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ACTUATORS &

DRIVES

CHAPTER 5 : GEAR & PULLEY

(PART II)

Email : haniff@utem.edu.my

1

LEARNING OUTCOME

to explain model, types, architecture &

operations related to actuators and drives

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CHAPTER CONTENTS

Gear

Introduction

Types of gears

Spur gears

Helical gears

Bevel gears

Worm gears

Rack and pinion

gears

Example Calculation

Pulley

Introduction

Fixed Pulley

Movable Pulley

Combined Pulley

Pulley Systems

Example Calculations

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GEARS

INTRODUCTION

Gears are a means of changing the rate of rotation

direction of the axis of rotation and can change

rotary motion to linear motion.

Gears

combined in a multitude of ways.

and

can

be

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Gears are used in tons of mechanical devices.

They do several important jobs, but most important,

equipment.

This is key because, often, a small motor spinning

very fast can provide enough power for a device,

but not enough torque.

For instance, an electric screwdriver has a very large

gear reduction because it needs lots of torque to turn

screws, but the motor only produces a small

amount of torque at a high speed.

With a gear reduction, the output speed can be

6

reduced while the torque is increased.

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INTRODUCTION

Another thing gears do is adjust the direction of

rotation.

For instance, in the differential between the rear

wheels of your car, the power is transmitted by a shaft

that runs down the center of the car, and the

differential has to turn that power 90 degrees to apply

it to the wheels.

There are a lot of intricacies in the different types of

gears.

In this topic, we'll learn exactly how the teeth on gears

work, and we'll talk about the different types of gears

we can find in all sorts of mechanical gadgets.

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BASICS

On any gear, the ratio is determined by the distances

For instance, in a device with two gears, if one gear is

twice the diameter of the other, the ratio would be 2:1.

One of the most primitive types of gears we could look

at a wheel with wooden pegs sticking out of it.

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TYPES OF GEARS

1. Spur gears

They have straight teeth, and are mounted on

parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are

used at once to create very large gear reductions.

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TYPES OF GEARS

1. Spur gears

Spur gears are used in many devices that we can see all

over, like the electric screwdriver, dancing monster,

oscillating sprinkler, windup alarm clock, washing

machine and clothes dryer. But we won't find many in

the car.

This is because the spur gear can be really loud. Each time

a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth

collide, and this impact makes a noise. It also increases the

stress on the gear teeth.

gears in the car are helical.

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TYPES OF GEARS

2. Helical gears

the face of the gear. When two teeth on a helical

gear system engage, the contact starts at one end

of the tooth and gradually spreads as the gears

rotate, until the two teeth are in full engagement.

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TYPES OF GEARS

2. Helical gears

much more smoothly and quietly than spur gears.

For this reason, helical gears are used in almost all

car transmissions.

Because of the angle of the teeth on helical gears, they

create a thrust load on the gear when they mesh.

Devices that use helical gears have bearings that can

support this thrust load.

One interesting thing about helical gears is that if the

angles of the gear teeth are correct, they can be

mounted on perpendicular shafts, adjusting the

rotation angle by 90 degrees.

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TYPES OF GEARS

2. Helical gears

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TYPES OF GEARS

3. Bevel gears

Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a

shaft's rotation needs to be changed. They are

usually mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees

apart, but can be designed to work at other

angles as well.

The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral

or hypoid. Straight bevel gear teeth actually have

the same problem as straight spur gear teeth -- as

each tooth engages, it impacts the corresponding

tooth all at once.

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TYPES OF GEARS

3. Bevel gears

is to curve the gear teeth. These spiral teeth engage

just like helical teeth: the contact starts at one end

of the gear and progressively spreads across the

whole tooth.

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TYPES OF GEARS

3. Bevel gears

be perpendicular to each other, but they must also

be in the same plane. If you were to extend the two

shafts past the gears, they would intersect. The

hypoid gear, on the other hand, can engage with the

axes in different planes.

car differential

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TYPES OF GEARS

3. Bevel gears

ring gear of the differential and the input pinion gear

are both hypoid. This allows the input pinion to be

mounted lower than the axis of the ring gear.

gear of the differential. Since the driveshaft of the

car is connected to the input pinion, this also lowers

the driveshaft. This means that the driveshaft

doesn't intrude into the passenger compartment of

the car as much, making more room for people and

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cargo.

