat.html
Flowchart.
<http://http://deming.eng.clemson.edu/pub/tutorials/qctools/flowm.htm>
RunCharts/TimePlot/TrendChart.
<http://www.deming.edu.clemson.edu/pub/tutorials/qctools/runm.htm>
FosterThomasS.ManagingQualityAnIntegrativeApproach.NewJersey:
PrenticeHall,2001