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College Algebra

Exam 2 Material

Quadratic Applications
Application problems may give rise to all
types of equations, linear, quadratic and
others
Here we take a look at two that lead to
quadratic equations

Example
Two boys have two way radios with a range of 5 miles, how long can
they communicate if they leave from the same point at the same time
with one traveling north at 10 mph and the other traveling east at 7
mph?
D N =
R
T
N boy

R 10 mph

10 x E boy

5 mi
E

R 7 mph

10 x
7x

10
7

x
x

7x

For right triangle with legs a and b and hypotenuse c : a 2 b 2 c 2

7 x 2 10 x 2 52
49 x 2 100 x 2 25
149 x 2 25

25
x
149
5
x
149
2

5 149
x
hr
149

x 0.4096 hr

Example
A rectangular piece of metal is 2 inches longer than it is
wide. Four inch squares are cut from each corner to
make a box with a volume of 32 cubic inches. What
were the original dimensions of the metal?
4

x2

Unknowns
x2
L Rec x
W Rec x 2 8
L Box x 8
W Box

Height Box 4

x4
V LWH
Impossible
32 x 6 x 8 4
32 x 2 14 x 48 4
x 10
2
32 4 x 56 x 192
2
0 4 x 56 x 160
W

10
in
.
2
0 x 14 x 40
. L 12 in.
0 x 10 x 4
x 10 0 OR x 4 0

Homework Problems
Section: 1.5
Page: 130
Problems: 5 9, 21 22
MyMathLab Assignment 22 for practice

Other Types of Equations


Thus far techniques have been discussed
for solving all linear and quadratic
equations and some higher degree
equations
Now address techniques for identifying
and solving many other types of
equations

Solving Higher Degree


Polynomial Equations
So far methods have been discussed for solving
first and second degree polynomial equations
Higher degree polynomial equations may
sometimes be solved using the zero factor
method or, the zero factor method in
combination with the quadratic formula or the
square root property
Consider two examples:

x3 8
x x 9x 9 0
3

Example One
x3 8
Make one side zero:

x3 8 0

x 2 x

2 x 4 0

Factor non-zero
side:
2

Apply zero factor property 2and solve:

x2 0
x2

x 2x 4 0
2
2 2 41 4 2 12
x

21
2
2 2i 3
x
1 i 3
2
Note : 3 solutions, 1 real and 2 non - real complex
OR

Example Two
x3 + x2 9x 9 = 0
One side is already zero, so factor non-zero side
x3 + x2 9x 9 = 0
x2(x + 1) 9(x + 1) = 0
(x + 1)(x2 9) = 0
Apply zero factor property and solve:
x + 1 = 0 OR x2 9 = 0
x = -1
x2 = 9
x=3

Homework Problems
Section: 1.4
Page: 124
Problems: 59 62
MyMathLab Assignment 23 for practice

Rational Equations
Technical Definition: An equation that
contains a rational expression
Practical Definition: An equation that has
a variable in a denominator
Example:

1
5
2

2
x 2x 3 x 1 x 3

Solving Rational Equations


1. Find restricted values for the equation by
setting every denominator that contains a
variable equal to zero and solving
2. Find the LCD of all the fractions and multiply
both sides of equation by the LCD to eliminate
fractions
3. Solve the resulting equation to find apparent
solutions
4. Solutions are all apparent solutions that are
not restricted

Example

RV

1
5
2
x 2x 3 0

2
x 1 x 3 0
x 2x 3 x 1 x 3
x 1 0 OR x 3 0
x 3
1
5
2
x 1

x 1 0 Already Solved
x 1 x 3 x 1 x 3
x 3 0 Already Solved

LCD
1
5
2 LCD
x 1 x 3
x 1 x 3 x 1 x 3 1

16 3 x
1 5 x 3 2 x 1
16
1 5 x 15 2 x 2
x
Not
RV!
1 3 x 17
3
2

Homework Problems
Section:
Page:
Problems:

1.6
144
Odd: 1 25

MyMathLab Assignment 24 for practice

Quadratic in Form Equation


An equation is quadratic in form if the
same algebraic expression is found
twice where one time the exponent on
the expression is twice as big as it is the
other time
Examples:
m6 7m3 8 = 0
8(x 4)4 10(x 4)2 + 3 = 0

