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Modul : 06

SISTEM KOMUNIKASI BERGERAK


Antena pada Sistem Cellular
MALANG, 2011
PT3163-SISKOMBER-MODUL:06

Macam-Macam Jenis Antena yang ada di BTS


1) Omnidirectional
Rx
Rx

2) Sectoring 120o

Pada kondisi awal


biasanya digunakan
pola omnidirectional

Tx

( tergantung
demand ).
Kegunaan dari pola
Sectoring
a. Menambah
kapasitas
b. Mengurangi
interferensi

3) Sectoring 60o

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Bentuk Konfigurasi Sektor Sel

4 sector ( quad sector )


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RBS / BTS
= Radio Base Station / Base Transceiver Station
= Merupakan perangkat transceiver yang berhubungan dari / ke
pelanggan (Interface / repeater antara MS dan MSC) .
= Elemen-elemen RBS :
Transceiver
Control Unit / BSC / Base Station Controller
Antena
Data terminal

Bagaimana bentuk antena


pada lokasi site ?

s it e 3 s e k t o r d e n g a n 7
a r r a y a n t e n a t ia p
s e k to rn y a
j a lu r t r a n s m is i
g e lo m b a n g
m ik r o m e n u j u
BSC

PT3163-SISKOMBER-MODUL:06

s in g le
a n te n n a
b a s e s t a t io n
h o u s in g

Radio (Tx & Rx) System

Signal
Source
(Voice,
data, etc)

propagation
Txer

PA

Rxer
Tx filter

feedline

Signal
Information

Rx filter Pre-Amp

Signal Source: Informasi & Baseband Processing.


Tx-er: Modulator, Channel Encoder, Interleaver, etc.
PA: Power Amplifier.
Feedline: Cable, Connector and Jumper.
Pre-Amp: LNA.
Rx-er: Demodulator, Channel Decoder, De-Interleaver, etc.
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Structure of Transmitter
Connector
Info
Signal

BB
Processing

Jumper
Mod

PA

Depend on
type of Mod used

Jumper

Cable

BB Processing: to process analog signal into digital signal & other processing
Mod: translate from BB freq. To RF freq depend on type of cellular system
being used e.g. G-MSK modulator for GSM.
Power Amp:
- Class A: high linearity
- Class B: greater output power more efficient than Class A, but less linear
- Class AB: combined adv. of class A & B become widely used in wireless.
- Class C: more power efficient widely used in wireless
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Transmitting Combiners

Allows multiple transmitters to feed


single antenna, providing
Minimum power loss from transmitter
to antenna
Maximum isolation between
transmitters

Combiner types
Tuned
low insertion loss ~1-3 dB
transmitter frequencies must be
significantly separated

Hybrid
insertion loss -3 dB per stage
no restriction on transmitter

frequencies
Linear amplifier
Linearity and intermodulation are
major design and operation issues
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Generic Structure of Rxer


Antenna

Rxer

jumper
PA

filter
feedline

1
2
.
.
.
N

Multicoupler/
RF Distributor

IF

IF

Chanel
Encoder

Data/
Signal

LO

Block diagram of Rxer varies depend on type of modulation, encoder, and/ or


base band processing.
Parameters to be considered are:
- frequency range
- dynamic range
- sensitivity
- distortion
- noise
- tuning speed
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Receiver Components
Antenna: to convert electromagnetic energy from atmosfer electric
energy and transfer it to feed line
Feed line
= Connector

Jumper

Cable

Jumper

Jumper to ease maintenance and installation

Filter & Pre-Amplifier:


Filter: to pass the wanted signal & attenuated the
interference designed to work
according to the intended bands
Pre-Amplifier is used to increased S/N of received
signals.
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Receiver Components
Multicoupler:
- used for RF distribution
- many signals/users can share the same receive antenna:
signal
1:4
Splitter

RFin

#1
#2
#3
#4

1:4
Splitter
1:4
Splitter
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# 13
# 14
# 15
# 16

4 Basic Antenna System.

Ground plane

G=2.14 dBi

G=4 dBi

a. Dipole

b. monopole

conductor

Feed point
dielectric

Ground plane

c. Loop

d. Microstrip/ patch

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Base Station Antenna.


Use antenna with higher gain
Could be omnidirectional or sectoral depending on cell type
Collinear antenna:

feeder

Omnidirectional
Radiation
Pattern

main lobe

S
line

boresight

(elevation)
side lobe
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Base Station Antenna.


Log periodic dipole array (LPDA)

Transmission
line

Directional Radiation
Pattern

Dipoles

- very wide BW, with constant SWR


- typical gain 10 dBi

Yagi antenna

main lobe

Reflector Driven element (dipole) Directors

- BW is smaller than LPDA


- typical gain 12 14 dB

back lobe
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side lobe

main lobe

Antenna Downtilt

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Vertical Depression Angles

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Types Of Downtilt

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Antenna Downtilt:
Reduce Interference

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Antenna Downtilt:
Avoid Overshoot

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SWR of Antenna
Amplitude
Vmax

Vmin

SWR = Vmax/Vmin, define the matching level between antenna and


feeder line
Reflection coefficient:

SWR 1
SWR 1

where represent a percent of reflected power defined


by:
2
2

Re turn Loss 10 log

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Performance Criteria of Antenna

Antenna pattern, defined at azimuth and elevation orientation


either omni or bidirectional antenna
Main lobe & side lobe, the lower side lobe the better resistance to
interference
Input impedance, usually complex matching input ipedance and
feeder line impedance is very critical to have maximum power
transfer from feeder to antenna
Beamwidth, usually defined as angular separation where there is 3
dB reduction from bore-sight
Directivity & Gain, is ratio of radiation intensity at wanted direction
and coverage radiation intensity over all direction

G .D

Bandwidth, define operating range of antenna, limited by SWR. A


edge.
typical BW is for SWR 1:1.2 at the band
E
Polarization, defined by orientation of
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Performance Criteria of Antenna


Front to Back Ratio, is ratio between main lobe & back
lobe, very impotant for directional antenna.
Spatial diversity:
d

Rx2

h 835
d
x
11
f

Rx1
h

( feet )

where f is in MHz

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Antenna Installation
d

Rx2

Tx

Rx2

Tx

Rx1

a) Tower
Rx1

b) Roof Top, Edge of Building

c) Roof Top

Rx1

sector 1
Rx2

Tx

d
Rx1

d
Tx

d) Wall Mounting
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Rx2

Antenna Installation Tolerance


Apply to physical oriented & plumbness of its installation
For omnidirectional antenna, it is unnecessary. But for directional antenna it is very critical
Usually taken +/- 5% from antenna horizontal/azimuth pattern.

Table: Horizontal Antenna Tolerance


Azimuth/Horizontal Pattern

Tolerance from Bore


Sight

110O
92O
60O
40O

+/- 5.5o
+/- 4.5o
+/- 3.0o
+/- 2.0o
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Antenna Isolation
Tx

x
Tx

y
Rx

Rx

a. vertical

b) horizontal
y
dB

VI 28 40 log
where y

x
HI 22 20 log dB

where x 10

c. slant

HI dB
o
90
where slant angle
SI VI HI

PT3163-SISKOMBER-MODUL:06