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TYPES OF GEARS

4. Worm gears

are needed. It is common for worm gears to have

reductions of 20:1, and even up to 300:1 or greater.

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TYPES OF GEARS

4. Worm gears

no other gear set has: the worm can easily turn the

gear, but the gear cannot turn the worm. This is

because the angle on the worm is so shallow that

when the gear tries to spin it, the friction between

the gear and the worm holds the worm in place.

systems, in which the locking feature can act as a

brake for the conveyor when the motor is not

turning.

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TYPES OF GEARS

4. Rack and Pinion gears

Rack and pinion gears are used to convert

rotation into linear motion.

A perfect example of this is the steering system on

many cars. The steering wheel rotates a gear which

engages the rack. As the gear turns, it slides the

rack either to the right or left, depending on which

way you turn the wheel.

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Any planetary gearset has three main components:

The sun gear

The planet gears and the planet gears' carrier

The ring gear

Choosing which piece plays which role determines the

gear ratio for the gearset. Let's take a look at a single

planetary gearset. One of the planetary gearsets from

our transmission has a ring gear with 72 teeth and a

sun gear with 30 teeth. We can get lots of different

gear ratios out of this gearset.

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Input

Output

Stationary

Calculation

Gear Ratio

Sun (S)

Planet

Carrier (C)

Ring (R)

1 + R/S

3.4:1

Planet

Carrier (C)

Ring (R)

Sun (S)

1 / (1 + S/R)

0.71:1

Sun (S)

Ring (R)

Planet Carrier

(C)

-R/S

-2.4:1

Also, locking any two of the three components together will lock

The first gear ratio listed above is a reduction the output

speed is slower than the input speed.

The second is an overdrive the output speed is faster than the

input speed.

The last is a reduction again, but the output direction is

23

reversed.

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There are several other ratios that can be gotten out of

this planetary gear set, but these are the ones that are

relevant to our automatic transmission. You can try

these out in the animation below:

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So this one set of gears can produce all of these

disengage any other gears.

With two of these gearsets in a row, we can get the

transmission needs.

and

one

reverse

gear

our

section.

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On an involute profile gear tooth, the contact point

contact point moves away from that gear and toward

the other.

If you were to follow the contact point, it would

describe a straight line that starts near one gear and

ends up near the other.

This means that the radius of the contact point gets

larger as the teeth engage.

The pitch diameter is the effective contact diameter.

Since the contact diameter is not constant, the pitch

diameter is really the average contact distance.

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diameter. But notice that the part of the top gear tooth

that contacts the bottom gear tooth is very skinny at

27

this point.

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As the gears turn, the contact point slides up onto the

thicker part of the top gear tooth. This pushes the top gear

ahead, so it compensates for the slightly smaller contact

diameter.

As the teeth continue to rotate, the contact point moves

even further away, going outside the pitch diameter but

the profile of the bottom tooth compensates for this

movement. The contact point starts to slide onto the skinny

part of the bottom tooth, subtracting a little bit of velocity

from the top gear to compensate for the increased diameter

of contact.

The end result is that even though the contact point

diameter changes continually, the speed remains the same.

So an involute profile gear tooth produces a constant ratio

28

of rotational speed.

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 1 (Question)

probably for you to work out the 'gear ratio'

(sometimes called velocity ratio). As a guide always assume that the larger gear revolves one

revolution. The number of rotations of the second

gear has then to be worked out.

because it is the largest we say that it revolves

once. The DRIVEN gear has 30 teeth. Simply divide

60 teeth by 30 teeth to work out the number of

29

revolutions of the driven gear.

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 1 (Answer)

Work out the Velocity Ratio (Gear Ratio);

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 2 (Question & Answer)

Work out the Velocity Ratio (Gear Ratio);

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 3 (Question & Answer)

Work out the Velocity Ratio (Gear Ratio);

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 4 (Question)

Below are examples of the way to work out

'revolutions per minute', or RPM as it is usually

called.