Solving Equations that are


Quadratic in Form
1. Make a substitution by letting u equal
the repeated expression with exponent
that is half of the other
2. Solve the resulting quadratic equation
for u
3. Make a reverse substitution for u
4. Solve the resulting equation

Example of Solving an Equation


that is Quadratic in Form
m 7m 8 0
Let u m 3
u 2 7u 8 0
6

u 8 u 1 0

u 8 0
u 8
3
m 8

OR

m3 8 0

u 1 0
u 1
m 3 1
m3 1 0

m 2 m

2m 4 0
m 2 0 or m 2 2m 4 0
m 2 or m 1 i 3
2

m 1 m 2 m 1 0
m 1 0 or m m 1 0
1
3
m 1 or m
i
2 2
2

Example of Solving an Equation


that is Quadratic in Form
8 x 4 10 x 4 3 0
4

LET u x 4

8u 2 10u 3 0
4u 3 2u 1 0
4u 3 0 OR 2u 1 0
2u 1
4u 3
1
3
u
u
2
4

3
x 4
4
3
x4
2
2

3
x 4
2
1
2
x 4
2
1
x4
2
2
x 4
2

Homework Problems
Section:
Page:
Problems:

1.6
145
All: 61 64, 73 74

MyMathLab Assignment 25 for practice

Negative Integer Exponent


Equation
An equation is a negative integer
exponent equation if it has a variable
expression with a negative integer
exponent
Examples:

x 1

6x 2 x1 3

Quadratic in Form

This one can also be classified as what other type?

Solving Negative Integer


Exponent Equations
If the equation is quadratic in form,
begin solution by that method
Otherwise, use the definition of
negative exponent to convert the
equation to a rational equation and solve
by that method

Example of Solving Equation


With Negative Integer Exponents
x 1

1
2
x 1
1
LCD
x 1 2 1
1 2x 2
3 2x
3
x
Not RV
2

RV

x 1 0
x 1
LCD
x 1

Example of Solving Equation


With Negative Integer Exponents
x

Let u x

u2 u 2
u u 2 0
u 2 u 1 0
2

u 2 0 OR u 1 0
u 1
u 2

x 1 2

x1 1

1
RV
2
x0
x
LCD
1
LCD
x

2
x
1
1 2 x
1
x
Not RV
2
1
1
x
Not RV
x 1

Homework Problems
Section:
Page:
Problems:

1.6
145
75, 76

MyMathLab Assignment 26 for practice


MyMathLab Homework Quiz 5/6 will be due for a
grade on the date of our next class meeting

Radical Equations
An equation is called a radical equation if
it contains a variable in a radicand
Examples:
x x3 5
x x 5 1
3

x 4 3 2x 0

Solving Radical Equations


1. Isolate ONE radical on one side of the equal
sign
2. Raise both sides of equation to power
necessary to eliminate the isolated radical
3. Solve the resulting equation to find apparent
solutions
4. Apparent solutions will be actual solutions if
both sides of equation were raised to an odd
power, BUT if both sides of equation were
raised to an even power, apparent solutions
MUST be checked to see if they are actual
solutions

Why Check When Both Sides are


Raised to an Even Power?

Raising both sides of an equation to a power does not always result


in equivalent equations
If both sides of equation are raised to an odd power, then resulting
equations are equivalent
If both sides of equation are raised to an even power, then resulting
equations are not equivalent (extraneous solutions may be
introduced)
Raising both sides to an even power, may make a false statement
true: 2 2 , however : - 2 2 2 2 , - 2 4 2 4 , etc.

Raising both sides to an odd power never makes a false statement


3
3
5
5
true:

2 2 , and : - 2 2 , - 2 2 , etc.

Example of Solving
Radical Equation
Check x 4

x x 3 5
x 5 x 3

x 5

x3

x 10 x 25 x 3
x 2 11x 28 0
x 4 x 7 0
x 4 0 OR x 7 0
x 4 OR x 7
2

4 43 5?
4 1 5?
35

x 4 is NOT a solution

Check x 7

7 73 5?
7 4 5?
55
x7

IS a solution

Example of Solving
Radical Equation

x x 5 1
x 5 1 x

Check x 4

4 4 5 1?
2

x 5 1 x
x 5 1 2 x x
4 2 x
2 x
2
2
2 x

4x

4 9 1?
2 3 1?
5 1

x 4 is NOT a solution
Equation has No Solution!

