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# BETI 3423

ACTUATORS &
DRIVES
CHAPTER 5 : GEAR & PULLEY
(PART II)

## by : Mr Mohamad Haniff bin Harun

Email : haniff@utem.edu.my
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LEARNING OUTCOME

## By the end of this chapter, students will be able

to explain model, types, architecture &
operations related to actuators and drives

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CHAPTER CONTENTS

Gear
Introduction
Types of gears
Spur gears
Helical gears
Bevel gears
Worm gears
Rack and pinion
gears
Example Calculation

Pulley
Introduction
Fixed Pulley
Movable Pulley
Combined Pulley
Pulley Systems
Example Calculations

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GEARS

INTRODUCTION
Gears are a means of changing the rate of rotation

## of a machinery shaft. They can also change the

direction of the axis of rotation and can change
rotary motion to linear motion.
Gears

## are of several categories,

combined in a multitude of ways.

and

can

be

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## HOW GEARS WORK

Gears are used in tons of mechanical devices.
They do several important jobs, but most important,

## they provide a gear reduction in motorized

equipment.
This is key because, often, a small motor spinning
very fast can provide enough power for a device,
but not enough torque.
For instance, an electric screwdriver has a very large
gear reduction because it needs lots of torque to turn
screws, but the motor only produces a small
amount of torque at a high speed.
With a gear reduction, the output speed can be
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reduced while the torque is increased.
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INTRODUCTION
Another thing gears do is adjust the direction of

rotation.
For instance, in the differential between the rear
wheels of your car, the power is transmitted by a shaft
that runs down the center of the car, and the
differential has to turn that power 90 degrees to apply
it to the wheels.
There are a lot of intricacies in the different types of
gears.
In this topic, we'll learn exactly how the teeth on gears
work, and we'll talk about the different types of gears
we can find in all sorts of mechanical gadgets.
7

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BASICS
On any gear, the ratio is determined by the distances

## from the center of the gear to the point of contact.

For instance, in a device with two gears, if one gear is
twice the diameter of the other, the ratio would be 2:1.
One of the most primitive types of gears we could look
at a wheel with wooden pegs sticking out of it.

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TYPES OF GEARS
1. Spur gears

## Spur gears are the most common type of gears.

They have straight teeth, and are mounted on
parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are
used at once to create very large gear reductions.

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TYPES OF GEARS
1. Spur gears

Spur gears are used in many devices that we can see all
over, like the electric screwdriver, dancing monster,
oscillating sprinkler, windup alarm clock, washing
machine and clothes dryer. But we won't find many in
the car.

This is because the spur gear can be really loud. Each time
a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth
collide, and this impact makes a noise. It also increases the
stress on the gear teeth.

## To reduce the noise and stress in the gears, most of the

gears in the car are helical.
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TYPES OF GEARS
2. Helical gears

## The teeth on helical gears are cut at an angle to

the face of the gear. When two teeth on a helical
gear system engage, the contact starts at one end
rotate, until the two teeth are in full engagement.

## Figure 2: Helical gears

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TYPES OF GEARS
2. Helical gears

## This gradual engagement makes helical gears operate

much more smoothly and quietly than spur gears.
For this reason, helical gears are used in almost all
car transmissions.
Because of the angle of the teeth on helical gears, they
create a thrust load on the gear when they mesh.
Devices that use helical gears have bearings that can
One interesting thing about helical gears is that if the
angles of the gear teeth are correct, they can be
mounted on perpendicular shafts, adjusting the
rotation angle by 90 degrees.
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TYPES OF GEARS
2. Helical gears

## Figure 3: Crossed helical gears

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TYPES OF GEARS
3. Bevel gears
Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a
shaft's rotation needs to be changed. They are
usually mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees
apart, but can be designed to work at other
angles as well.
The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral
or hypoid. Straight bevel gear teeth actually have
the same problem as straight spur gear teeth -- as
each tooth engages, it impacts the corresponding
tooth all at once.

