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WCDMA RNP Antenna


Principle and Selection
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Page 1

Review
Interface between radio transceiver and outside
propagation environment.
Antenna can transmit and receive radio waves.
Converts the RF currents to electromagnetic
(EM) waves;
Receives radio waves, and converts EM waves
to RF currents.

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Objectives
From this course, we will be able to:

Learn the principle and classification of


antenna

Know some of characteristics of antenna

Study the rules for antenna selection

Understand the antenna selection for different


scenarios

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Contents
Antenna Principle and Classification
Primary Technical Performances of the Antenna
Rules for Antenna Type Selection
Antenna Selection for Different Scenarios
Summary

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Antenna location and


function
Adjustable
support

Pole(50~114mm)

Connector, insulated airproof


tape, PVC insulated tape

Antenna and
feeder system
figure

Board
antenna
Grounded
clip
Feeder(7/8)
Indoor jumper

Outdoor
jumper
Feeder
ladder

Feeder
clip

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Thunder
protector
Feeder
window

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NodeB

Antenna Work Principle

Based on the polarization mode:

Alternant circuit in the lead will radiate electromagnetic (EM) waves, the

radiation ability is related to the length and shape of lead.


When the length of lead is close to wave length, circuit in the lead will

increase greatly and radiate strong radio wave, we call this direct lead as
pole.

positive
negative

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Antenna Classification

According to radiation direction

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Antenna Classification

According to polarization direction:

Antenna polarization direction: electric field vector is the

polarization direction of EM wave

vertical polarization

+45 polarization

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horizontal polarization

-45 polarization

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Antenna Classification

According to polarization mode:


vertical polarization antennas (also called mono-polarization
antennas)

Cross polarization antennas (also called dual polarization


antennas).

dual polarization(+-45) antenna

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single polarization (vertical) antenna

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Antenna Classification

According to the outlines

whip antenna

plate antenna

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cap antenna

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paraboloid antenna

Contents
Antenna Classification and Classification
Primary Technical Performances of Antenna
Rules for Antenna Type Selection
Antenna Selection for Different Scenarios
Summary

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Working Bands

in China and Europe

UL: 1920 ~ 1980 MHz

DL: 2110 ~ 2170 MHz

in North America

UL: 1850 ~ 1910 MHz

DL: 1930 ~ 1990 MHz

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Antenna Gain

Gain is one of the most important indices of an


antenna. It indicates the antennas capability of
centralizing energy to a certain direction

dBi is defined as the energy centralizing capability of the


actual directional antenna (including omni antenna) in
relation to isotropic antennas, i means isotropic.
dBd is defined as the energy centralizing capability of the
actual directional antenna (including omni antenna) in
relation to dipole antennas, d means dipole.

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Antenna Gain

As a passive device, antenna itself cannot


increase the energy of transmitted signals.
It only can centralize the energy to a
certain direction by combining the antenna
dipoles and changing Isotropic
their feeding mode
Dipole
Actual antenna

8.85dBd

2.15dB

2.15dBi

11dBi

ERP

EIRP

The actual antenna gain is 11dBi

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Antenna Pattern

The graph describes the distribution of EM field of


the antenna transmission along the fixed distance on
the angular coordinates.

A pattern presented by transmission field intensity is


called field intensity pattern, a pattern presented by
power density is called power density pattern, and a
pattern presented by phase is called phase pattern.

Normally power density pattern is used in Mobile


communication system, it includes vertical pattern
graph and horizontal pattern graph

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Antenna Pattern
Symmetric half-wave dipole Pattern
Top view

omni antenna pattern

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side view

directional antenna pattern

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Antenna Pattern

Beam width (BW) (called semi-power angle)


Front-to-back ratio
Zero-point filling
Upper side lobe suppression

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Relationship between Wave Width and


Antenna
Gain is an energy-centralizing device. The

enhancement of transmission in one direction means


the reduction of transmission in other directions. In
general, we can enhance the transmission strength
in a certain direction by reducing the horizontal lobe
width so as to increase the antenna gain. Under a
given antenna gain, the horizontal BW is in reverse
proportion with the vertical BW:

Ga 10 lg 32400
Ga : antenna gain, dBi;
B: vertical BW, degree .
: horizontal BW, degree.