In the example below the DRIVER gear is large than

the DRIVEN gear. The general rule is - large to small

gear means 'multiply' the velocity ratio by the rpm

of the first gear. Divide 60 teeth by 30 teeth to find

the velocity ratio. Multiply this number (2) by the

rpm (120). This gives an answer of 240rpm.

If A revolves at 120 revs/min what is B ?

(Remember large gear to small gear increases revs)

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 4 (Answer)

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 5 (Question)

In the example below the DRIVER gear is smaller

than the DRIVEN gear. The general rule is - small to

large gear means 'divide' the velocity ratio by the

rpm of the first gear. Divide 75 teeth by 25 teeth to

find the velocity ratio. divide the 60rpm by the

velocity ration (3). The answer is 20rpm.

If A revolves at 60 revs/min what is B?

(Remember small gear to large gear decreases

revs)

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 5 (Answer)

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 6 (Question & Answer)

If A revolves at 100 revs/min what is B ?

(Remember small gear to large gear decreases

revs)

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 7 (Question)

When faced with three gears the question can be

broken down into two parts. First work on Gears A

and B. When this has been solved work on gears B

and C.

The diagram above shows a gear train composed of

three gears. Gear A revolves at 60 revs/min in a

clockwise direction.

What is the output in revolutions per minute at Gear

C?

GEAR A GEAR B GEAR C

In what direction does Gear C revolve ?

20

TEETH

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60

TEETH

10

TEETH

38

EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 7 (Answer)

B outputs less revs/min and is slower)

Next, take B and C. C is smaller, therefore, revs/minute will increase and rotation

will be faster.

A is clockwise, B consequently is anti-clockwise and C is therefore

clockwise.

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 8 (Question)

and direction at Gear C.

GEAR A

GEAR B

GEAR C

30 TEETH

90 TEETH

15 TEETH

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 8 (Answer)

B outputs less revs/min and is slower)1

Next, take B and C. C is smaller, therefore, revs/minute will increase and rotation

will be faster.

A is clockwise, B consequently is anti-clockwise and C is therefore

clockwise.

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 9 (Question)

a compound gear as they appear 'fixed' together. When drawn with a

compass they have the same centre. Two gears 'fixed' together in this

way rotate together and at the same RPM. When answering a question

like this split it into two parts. Treat gears A and B as one question AND C

and D as the second part.

GEAR

A

120 T

GEAR

B

40 T

GEAR

C

80 T

GEAR

D

20 T

clockwise direction at 30 revs/min. What is the output in revs/min at D and

what is the direction of rotation ?

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 9 (Answer)

B is smaller therefore it rotates

faster and revs/min increase. C is

fixed to B and therefore, rotates

at the same speed. 90 REVS/MIN

at C

D is smaller than C,

therefore rotates faster

(increased revs/min).

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 9 (Answer)

is fixed to B and is also anti-clockwise, which means D revolves in a

44

clockwise direction.

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EXAMPLE CALCULATION

Example 10 (Task)

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PULLEY

46

INTRODUCTION

What is pulleys

A pulley is a simple machine made with a rope, belt or chain

wrapped around a wheel. The pulley is usually used to lift a heavy

object (load).

What does a pulley do?

A pulley changes thedirection of the force, making it easier to lift

things.

Are all pulleys the same?

No, they are not. There are three types of pulleys:

Fixed Pulley

Movable Pulley

Combined

Pulley

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INTRODUCTION

A single pulley changes the direction of the lifting

force.

For example, if you are lifting a heavy object with a

on the rope to lift the object instead of pushing up. The

same amount of effort is needed as without a pulley, but

it feels easier because you are pulling down.

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INTRODUCTION

A fixed pulley is the only pulley that

effort than theload to lift the load

from the ground.

The fixed pulley when attached to an

unmovable object e.g. a ceiling or

wall, acts as a first class lever with the

fulcrum being located at the axis but

with a minor change, the bar becomes

a rope.

The advantage of the fixed pulley is

that you do not have to pull or push

the pulley up and down.

The disadvantage is that you have

to apply more effort than the load

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INTRODUCTION

A movable pulley is a pulley

The movable pulley allows the

effort to be less than the weight of

the load. The movable pulley also

acts as a second class lever. The

load is between the fulcrum and

the effort.