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TYPES OF GEARS
3. Bevel gears

## Just like with spur gears, the solution to this problem

is to curve the gear teeth. These spiral teeth engage
just like helical teeth: the contact starts at one end
of the gear and progressively spreads across the
whole tooth.

## Figure 5: Spiral Bevel gears

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TYPES OF GEARS
3. Bevel gears

## On straight and spiral bevel gears, the shafts must

be perpendicular to each other, but they must also
be in the same plane. If you were to extend the two
shafts past the gears, they would intersect. The
hypoid gear, on the other hand, can engage with the
axes in different planes.

car differential

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TYPES OF GEARS
3. Bevel gears

## This feature is used in many car differentials. The

ring gear of the differential and the input pinion gear
are both hypoid. This allows the input pinion to be
mounted lower than the axis of the ring gear.

## Figure 6 shows the input pinion engaging the ring

gear of the differential. Since the driveshaft of the
car is connected to the input pinion, this also lowers
the driveshaft. This means that the driveshaft
doesn't intrude into the passenger compartment of
the car as much, making more room for people and
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cargo.
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TYPES OF GEARS
4. Worm gears

## Worm gears are used when large gear reductions

are needed. It is common for worm gears to have
reductions of 20:1, and even up to 300:1 or greater.

## Figure 7: Worm gears

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TYPES OF GEARS
4. Worm gears

## Many worm gears have an interesting property that

no other gear set has: the worm can easily turn the
gear, but the gear cannot turn the worm. This is
because the angle on the worm is so shallow that
when the gear tries to spin it, the friction between
the gear and the worm holds the worm in place.

## This feature is useful for machines such as conveyor

systems, in which the locking feature can act as a
brake for the conveyor when the motor is not
turning.
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TYPES OF GEARS
4. Rack and Pinion gears
Rack and pinion gears are used to convert
rotation into linear motion.
A perfect example of this is the steering system on
many cars. The steering wheel rotates a gear which
engages the rack. As the gear turns, it slides the
rack either to the right or left, depending on which
way you turn the wheel.

## Figure 8: Rack and pinion gears from a household scale

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## PLANETARY GEAR SETS & GEAR RATIOS

Any planetary gearset has three main components:
The sun gear
The planet gears and the planet gears' carrier
The ring gear

## output or can be held static.

Choosing which piece plays which role determines the
gear ratio for the gearset. Let's take a look at a single
planetary gearset. One of the planetary gearsets from
our transmission has a ring gear with 72 teeth and a
sun gear with 30 teeth. We can get lots of different
gear ratios out of this gearset.
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## PLANETARY GEAR SETS & GEAR RATIOS

Input

Output

Stationary

Calculation

Gear Ratio

Sun (S)

Planet
Carrier (C)

Ring (R)

1 + R/S

3.4:1

Planet
Carrier (C)

Ring (R)

Sun (S)

1 / (1 + S/R)

0.71:1

Sun (S)

Ring (R)

Planet Carrier
(C)

-R/S

-2.4:1

Also, locking any two of the three components together will lock

## up the whole device at a 1:1 gear reduction.

The first gear ratio listed above is a reduction the output
speed is slower than the input speed.
The second is an overdrive the output speed is faster than the
input speed.
The last is a reduction again, but the output direction is
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reversed.
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## PLANETARY GEAR SETS & GEAR RATIOS

There are several other ratios that can be gotten out of

this planetary gear set, but these are the ones that are
relevant to our automatic transmission. You can try
these out in the animation below:

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## PLANETARY GEAR SETS & GEAR RATIOS

So this one set of gears can produce all of these

## different gear ratios without having to engage or

disengage any other gears.
With two of these gearsets in a row, we can get the

## four forward gears

transmission needs.

and

one

reverse

gear

our

## We'll put the two sets of gears together in the next

section.
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## DETAILS ON INVOLUTE GEAR PROFILES

