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Microwave and Radar Engineering

Osmania University

Milestones Of


Dept. of ECE


Introduction to Microwaves
A Brief History
Major Microwave Milestones
Major Microwave Applications

Introduction to Microwaves:
Microwaves are Electromagnetic Radiations.
Wavelengths ranging from 1 Meter to 1 Millimeter.
Frequencies ranging between 300 MHz to 300GHz.
A.G. Clavier coined the term micro-wave in 1931.
Microwaves can be further classified into three bands.
1. Ultra High Frequency ( 300MHz-3GHz )
2. Super High Frequency ( 3-30 GHz )
3. Extremely High Frequency ( 30-300GHz )

Fig 1. Microwave Frequencies

A Brief History:

Clerk Maxwell predicted radio waves in

Heinrich Hertz first demonstrated radio waves in
J.C.Bose, first indian to demonstrate
Electromagnetic Waves.

Major Microwave milestones:

1. Microwave Oven:
. It is a kitchen appliance which heats or cooks

Fig 2. Radarange, first microwave oven.

Milestones Continued..

Accidentally invented by Percy Spencer during

World War .
It heats food by bombarding it with electromagnetic
radiation in the Microwave Spectrum.
Uses radio waves at specifically set frequencies to
agitate water molecules. Then they vibrate at
atomic level and generate heat. Thats how it cooks.
Microwave Oven uses non-ionizing radiation.

2. Wireless Telegraphy:
Early radio telegraphy systems which
communicated with Radio waves.

Fig 3. Marconi with his Wireless Telegraphy system

Wireless Telegraph Continued.

Guglielmo Marconi developed Wireless Telegraph

Used for private point-to-point business,
governmental and military communication.
Still used widely, commonly knows as Radio
Telegraphy, Continuous wave or CW .
RMS Titanic used wireless telegraphy for

3. Radar
Object detection system using radio waves to
determine altitude, direction and speed of objects.

Fig 4. Telemobilskop by Hulsmayer, first Radar.

Radar Continued..

Hulsmeyer was first to build a Radar.

Specifically designed to detect ships to avoid
collisions of ships in fog.
Modern uses of Radar are highly diverse, including
Air traffic control, Radio Astronomy, Anti-missile
systems etc.

4. Microwave Tomography
Emerging Bio-medical imaging modality of soft



Fig 3. Images showing MWT scan & cancer affected tissue

Microwave Tomography continued..

Safer than other tomographic imaging modalities

such as PET (Positron Emission Tomography) &
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Uses Microwave Spectrum to differentiate between
biological tissues based on di-electric properties.
Extensively used for Extremities imaging, breast
cancer detection, diagnosis of Lung cancer, brain
imaging and cardiac imaging.

Major Microwave Applications:

Microwave diathermy:
Produces heat inside the muscle without
overheating the skin.
Microwave drying:
Used in printing industries.
Microwave melting:
1. In agriculture industries: For vacuum drying
of sliced aromatic plant root, cotton seed, microwave
treatment of seed, etc.
2. Forest products: For drying of veneer (thin
covering) and Bending of Wood.

Applications Contd..

Medical Applications:

Microwave hyperthermia for cancer therapy:

A therapy using non-ionizing microwave radiation

Diagnostic with bioimpedences (BIA):

Analysis of resistance and reactance in the human

Major aspects of technology, daily life are somehow
linked with Microwaves. Navigation, Communication
were, are and will always rely on microwaves, and
advancements in microwaves in turn improve human

Wikipedia and Internet sources
Pozar, David M. (1993). Microwave Engineering AddisonWesley
Publishing Company. ISBN 0-201-50418-9.
Jump up ^ Sorrentino, R. and Bianchi, Giovanni (2010) Microwave
and RF Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, p. 4, ISBN 047066021X.
Jump up ^ Microwave Oscillator notes by Herley General Microwave
J. D. Kraus, Heinrich HertzTheorist and experimenter, IEEE
Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 36, pp. 824829, May 1988.
D. N. McQuiddy, J. W. Wassel, J. B. Lagrange, and W. R.


References contd

D. N. McQuiddy, J. W. Wassel, J. B. Lagrange, and W. R.

Monolithic microwave integrated circuits: An historical perspective,
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. MTT-32, pp. 9971008,
Sept. 1984.
[53] T. S. Saad, private communication, 2001.
[54] E. J. Wilkinson, An N-way hybrid power divider, IRE Trans.
Theory Tech., vol. MTT-8, pp. 116118, Jan. 1960

References contd:
R. M. Barrett and M. H. Barnes, Microwave printed circuits,
presented at IRE Nationaf Conf. on Airborne Electrics, Dayton,
OH, May 23-25, 1951.