The main advantage of a

movable pulley is that you use

lesseffort to pull the load.

The main disadvantage of a

movable pulley is that you have to

pull or push the pulley up or down.

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INTRODUCTION

A combined pulley makes life

the load is less than half the

weight of the load.

The main advantage of this

pulley is that the amount of

effort is less than half of the

load.

The main disadvantage is it

travels a very long distance.

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INTRODUCTION

If you add a second pulley,

heavy object is much less .

For example, to lift a box weight

exert 150 N of force without

the help of pulleys.

However,

pulleys, the person would only

need to use 50 N of force.

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INTRODUCTION

The pulley system consists of one or more pulleys and a

decrease the mechanical advantage of the system.

Generally, the higher the mechanical advantage is, the

easier it is to lift the object that is being lifted.

Pulley systems are used when there is a

diagram shows a simple system comprised

of two pulley wheels and a belt. It is a

simple mechanical device to winch up and

down a rope. When the motor is turned on

it revolves the driver pulley wheel. The belt

causes the driven pulley wheel to rotate as

well, winding out the rope.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

Pulley wheels are grooved so that the belt cannot slip

off. Also, the belt is pulled tight between the two pulley

wheels (in tension). The friction caused by this means

that when the driver rotates the driven follows.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

Most pulley wheels have a central shaft on which they

is usual to use what is called a key.

The diagrams shows a keyed shaft which is pushed

through the centre of the pulley wheel. A small

rectangular key is then tapped into position, holding

the shaft and the pulley wheel together. This fitting

means that the pulley wheel cannot slip on the shaft.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

Velocity Ratio & Revolution per minute

The system shown has a driver pulley attached to a

motor. When the motor is switched on the driver pulley

revolves at 20 rpm. The diameter of the driver pulley

wheel is 200mm and the driven pulley wheel is 400mm.

This means for every single revolution of the larger

driven pulley wheel, the smaller driver pulley wheel

rotates twice. This is due to velocity ratio. The ratio can

be worked out mathematically in different ways.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

The two most likely methods to determine the velocity

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

This means that the larger pulley wheel (the driven

smaller driver pulley wheel. In effect the driven pulley

wheel is slower and revolves half as many times as the

driver. This means if the rpm of the driver pulley wheel

is divided by 2, the output rpm of the driven pulley

wheel will be found.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

Another example:

The diameter of the driver pulley wheel is 200mm and

the driven pulley wheel is 600mm. This means for every

single revolution of the larger driven pulley wheel, the

smaller driver pulley wheel rotates three times. This due

to velocity ratio. The ratio can be worked out

mathematically in different ways. The two most likely

methods are :

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

This means that the larger pulley wheel (the driven pulley wheel)

wheel. In effect the driven pulley wheel is slower and revolves a

third as many times as the driver. This means if the rpm of the

driver pulley wheel is divided by 3, the output rpm of the driven

60

pulley wheel will be found.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

The diameter of the driver pulley wheel is 600mm and

every single revolution of the larger driver pulley

wheel, the smaller driven pulley wheel rotates three

times. This due to velocity ratio. The ratio can be

worked out mathematically in different ways. The two

most likely methods are shown below. Please note, the

driver pulley wheel is placed on top of the equation as

it is the larger number of distance.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

This means that the larger pulley wheel (the driver pulley wheel)

wheel. In effect the driver pulley wheel is slower and revolves a

third as many times as the driven. This means if the rpm of the

driver pulley wheel is MULTIPLIED by 3, the output rpm of the

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driven pulley wheel will be found.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

Reversing Rotation

Sometimes it is necessary to reverse the rotation of the

driven pulley wheel in relation to the driver pulley. If the

driver is rotating in an anti-clockwise direction the driven

pulley may be required to rotate in a clockwise direction.

This is achieved by twisting the belt as shown in the

diagram. Care must be taken when this is done as the

belt can rub where it crosses and this may increase

friction or damage it.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

Example

1.

above. The driver pulley rotates in an anti-clockwise direction. In

what direction does the output pulley wheel revolve ?

2.

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F.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

Answer

1. Look at the animation below. The final output of pulley F

is a clockwise movement.