On an involute profile gear tooth, the contact point

## starts closer to one gear, and as the gear spins, the

contact point moves away from that gear and toward
the other.
If you were to follow the contact point, it would
describe a straight line that starts near one gear and
ends up near the other.
This means that the radius of the contact point gets
larger as the teeth engage.
The pitch diameter is the effective contact diameter.
Since the contact diameter is not constant, the pitch
diameter is really the average contact distance.
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## contacts the bottom gear tooth inside the pitch

diameter. But notice that the part of the top gear tooth
that contacts the bottom gear tooth is very skinny at
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this point.
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## DETAILS ON INVOLUTE GEAR PROFILES

As the gears turn, the contact point slides up onto the

thicker part of the top gear tooth. This pushes the top gear
ahead, so it compensates for the slightly smaller contact
diameter.
As the teeth continue to rotate, the contact point moves
even further away, going outside the pitch diameter but
the profile of the bottom tooth compensates for this
movement. The contact point starts to slide onto the skinny
part of the bottom tooth, subtracting a little bit of velocity
from the top gear to compensate for the increased diameter
of contact.
The end result is that even though the contact point
diameter changes continually, the speed remains the same.
So an involute profile gear tooth produces a constant ratio
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of rotational speed.
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EXAMPLE CALCULATION
Example 1 (Question)

## In examinations one of the first questions will

probably for you to work out the 'gear ratio'
(sometimes called velocity ratio). As a guide always assume that the larger gear revolves one
revolution. The number of rotations of the second
gear has then to be worked out.

## In the example below, the DRIVER has 60 teeth and

because it is the largest we say that it revolves
once. The DRIVEN gear has 30 teeth. Simply divide
60 teeth by 30 teeth to work out the number of
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revolutions of the driven gear.
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EXAMPLE CALCULATION
Work out the Velocity Ratio (Gear Ratio);

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

## Work out the Velocity Ratio (Gear Ratio);

Work out the Velocity Ratio (Gear Ratio);

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

## Work out the Velocity Ratio (Gear Ratio);

Work out the Velocity Ratio (Gear Ratio);

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION
Example 4 (Question)
Below are examples of the way to work out
'revolutions per minute', or RPM as it is usually
called.
In the example below the DRIVER gear is large than
the DRIVEN gear. The general rule is - large to small
gear means 'multiply' the velocity ratio by the rpm
of the first gear. Divide 60 teeth by 30 teeth to find
the velocity ratio. Multiply this number (2) by the
rpm (120). This gives an answer of 240rpm.
If A revolves at 120 revs/min what is B ?
(Remember large gear to small gear increases revs)

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION
Example 5 (Question)
In the example below the DRIVER gear is smaller
than the DRIVEN gear. The general rule is - small to
large gear means 'divide' the velocity ratio by the
rpm of the first gear. Divide 75 teeth by 25 teeth to
find the velocity ratio. divide the 60rpm by the
velocity ration (3). The answer is 20rpm.
If A revolves at 60 revs/min what is B?
(Remember small gear to large gear decreases
revs)

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION
If A revolves at 100 revs/min what is B ?
(Remember small gear to large gear decreases
revs)

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION
Example 7 (Question)
When faced with three gears the question can be
broken down into two parts. First work on Gears A
and B. When this has been solved work on gears B
and C.
The diagram above shows a gear train composed of
three gears. Gear A revolves at 60 revs/min in a
clockwise direction.
What is the output in revolutions per minute at Gear
C?
GEAR A GEAR B GEAR C
In what direction does Gear C revolve ?

20
TEETH
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60
TEETH

10
TEETH

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

## (Remember B is larger than A therefore,

B outputs less revs/min and is slower)

Next, take B and C. C is smaller, therefore, revs/minute will increase and rotation
will be faster.

## What direction does C revolve ?

A is clockwise, B consequently is anti-clockwise and C is therefore
clockwise.
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EXAMPLE CALCULATION
Example 8 (Question)

## Gear A revolves at 90revs/min. What is the output

and direction at Gear C.
GEAR A

GEAR B

GEAR C

30 TEETH

90 TEETH

15 TEETH

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

## (Remember B is larger than A therefore,

B outputs less revs/min and is slower)1

Next, take B and C. C is smaller, therefore, revs/minute will increase and rotation
will be faster.