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Polarization Mode

Polarization is the transmission


performance describing the vector
direction of EM field intensity. Unless
specific state, the space direction of
electric field vector is the polarization
direction of EM wave. The vector direction
refers to the direction of maximum
transmission of antenna.

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Polarization Mode

Single polarization antennas in WCDMA system


adopt vertical polarization, while dual polarization
antennas use polarization diversity to minimize the
negative effect of multi-path fading in the mobile
communication system so as to improve the quality
of receiving signals. Dual polarization antennas in
WCDMA system usually use
45 cross polarization mode.

+/- 45)

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Mechanical Down Tilt and Electric Down


Tilt Mechanical down
tilt

electric down
tilt

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Voltage
Standing
Wave
Ratio
When the input impedance is not consistent with
(VSWR)
the characteristic impedance, the reflected wave

and the incident wave overlap on the feeder and


form standing wave. The ratio between the
maximum value and the minimal value of the
adjacent voltage is VSWR. Big VSWR leads
communications distance shortened, at same time
reflection power returns to power amplifier (PA) of
transmitter. PA might be damaged.

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Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)


If A andZ o
respectively stand for the input
impedance and nominal impedance of the
antenna,
A o the reflectance is

A o

VSWR

where

matching

1
1

. The

VSWR 1.5 : 1

R.L.(dB) 20 lg

feature of a port can also be indicated by


R.L. dB
Reflection
Loss
. If
Z o 50

Forward: 10W

will be 13.98

50 ohms
Reflection: 0.5W

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9.5 W
80
ohms

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Other Technical Performances

Port Isolation

Power Capacity

Input Interface of the Antenna

Passive Inter-modulation (PIM)

Antenna Size and Weight

Wind Load

Working Temperature and Humidity

Lightning Protection

Three-Proof Capability

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Contents
Antenna Classification and Classification
Primary Technical Performances of the Antenna
Rules for Antenna Type Selection
Antenna Selection for Different Scenarios
Summary

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Antenna Working Bands

Outdoor Antennas
Both WCDMA and DCS systems
simultaneously
1710 ~ 2170 MHz
Only for WCDMA system

1920 ~ 2170 MHz

Indoor Antennas
for

GSM/DCS/WLAN/WCDMA
800 ~ 2500 MHz

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Principle for Antenna Beam Width


Selection
Selection of beam width
horizontal beam : depends on the type design
of NodeB
vertical beam: depends on antenna gain

In urban areas
3-sector vertex-excited NodeBs, 65 horizontal
beam width
6-sector vertex-excited NodeBs, 33 horizontal
beam width

In suburban areas

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Principle for Polarization Mode Selection

urban area

dual polarization antennas

open mountainous areas and rural


areas

vertical single polarization antennas

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Principle for Downtilt Mode


Selection
Comparison between Mechanical Downtilt and Electric Downtilt

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Principle for Downtilt Mode


Comparison
between Preset Electricity Downtilt and Zero-Point Filling
Selection

The use of preset electric downtilt can


shorten the coverage range of the main lobe
if the cell coverage is planed to small.

Through zero-point filling, a kind of shaping


technology, we can obtain a good pattern. In
this case, the upper side lobe can be
suppressed, so this kind of antennas will
influence other aspects.

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Principle for Downtilt Mode


Selection
Planning and Optimization of Downtilt Angle

For an omni antenna, we cannot adjust the


mechanical downtilt angle, but we can select
preset electricity downtilt angle antennas.

For a directional antenna, in different


occasions, requirements for the downtilt angle
adjustment range are different.

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Principle for Front-to-back Ratio


Selection

In occasions where NodeB sites are densely

distributed, if the back lobe is too big, it will be


likely to cause pilot pollution and the network
quality will be influenced. In urban areas, the
antenna front-to-back ratio should be 25dB. In
suburbs or rural areas, the antenna front-to-back
ratio can appropriately lower.

The front-to-back ratio is in reverse proportion to


the beam width. The narrower the beam is, the
higher the front-to-back ratio is.

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Principle for Antenna Size


Selection
Antenna size selection is mainly

Antenna size selection is mainly

related to the install ability

Firstly, the antenna size is related


to the technical level of
manufacturers

Secondly, the antenna size is


related to the antenna gain

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Principle for Antenna Impedance


Selection

The input impedance of a combiner is 50. In

order to reduce the standing wave ratio, the


characteristic impedance of an antenna should
match with the input impedance, namely, it
should be 50.