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Answer

2. To answer the question, split the pulleys into pairs and

work out the velocity rotation of each pair. Treat the

pairs

of

pulleys

as

separate

questions.

Use the diameters when dividing and place the largest

number on the top of the division.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

Pulley wheel A has an rpm of 60. Pulley B is larger and

rpm of A is divided by the ratio of 2.

revolves at a lower rate than C. This means that the

rpm of C is divided by the ratio of 1.2

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

Pulley wheel E has the same rpm as pulley D because

revolves at a higher rate than E. This means that the

rpm of E is multiplied by the ratio of 1.3

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

Pulleys and lifting

Pulley systems can be used

to lift weights safely and

effectively.

The

diagram

shows a pulley attached to a

beam. The rope is pulled

on the effort side and the

weight being lifted is on the

right hand side, called the

load. In general a single

pulley is useful as it allows

the laborer to lift the weight

without bending his back.

This means it is much safer

to lift the weight.

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69

PULLEY SYSTEMS

The diagrams below show how a pulley can be

of the pulley wheel. Then draw a beam across the

centre, balancing on the fulcrum. The comparison with

a lever can now be seen clearly. Pulleys are a type of

lever.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

Pulleys and lifting

When using pulleys for lifting the formulas for mechanical

advantage and velocity ratio are very important. The

formulas are shown below.

FORMULAS RELATING TO MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

Mechanical advantage is defined as the ratio of load to

effort. Pulley systems rely on this important relationship

between load and effort. The higher the mechanical

advantage, the easier it is to lift a weight.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

The formula is best understood by writing it within a

formula to find either; mechanical advantage or the load

or the effort. In this way three formulas can be generated

from the single formula inside the triangle.

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single pulley.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

The pulley to the left is

suspended

and

as

a

consequence

the

mechanical advantage is

increased. This happens

because the rope on the left

and right of the pulley are

both lifting the LOAD, they

each lift half its weight. The

load is split into 2. The

calculation is shown below.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

FORMULAS RELATING TO VELOCITY RATIO

Velocity Ratio (sometimes called movement ratio)- is

defined as the ratio of the distance moved by the

effort to the distance moved by the load.

The formula is also best understood by writing it within

a triangle.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

Using

from previous slide. If the

load is lifted 2 meters,

above the pulley wheel - the

rope on the right hand side

must be shortened by one

meter and this also applies

to the left hand side.

Therefore, the effort can be

seen to move twice as far as

the load.

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PULLEY SYSTEMS

A pulley system with the effort applied from previous slide is

single moving pulley is combine it with a fixed pulley, seen

theof

effort

be applied

downwards.

below.

Please This

note,allows

as one

the to

pulleys

is a fixed

pulley, the mechanical advantage and velocity

ratio is still calculated as if only the moving

pulley exists. The velocity ratio and the

mechanical advantage remains 2.

When dealing with a fixed pulley and a

moving pulley, as shown in the diagram,

always work out which of the efforts move

about the movable pulley. When the load is

lifted, two efforts (e1) and (e2) move. The

strain of the load is divided into two whilst one

final effort lifts the entire load.

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A simple pulley system is shown as the figure. A 40N

moves 2 meters and at the same time the load moves

1 meter.

1. Determine the mechanical

advantage and velocity

ratio for this pulley system

2. Work out the efficiency of

this pulley system.

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Answer

NO pulley system is 100%

efficient.

This is due to friction of the ropes

against the pulley wheels and the

friction of the bearings of the

pulley wheels as they rotate.

100% efficiency is only

theoretical.

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1. Determine

the mechanical

advantage and velocity ratio

for this pulley system

2. Work out the efficiency of this

pulley system.

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1. The pulley opposite has four pulleys

into four lengths. Each part of the rope

equally supports the load. The

mechanical advantage is 4. This

means lifting a load with this

arrangement of pulleys allows the

lifting of 4 times a normal maximum

load.

and calculating the velocity ratio is

seen below.

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1. What effort is required to lift the

100N load?

the final effort?

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The pulley system opposite has

effort of 25N can lift a load of

100N.

1. 1. Draw a pulley system that

2. is capable of lifting 150N.

the mechanical advantage

and the efficiency of the

system.

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Answer

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