Example of Solving
Radical Equation
3

x 4 3 2x 0
3

x 4 2x
3

x4

2x

x 4 2x
4x
(No need to check)

Homework Problems
Section:
Page:
Problems:

1.6
144
Odd: 27 51, 55 57

MyMathLab Assignment 27 for practice

Rational Exponent Equations


An equation in which a variable
expression is raised to a fractional
power
Example:

x 1

2
3

1
3

9x 0

Solving
Rational Exponent Equations

1.
2.
3.
4.

If the equation is quadratic in form, solve that way


Otherwise, solve essentially like radical equations
Isolate ONE rational exponent expression
Raise both sides of equation to power necessary to
change the fractional exponent into an integer
exponent
Solve the resulting equation to find apparent
solutions
Apparent solutions will be actual solutions if both sides
of equation were raised to an odd power, but if both
sides of equation were raised to an even power,
apparent solutions MUST be checked to see if they
are actual solutions

Example
x 2

2
3

x 2
x 2

2
3

1
3

9x 0

x 4 OR

2
3

9 x

9 x

1
3

x 2 2 9 x

x 2 4 x 4 9 x
x2 5x 4 0

x 4 x 1 0

x 4 0 OR

1
3

x 1 0
x 1

No reason to have to check!

Homework Problems
Section:
Page:
Problems:
72

1.6
145
All: 53 54, 59 60, 65

MyMathLab Assignment 28 for practice

Definition of Absolute Value


Absolute value means distance away from zero on
a number line
Distance is always positive or zero
Absolute value is indicated by placing vertical parallel
bars on either side of a number or expression
Examples:
The distance away from zero of -3 is shown as:

3 3

The distance away from zero of 3 is shown as:

The distance away from zero of u is shown as:

Can' t be simplified, because value of " u" is unknown. However, its value is zero or positive.

Absolute Value Equation


An equation that has a variable contained
within absolute value symbols
Examples:
| 2x 3 | + 6 = 11
| x 8 | | 7x + 4 | = 0
| 3x | + 4 = 0

Solving Absolute Value


Equations
Isolate one absolute value that contains an algebraic
expression, | u |
If the other side is a negative number there is no solution
(distance cant be negative)

If 2 x 5 4, then :

No solution

If the other side is zero, then write:


u = 0 and Solve If 2 x 5 0, then : 2 x 5 0
If the other side is positive n, then write:
u = n OR u = - n and Solve

If 2 x 5 3, then : 2 x 5 3 or 2 x 5 3

If the other side is another absolute value expression, | v |, then


write:
u = v OR u = - v and Solve

If 2 x 5 x 3 , then : 2 x 5 x 3 or 2 x 5 x 3

Example of Solving
Absolute Value Equation
2 x 3 6 11
2x 3 5
2 x 3 5 OR 2 x 3 5
2 x 2
2x 8
x 1
x4

Example of Solving
Absolute Value Equation
x 9 7x 4 0
x 9 7x 4

x 9 7x 4
13 6 x
13
x
6

OR

x 9 7 x 4
x 9 7 x 4
8x 5
5
x
8

Example of Solving
Absolute Value Equation
3x 6 2
3 x 4

This says distance is negative - NOT POSSIBLE!

Equation has NO SOLUTION!

Homework Problems
Section:1.8
Page: 164
Problems: Odd: 9 23, 41 43,
67 69
MyMathLab Assignment 29 for practice
MyMathLab Homework Quiz 7 will be due
for a grade on the date of our next class
meeting

Inequalities
An equation is a comparison that says two algebraic
expressions are equal
An inequality is a comparison between two or three
algebraic expressions using symbols for:
greater than:
greater than or equal to:
less than:
less than or equal to:
Examples:
Two part inequality
x 15 3 x 3

1
3 x 4 1
2

Three part inequality

Inequalities
There are lots of different types of
inequalities, and each is solved in a
special way
Inequalities are called equivalent if they
have exactly the same solutions
Equivalent inequalities are obtained by
using properties of inequalities

Properties of Inequalities

Adding or subtracting the same number to all parts of an


inequality gives an equivalent inequality with the same sense
(direction) of the inequality symbol
Add 3

x 3 2 is equivalent to : x 5

Multiplying or dividing all parts of an inequality by the same


POSITIVE number gives an equivalent inequality with the same
sense (direction) of the inequality symbol
Divide by 3

