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Chapter 5

Input
Users submit input data
Output
Users get processed information

Data from the user


to the computer
Converts raw data
into electronic form

Traditional
Looks like typewriter
with extra keys

Non-traditional
Fast food restaurants
Each key represents a
food item rather than
a character

Function Keys
Give commands
Software specific

Main Keyboard
Typewriter keys
Special command
keys

Numeric Keys
Num Lock toggle
On numeric data & math symbols
Off cursor movement

Cursor Movement Keys

Shift
Caps Lock
Ctrl
Alt
Esc
Enter
Windows
Shortcut

Position a pointer / cursor on the screen


Controls drawing instruments in
graphics applications
Communicate commands to a program

Types
Mechanical
Optical
Wireless

Features
Palm-sized
1 or 2 buttons
Wheel

Trackball

Upside-down mouse
Ball on top
Roll ball with hand
Laptop computers
Touchpad

Pressure-sensitive pad
Cursor moves as you
slide your finger
Laptop computers

Pointing stick
Pressure-sensitive post
Mounted between G and H keys on keyboard
Apply pressure in a direction to move cursor

Joystick
Short lever
Handgrip
Distance and speed of movement control
pointer position

Digitizing tablet
Rectangular board
Invisible grid of electronic dots
Write with stylus or puck
Sends locations of electronic dots as stylus
moves over them
Creates precise drawings
Architects and engineers

Human points to a selection on the


screen
Types

Edges emit horizontal and vertical beams of


light that crisscross the screen
Senses finger pressure
Light pen for pointing

Kiosks
Self-help stations
Easy to use
Where found

Malls
Disney World
Government offices

Small hand-held
devices
Electronic pen (stylus)

Pointer
Handwritten input

Personal Digital
Assistants (PDA)

Special equipment to collect data at the


source
Sent directly to a computer
Avoids need to key data
Related input areas

Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition


Scanners
Optical recognition devices
Voice

Read characters
made of magnetic
particles
Numbers on the
bottom of checks
MICR inscriber
adds characters to
check that show
amount cashed

Optical recognition
Light beam scans input data
Most common type of source input
Document imaging converts paper
documents to electronic form
Converts snapshots into images
Converts scanned picture into characters
OCR

Exact computer-produced replica of original

Flatbed
One sheet at a time
Scans bound documents

Sheetfeed
Motorized rollers
Sheet moves across scanning
head
Small, convenient size
Less versatile than flatbed
Prone to errors

Handheld

Least expensive
Least accurate
Portable
User must move the scanner in a straight line at a
fixed rate
Wide document causes problems

Photoelectric device
Reads bar codes
Inexpensive
Reliable
Where Used?

Supermarket UPC
Federal Express

Speech Recognition
Speech recognition devices

Input via a microphone


Voice converted to binary code

Problems
Speaker-dependent
Voice training

Changing radio frequencies in airplane


cockpits
Placing a call on a car phone
Requesting stock-market quotations
over the phone
Command from physically disabled
users

Information for the user


Types

Screen soft copy


Printer hard copy
Voice
Sound
Graphics

Data that is entered appears on the


screen
Screen is part of the monitor

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)


Flat panel display
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

Raster scanning
Sweeping electron beams across the back
of the screen
Phosphorous coating on back
Glows when hit by a beam of electrons
Phosphorous loses glow and image fades
and flickers
Image must be continually refreshed

Refresh rate / scan rate


Number of times electron beams refreshes
the screen
80-100 times per second adequate for
clear screen image
Process also used for television

Color vs. Monochrome

Color
Typical monitor sold today

Monochrome
Green or amber on a contrasting background
Less expensive than color

Size
Measured diagonally
Typical sizes
Office user: 15-17 inch
High-powered graphics user: 19 inch
High-end monitors: 21 inches and up

Larger size
More expensive
More space on desktop
Reduces eye strain

Liquid Crystal Display


(LCD)
Primarily on laptops
Moving to desktop
Skinny (depth)
regardless of size

Crisp, brilliant images


Easy on eyes
No flicker
Full dimension is useable
More expensive that CRT monitors

Active Matrix
Thin-film transistor technology (TFT)
Transistors for each pixel
Brighter image
Viewable from an angle

Passive Matrix
Fewer transistors
Cheaper
Less power

Produces information on paper


Orientation

Portrait
Landscape

Methods of printing
Impact
Nonimpact

Line printer
One line at a time
High volume
Low quality

Dot-matrix
printer
One character
at a time

Transfers images to paper using a light


beam
Prints one page at a time
600-1200 dpi High quality
Speed

Personal laser printers: 8-10 ppm


Network laser printers: 35-50 ppm
High-volume laser printers: up to 1000 ppm

Black and white / color

Spray ink at paper


Black and white / color
Low cost
Need high quality paper
Slower than laser

Creates multimedia output


Multiple sight and sound effects
Speakers
Sound card

Enables machines to talk to people


Types
Voice synthesizers
Voice output devices
Audio-response units

Convert data in storage to vocalized sounds


Synthesis by analysis human sounds are
stored and reproduced as needed
Synthesis by rule creates artificial speech

Uses

Automobiles
Telephone surveys
Catalog order is ready
Your payment is late reminder

Business
Education
Science
Sports
Computer art
Entertainment

Types
Maps
Charts

Help
Compare data
Spot trends
Make decisions quickly

Attention-getting
Updated instantaneously
Rendered quickly

Animated graphics
Prepared one frame
at a time
Examples

Cartoons
Commercials without
humans
Television networks
logo
Arcade games