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Human Resource and

Economic Development
Group members
 Hassan Abbas
 Hafiz Islam Aslam
 Ali Ahsan
 Mohammad Suleman
 Mohammad Saad
Human Resources
vIt refers to the size of population of a country
along with its efficiency, education,
productivity, organization abilities, etc.
vIt is vital factor for the development of
vGreater the human resources→greater the
labor force→greater the productivity→greater
the production→greater the development.
Aspects of Human Resource
vRole of human resource in economic
development can be explained under two
1. Quantitative aspects:
 It includes the statistics of total population, growth
of population, density of population, birth and
death rate, etc.
3. Qualitative aspects:
 It includes non-numerical factor of human
resources influencing the ability and capability of human
resource e.g. political, social, climate factors, etc.
Quantitative Aspects of
1.Total population:
Ø Current population approx 176.2 million (July 2009 est.)
Ø Ranks 6th in the world.
3.Population growth:
Ø Three factor affecting population growth:
§ Death rate: due to advancement in medicine death rate
is decreased to a great extent.
§ Birth rate: current growth rate 1.73% which relatively
§ Migration rate: the external an internal migration is
greatest problem to the economic development.
Quantitative Aspects of
3.Population density:
Ø It refers to persons living per kilometers or miles.
Ø It depends on climate, transport, employment
facilities, trade facilities, natural resources,
security in area, etc.
Ø Greater the above mentioned resource availability →
greater the density of population in that
particular area.
Ø On other hand, greater the density of population →
lower the standard of living in that area.
Quantitative Aspects of
4.Dist. of population by age:
ØIt is an important factor reveal the effective
working population.
ØLarger the earning members of the country →
higher the income per capita of country →
greater the development.


Quantitative Aspects of
5.Dist. of population by gender:
Ø Both male and female working population is
important factor of economic development.
Ø In Pakistan female working population
contribution on eco. Development is 11.16%
of total labor force.
ØReason of low contribution are :
1.Customs and traditions-early marriages
3.Islamic influence - pardah

Qualitative aspects of
1.Political factors:
Ø It is major factor influencing human resources in eco.

o Greater political stability

o Improved administration ↟

o Efficiency and execution of work improves ↟

o Corruption will decline ↡
2.Social factors:
Ø Joint family systems
Ø Caste system
Ø Conflict and hatred between rich and poor, etc.
3.Climate factors:
Ø Climate also effects the efficiency of the working people.
Ø Very high or very low temperature does effect the
Qualitative aspects of
4.Poverty, food and medical facilities:
Ø Poverty , hunger and diseases greatly effect the
mental and physical condition and energies of
Ø In Pakistan average man’s life is up to 64 year.
Ø On other hand in developed countries it is more than
76 years.
Ø It is major factor of improving the human capital
Ø It helps in improving:
Ø Efficiency.
Ø Understandability.
Ø Productivity.
Ø Awareness.
Ø Better living standard.
Population Explosion
Growth Problem in Pakistan

 Pakistan’s Population
 Increasing year by year
 1931
 1951
 2007-08

 Implementation of Welfare Programs

Causes of Increase in
 Drop in Death Rate:
 The death rate has come down due to advanced in

 Low Standard of Living:
 Low income people have more children because they
don’t care of standard of living

 Early marriages:
 Usually, marriages take place between age 15 and 22.

 Belief in GOD is RAZIQ:
 Muslims believe that Allah will give food to everyone
who live on this earth.

 Source of Power:
 Larger family is regarded as a power to influence

Causes of Increase in
 Illiteracy:
 Illiteracy leads to unawareness to people of
economic distress caused by higher birth.

 Joint Family System:
 It also cause increase in population growth,
due to family influence.

 Existence of Polygamy:
 It also contribute in the increase in population.

 Resistance to Population Control Drive:
 Government of Pakistan has not pursued it in
right manner.

 Influx of Refugees:
 People refuge from India , Afghanistan and had
been settled in Pakistan.

Remedies of the Population
Explosion in Pakistan
 Economic Measures
 These economic measures are for long term solutions.

 Social Measures
 Social problem also leads the population explosion.
Many causes are deep rooted in social life.

 The Family Program
 The effective plan to control the birth rate of an
country. The establishment of these centers, have
played an effective role in reducing the population

 Administrative Measures
 The administration is taking various steps to control
the birth rate.
Economic Measures
 Modernization of Agriculture

 Various steps should be taken for modernization of

agricultural like proper management of land and water
resources, improve variety of seeds, plant protection and use
of correct fertilization will increase the agricultural
productivity. There will be rise in the income of the farmer
and their living standard will rise which will reduce the birth

 Expansion of the Industrial Sector

People living in rural and urban areas should be given
to set up small, medium and large scale industries which will
give rise to employment, raise their income level and will
help in reduction of birth rate.

Economic Measures
 Creating Employment
opportunities in Rural Areas
 70% of the total population are living in the rural

 Fair distribution of income:

 There should be fair distribution of income and
land in the economy. So, that the workers will be
able to live a comfortable life. It can thus help in
slowing downing the population rate.

Social Measures
 Spread of Education:
 Education should be spread in rural and urban areas. This
will also reduce the birth rate.
 Improving the status of the women:
 Women should also be given equality to men. Employment
should be provided to women in all sectors of the economy. It will
be effecting in reducing the birth rate.
 Restricting Early marriages:
 Early marriages should be restricted which is usually held
between age 15 to 22. Minimum marriages can also help in
reducing the population growth.
Role of Education in
Economic Development
Role of Education in Economic
2.Manpower oriented to industrial requirements.
4.Manpower oriented to agricultural requirements.
6.Manpower to cater services requirements.

1-Manpower oriented to
industrial requirements
1.Handling new production lines.
3.Handling of new sophisticated equipments.
5.Technological assistance in maintaining the
plant and machinery.
7.Expansion in plant facilities.

2-Manpower oriented to
agricultural requirements
2.Establishment of new rural industries.
4.Compulsory enrollment.
6.Development of experimental farms.
8.Establishment of rural based industries.

3-Manpower to cater services