3 x 6 is equivalent to : x 2

Multiplying or dividing all parts of an inequality by the same


NEGATIVE number and changing the sense (direction) of the
inequality
symbol
Divide
by - 2 gives an equivalent inequality

2 x 8 is equivalent to : x 4

Solutions to Inequalities
Whereas solutions to equations are usually sets
of individual numbers, solutions to inequalities
are typically intervals of numbers
Example:
Solution to x = 3 is {3}
Solution to x < 3 is every real number that is less than
three

Solutions to inequalities may be expressed in:


Standard Notation
Graphical Notation
Interval Notation

Two Part Linear Inequalities


A two part linear inequality is one that
looks the same as a linear equation
except that an equal sign is replaced by
inequality symbol (greater than, greater
than or equal to, less than, or less than or
equal to)
Example:
x 15 3 x 3

Expressing Solutions to Two


Part Inequalities

Standard notation - variable appears alone on left side of


inequality symbol, and a number appears alone on right side:

x2

Graphical notation - solutions are shaded on a number line


using arrows to indicate all numbers to left or right of where shading
ends, and using a parenthesis to indicate that a number is not
included, and a square bracket to indicate
2 that a number is
]
included

Interval notation - solutions are indicated by listing in order the


smallest and largest numbers that are in the solution interval,
separated by comma, enclosed within parenthesis and/or square
bracket. If there is no limit in the negative direction, negative
infinity symbol is used, and if there is no limit in the positive
direction, a positive infinity symbol is used. When infinity
symbols are used, they are always used with a parenthesis.

(, 2]

Solving
Two Part Linear Inequalities
Solve exactly like linear equations
EXCEPT:
Always isolate variable on left side of
inequality
Correctly apply principles of inequalities
(In particular, always remember to reverse
sense of inequality when multiplying or
dividing by a negative)

Example of Solving Two Part


Linear Inequalities
x 15 3 x 3
x 15 3 x 9

2x 6
x 3

When dividing by a negative, reverse sense of inequality!

Standard Notation Solution


3

(, 3]

Graphical Notation Solution


Interval Notation Solution

Homework Problems
Section:
Page:
Problems:

1.7
156
Odd: 13 23

MyMathLab Assignment 30 for practice

Three Part Linear Inequalities


Consist of three algebraic expressions compared with
two inequality symbols
Both inequality symbols MUST have the same sense
(point the same direction) AND must make a true
statement when the middle expression is ignored
Good Example:
1
3 x 4 1
2
Not Legitimate:
1
3 x 4 1 Inequality Symbols Don' t Have Same Sense
2
.
1
3 x 4 1 - 3 is NOT - 1
2

Expressing Solutions to Three


Part Inequalities
Standard notation - variable appears alone
in the middle part of the three expressions
being compared with two inequality symbols:

2 x 3

Graphical notation same as with two part


inequalities:
3
2

Interval notation same as with two part


inequalities:
(2, 3]

Solving
Three Part Linear Inequalities
Solved exactly like two part linear
inequalities except that:
solution is achieved when variable is isolated
in the middle
all three parts must be kept balanced by doing
the same operation on all parts

Example of Solving
Three Part Linear Inequalities
1
x 4 1
2
1
3 x 2 1
2

6 x 4 2
2 x 2
2

Standard Notation Solution


2

Graphical Notation Solution

[2, 2) Interval Notation Solution

Homework Problems
Section:
Page:
Problems:

1.7
156
Odd: 23 33

MyMathLab Assignment 31 for practice

Quadratic Inequalities
Looks like a quadratic equation
EXCEPT that equal sign is replaced by
an inequality symbol
Example:

x x2
2

Solving Quadratic Inequalities


1. Put quadratic inequality in standard form (make right side zero and
put trinomial in descending powers)
2. Change quadratic inequality to a quadratic equation and solve to
find critical points
3. Graph critical points on a number line and draw a vertical line
through each one to divide number line into intervals
4. Pick a test point in each interval (a nice number that is close
to zero)
5. Evaluate the trinomial described in step 1 with each test
point to determine whether the result is positive or negative
and write the appropriate + or - above each test point
6. Now graph the solution to the inequality by shading all the
intervals of the number line for which the + or satisfies the
inequality written in step 1