## What direction does C revolve ?

A is clockwise, B consequently is anti-clockwise and C is therefore
clockwise.
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EXAMPLE CALCULATION
Example 9 (Question)

## Below is a question regarding 'compound gears'. Gears C and B represent

a compound gear as they appear 'fixed' together. When drawn with a
compass they have the same centre. Two gears 'fixed' together in this
way rotate together and at the same RPM. When answering a question
like this split it into two parts. Treat gears A and B as one question AND C
and D as the second part.

GEAR
A
120 T

GEAR
B
40 T

GEAR
C
80 T

GEAR
D
20 T

## This is an example of a compound gear train. Gear A rotates in a

clockwise direction at 30 revs/min. What is the output in revs/min at D and
what is the direction of rotation ?
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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

## First find revs/min at B;

B is smaller therefore it rotates
faster and revs/min increase. C is
fixed to B and therefore, rotates
at the same speed. 90 REVS/MIN
at C

## Next find revs/min at D

D is smaller than C,
therefore rotates faster
(increased revs/min).
43

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

## A revolves in a clockwise direction, B is therefore anti-clockwise, C

is fixed to B and is also anti-clockwise, which means D revolves in a
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clockwise direction.
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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

## Try the following question:

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PULLEY

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INTRODUCTION
What is pulleys
A pulley is a simple machine made with a rope, belt or chain
wrapped around a wheel. The pulley is usually used to lift a heavy
What does a pulley do?
A pulley changes thedirection of the force, making it easier to lift
things.
Are all pulleys the same?
No, they are not. There are three types of pulleys:
Fixed Pulley
Movable Pulley
Combined
Pulley
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INTRODUCTION
A single pulley changes the direction of the lifting

force.
For example, if you are lifting a heavy object with a

## single pulley anchored to the ceiling, you can pull down

on the rope to lift the object instead of pushing up. The
same amount of effort is needed as without a pulley, but
it feels easier because you are pulling down.

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INTRODUCTION
A fixed pulley is the only pulley that

## when used individually, uses more

from the ground.
The fixed pulley when attached to an
unmovable object e.g. a ceiling or
wall, acts as a first class lever with the
fulcrum being located at the axis but
with a minor change, the bar becomes
a rope.
The advantage of the fixed pulley is
that you do not have to pull or push
the pulley up and down.
The disadvantage is that you have
to apply more effort than the load
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INTRODUCTION
A movable pulley is a pulley

## that moves with the load.

The movable pulley allows the
effort to be less than the weight of
the load. The movable pulley also
acts as a second class lever. The
load is between the fulcrum and
the effort.
movable pulley is that you use
movable pulley is that you have to
pull or push the pulley up or down.
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INTRODUCTION
A combined pulley makes life

## easier as the effort needed to lift

the load is less than half the
pulley is that the amount of
effort is less than half of the
travels a very long distance.

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INTRODUCTION
If you add a second pulley,

## the amount of effort to lift the

heavy object is much less .
For example, to lift a box weight

## of150 N, one would need to

exert 150 N of force without
the help of pulleys.
However,

## by using just two

pulleys, the person would only
need to use 50 N of force.
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INTRODUCTION
The pulley system consists of one or more pulleys and a

## rope or a cable. The number of pulleys used may increase or

decrease the mechanical advantage of the system.
Generally, the higher the mechanical advantage is, the
easier it is to lift the object that is being lifted.
Pulley systems are used when there is a

## need to transmit rotary motion. The

diagram shows a simple system comprised
of two pulley wheels and a belt. It is a
simple mechanical device to winch up and
down a rope. When the motor is turned on
it revolves the driver pulley wheel. The belt
causes the driven pulley wheel to rotate as
well, winding out the rope.
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PULLEY SYSTEMS
Pulley wheels are grooved so that the belt cannot slip

off. Also, the belt is pulled tight between the two pulley
wheels (in tension). The friction caused by this means
that when the driver rotates the driven follows.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS
Most pulley wheels have a central shaft on which they