General, the characteristic impedance can


meet this requirement, but attention should be
paid to this index during selection or
certification of new antennas.

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Contents
Antenna Classification and Classification
Primary Technical Performances of the Antenna
Rules for Antenna Type Selection
Antenna Selection for Different Scenarios
Summary

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Antenna Selection for Different


In WCDMA system, antenna selection is very important.
Scenarios
Antennas should be selected based on the practical

situations such as the NodeB design, network coverage


requirements and interference conditions.

Practical situations

In urban coverage

In sub-urban coverage

In rural coverage

In highway coverage

In indoor coverage

In offshore coverage

In tunnel coverage

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Antenna Selection for Different


Scenarios

In Urban Coverage

Huawei Recommendation
Frequency range: 1710 ~ 2170 MHz/
45dual polarization / 65horizontal
BW/15 dBi gain/preset 6electrical DT or 0
~ 10adjustable electrical DT and 0 ~ 15
adjustable mechanical DT/upper side lobe
suppression and zero-point filling/25dB or
higher front-to-back ratio.

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Antenna Selection for Different


Scenarios

In Suburban Coverage

Huawei Recommendation:
Select the specific antennas by referring to
antenna selection for urban areas and that
for rural areas depending on the distance
between two NodeBs and traffic density.

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Antenna Selection for Different


Scenarios

In Rural Coverage

Recommendation (for directional


antennas): Working frequency 1710 ~ 2170
MHz / dual or vertical polarization / 90
horizontal beam width / 18 dBi antenna gain /
without preset downtilt / zero-point filling

Recommendation (for omni antennas):


Working frequency 1710 ~ 2170 MHz / vertical
polarization / 11 dBi antenna gain / without
preset downtilt / zero-point filling

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Antenna Selection for Different


Scenarios

In Highway Coverage

Recommendation (for directional antennas):


Working frequency 1710 ~ 2170 MHz / vertical
polarization / 30 horizontal beam width / high gain
(for example: 21 dBi) / without preset downtilt /
zero-point filling

Recommendation (for 8-figure-shape


antennas): Working frequency 1710 ~ 2170 MHz /
vertical polarization / dual 70 horizontal beam
width / 14 dBi antenna gain / without preset
downtilt / zero-point filling
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Antenna Selection for Different


Scenarios

For Highway Coverage


Recommendation (for heart-shape
antennas):
Frequency range: 1710 ~ 2170 MHz/VP/2
10horizontal BW / 12 dBi gain / without preset
DT
zero-point filling
S0.5/0.5 NodeB configuration with high-gain
directional antennas
8-figure-shape antennas

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Antenna Selection for Different


Scenarios

In Indoor Coverage

Recommendation (for omni antennas):


Frequency range: 800 ~ 2500 MHz/vertical
polarization
(VP)/360horizontal BW, 90 vertical BW/2dBi gain.

Recommendation (for plate directional


antennas): Frequency range: 800 ~ 2500
MHz/vP/90horizontal BW, 60vertical BW/7dBi gain.

Recommendation (for log-periodical antennas):


Frequency range: 800 ~ 2500 MHz/VP/55horizontal

BW, 50 vertical BW/11.5dBi gain.


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Antenna Selection for Different


Scenarios
In Offshore Coverage

Antenna Recommended:
frequency range: 1710 ~
2170 MHz
vertical polarization
30 horizontal BW
gain 21 dBi
without preset DT
zero-point filling

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Antenna Selection for Different


Scenarios

In Tunnel Coverage

Antenna Recommended
Frequency range: 800 ~ 2200 MHz
vertical polarization
55/30horizontal BW
log-periodical type with gain 11.5 dBi
(consider sharing with GSM/DCS
systems).

Leaky cable

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Contents
Antenna Classification and Classification
Major Technical Performances of the Antenna
Principles for Antenna Type Selection
Antenna Selection for Different Scenarios
Summary

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Summary
This course helps us:

To master antenna principle and classification

To master parameters of antenna

To understand the principles of antenna selection

To select antenna focusing on specific working


environments

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Thank you
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