Example of
Solving Quadratic Inequality
Evaluate Test Numbers :

x2 x 2

x2 x 2
0 02
2 2 2
3 3 2
x2 x 2 0
422
93 2
2
x x20
)(
x 2 x 1 0
2
x x20
x 2 0 OR x 1 0
Numbers that make trinomal are solutions
x 2 OR x 1
2

Test Numbers :

Critical Numbers

, 1 2,

Homework Problems
Section:
Page:
Problems:

1.7
157
39 51

MyMathLab Assignment 32 for practice

Rational Inequality
An inequality that involves a rational
expression (variable in a denominator)
Example:
2
3
x 1

Solving a Rational Inequality


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Make right side of inequality zero


Perform math operations on left side to end up with a single rational
expression (the rational inequality will now be in standard form
Factor numerator and denominator of rational expression
Find critical points by putting every factor that contains a variable
equal to zero and solving
Graph critical points on a number line and draw a vertical line through
each one to divide number line into intervals
Pick a test point in each interval (a nice number that is close to zero)
Evaluate the left side of standard form described in step 1 with each
test point to determine whether the result is positive or negative and
write the appropriate + or - above each test point
Now graph the solution to the problem by shading all the intervals of
the number line for which the + or satisfies inequality found in step 1

Example of
Solving a Rational Inequality
2
1
x 1
2
1 0
x 1
2
1 x 1

0
x 1 1 x 1
2 x 1
0
x 1
x 1
0
x 1

x 1 0

x 1 0

x 1

x 1

Critical Numbers

2 1
2 1

0 1
0 1

2 1
2 1

0
0

[
1

(, 1) [1, )

Homework Problems
Section:
Page:
Problems:

1.7
158
Odd: 69 85

MyMathLab Assignment 33 for practice

Absolute Value Inequality


Looks like an absolute value equation
EXCEPT that an equal sign is replaced
by one of the inequality symbols
Examples:
| 3x | 6 > 0
| 2x 1 | + 4 < 9
| 5x - 3 | < -7

Properties of Absolute Value

| u | < 5, means that us distance from zero must be less than 5.


Therefore, u must be located between what two numbers?
between -5 and 5
How could you say this with a three part inequality?
-5 < u < 5
Generalizing: | u | < n , where n is positive, always translates to:
-n < u < n
| u | > 3, means that u must be less than what, or greater than what?
less than -3, or greater than 3
How could you say this with two inequalities?
u < -3 or u > 3
Generalizing: | u | > n , where n is positive, always translates to:
u < -n or u > n

Solving Absolute Value


Inequalities
1. Isolate the absolute value on the left side
to write the inequality in one of the forms:
| u | < n or | u | > n (where n is positive)
2. If | u | < n, then solve:
If | u | > n, then solve:

-n < u < n
u < -n or u > n

3. Write answer in interval notation

Example
Solve:

3x 6 0
3x 6

Equivalent Inequality:

3 x 6 or 3 x 6
x 2 or x 2

(, 2) (2, )

Example
Solve:

2x 1 4 9
2x 1 5

Equivalent Inequality:

5 2x 1 5
4 2x 6
2 x 3

2, 3

Solving Other Absolute Value


Inequalities
If isolating the absolute value on the left
does not result in a positive number on the
right side, we have to use our
understanding of the definition of absolute
value to come up with the solution as
indicated by the following examples:

Absolute Value Inequality


with No Solution
How can you tell immediately that the following
inequality has no solution?
5 x 7 2

It says that absolute value (or distance) is


negative contrary to the definition of absolute
value
Absolute value inequalities of this form always
have no solution:

u n ( where n represents a negative number )

Does this have a solution?


2x 5 0

At first glance, this is similar to the last example,


because < 0 means negative, and:
2 x 5 can' t be less than a negative number!
However, notice the symbol is:
And it is possible that: 2 x 5 0
We have previously learned to solve this as:
2x 5 0
2x 5
5
x
2

5
Solution is : x
2

Solve this:
4x 5 0
This means that 4x 5 can be anything except
4 x 5 0 or 4 x 5 0
zero:
Solving these two inequalities gives the solution:
4 x 5 0 or 4 x 5 0
4 x 5 or 4 x 5
5
5
x
or x
4
4

5 5
, ,
4 4

Homework Problems
Section:
Page:
Problems:

1.8
164
Odd: 27 39, 45 61

MyMathLab Assignment 34 for practice


MyMathLab Homework Quiz 8 will be due for a
grade on the date of our next class meeting