## rotate. To keep the wheel firmly attached to the shaft it

is usual to use what is called a key.
The diagrams shows a keyed shaft which is pushed
through the centre of the pulley wheel. A small
rectangular key is then tapped into position, holding
the shaft and the pulley wheel together. This fitting
means that the pulley wheel cannot slip on the shaft.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS
Velocity Ratio & Revolution per minute
The system shown has a driver pulley attached to a
motor. When the motor is switched on the driver pulley
revolves at 20 rpm. The diameter of the driver pulley
wheel is 200mm and the driven pulley wheel is 400mm.
This means for every single revolution of the larger
driven pulley wheel, the smaller driver pulley wheel
rotates twice. This is due to velocity ratio. The ratio can
be worked out mathematically in different ways.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS
The two most likely methods to determine the velocity

## ratio are shown below

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PULLEY SYSTEMS
This means that the larger pulley wheel (the driven

## pulley wheel) revolves half as fast compared to the

smaller driver pulley wheel. In effect the driven pulley
wheel is slower and revolves half as many times as the
driver. This means if the rpm of the driver pulley wheel
is divided by 2, the output rpm of the driven pulley
wheel will be found.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS
Another example:
The diameter of the driver pulley wheel is 200mm and
the driven pulley wheel is 600mm. This means for every
single revolution of the larger driven pulley wheel, the
smaller driver pulley wheel rotates three times. This due
to velocity ratio. The ratio can be worked out
mathematically in different ways. The two most likely
methods are :

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

This means that the larger pulley wheel (the driven pulley wheel)

## revolves a third of the rpm compared to the smaller driver pulley

wheel. In effect the driven pulley wheel is slower and revolves a
third as many times as the driver. This means if the rpm of the
driver pulley wheel is divided by 3, the output rpm of the driven
60
pulley wheel will be found.
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PULLEY SYSTEMS
The diameter of the driver pulley wheel is 600mm and

## the driven pulley wheel is 200mm. This means for

every single revolution of the larger driver pulley
wheel, the smaller driven pulley wheel rotates three
times. This due to velocity ratio. The ratio can be
worked out mathematically in different ways. The two
most likely methods are shown below. Please note, the
driver pulley wheel is placed on top of the equation as
it is the larger number of distance.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

This means that the larger pulley wheel (the driver pulley wheel)

## revolves a third of the rpm compared to the smaller driven pulley

wheel. In effect the driver pulley wheel is slower and revolves a
third as many times as the driven. This means if the rpm of the
driver pulley wheel is MULTIPLIED by 3, the output rpm of the
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driven pulley wheel will be found.
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PULLEY SYSTEMS
Reversing Rotation
Sometimes it is necessary to reverse the rotation of the
driven pulley wheel in relation to the driver pulley. If the
driver is rotating in an anti-clockwise direction the driven
pulley may be required to rotate in a clockwise direction.
This is achieved by twisting the belt as shown in the
diagram. Care must be taken when this is done as the
belt can rub where it crosses and this may increase
friction or damage it.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS
Example

1.

## A system of four pulley wheels are set up as shown in the diagram

above. The driver pulley rotates in an anti-clockwise direction. In
what direction does the output pulley wheel revolve ?

2.

## If pulley A (driver) rotates at 60 rpm what is the output rpm at

64
F.
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PULLEY SYSTEMS
1. Look at the animation below. The final output of pulley F
is a clockwise movement.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS
2. To answer the question, split the pulleys into pairs and
work out the velocity rotation of each pair. Treat the
pairs
of
pulleys
as
separate
questions.
Use the diameters when dividing and place the largest
number on the top of the division.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS
Pulley wheel A has an rpm of 60. Pulley B is larger and

## so revolves at a lower rate than A. This means that the

rpm of A is divided by the ratio of 2.

## they form a compound pulley. Pulley D is larger and so

revolves at a lower rate than C. This means that the
rpm of C is divided by the ratio of 1.2
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PULLEY SYSTEMS
Pulley wheel E has the same rpm as pulley D because

## they form a compound pulley. Pulley F is smaller and so

revolves at a higher rate than E. This means that the
rpm of E is multiplied by the ratio of 1.3

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PULLEY SYSTEMS
Pulleys and lifting
Pulley systems can be used
to lift weights safely and
effectively.
The
diagram
shows a pulley attached to a
beam. The rope is pulled
on the effort side and the
weight being lifted is on the
right hand side, called the
pulley is useful as it allows
the laborer to lift the weight
without bending his back.
This means it is much safer
to lift the weight.
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69

PULLEY SYSTEMS
The diagrams below show how a pulley can be

## compared to a lever. First draw a fulcrum in the centre

of the pulley wheel. Then draw a beam across the
centre, balancing on the fulcrum. The comparison with
a lever can now be seen clearly. Pulleys are a type of
lever.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS
Pulleys and lifting
When using pulleys for lifting the formulas for mechanical
advantage and velocity ratio are very important. The
formulas are shown below.
effort. Pulley systems rely on this important relationship
between load and effort. The higher the mechanical
advantage, the easier it is to lift a weight.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS
The formula is best understood by writing it within a

## triangle. This helps when it is necessary to change the

or the effort. In this way three formulas can be generated
from the single formula inside the triangle.

## consequently there is no mechanical advantage with this

72
single pulley.
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PULLEY SYSTEMS
The pulley to the left is

suspended
and
as
a
consequence
the
increased. This happens
because the rope on the left
and right of the pulley are
each lift half its weight. The
load is split into 2. The
calculation is shown below.
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PULLEY SYSTEMS
FORMULAS RELATING TO VELOCITY RATIO
Velocity Ratio (sometimes called movement ratio)- is
defined as the ratio of the distance moved by the
effort to the distance moved by the load.
The formula is also best understood by writing it within

a triangle.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS
Using

## the same example

from previous slide. If the
above the pulley wheel - the
rope on the right hand side
must be shortened by one
meter and this also applies
to the left hand side.
Therefore, the effort can be
seen to move twice as far as
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PULLEY SYSTEMS
A pulley system with the effort applied from previous slide is

## very difficult to use. The most comfortable way to use a

single moving pulley is combine it with a fixed pulley, seen
theof
effort
be applied
downwards.
below.
note,allows
as one
the to
pulleys
is a fixed
pulley, the mechanical advantage and velocity
ratio is still calculated as if only the moving
pulley exists. The velocity ratio and the
When dealing with a fixed pulley and a
moving pulley, as shown in the diagram,
always work out which of the efforts move
lifted, two efforts (e1) and (e2) move. The
strain of the load is divided into two whilst one
final effort lifts the entire load.
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## EXAMPLE CALCULATION (EXAMPLE 1)

A simple pulley system is shown as the figure. A 40N

## effort is used to move a 80N load. The final effort

moves 2 meters and at the same time the load moves
1 meter.
1. Determine the mechanical
ratio for this pulley system
2. Work out the efficiency of
this pulley system.

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## It is important to remember that

NO pulley system is 100%
efficient.
This is due to friction of the ropes
against the pulley wheels and the
friction of the bearings of the
pulley wheels as they rotate.
100% efficiency is only
theoretical.

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## EXAMPLE CALCULATION (EXAMPLE 2)

1. Determine

the mechanical
for this pulley system
2. Work out the efficiency of this
pulley system.

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## EXAMPLE CALCULATION (EXAMPLE 3)

1. The pulley opposite has four pulleys

## which support the load by dividing it

into four lengths. Each part of the rope
means lifting a load with this
arrangement of pulleys allows the
lifting of 4 times a normal maximum

## to move in order for the load to move

and calculating the velocity ratio is
seen below.
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80

## EXAMPLE CALCULATION (EXAMPLE 4)

1. What effort is required to lift the

## compared to the 4m movement of

the final effort?
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## EXAMPLE CALCULATION (EXAMPLE 5)

The pulley system opposite has

## 1:4 ratio (effort : load). An

effort of 25N can lift a load of
100N.
1. 1. Draw a pulley system that
2. is capable of lifting 150N.

## 2. Work out the velocity ratio,

and the efficiency of the
system.
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