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Exam 2 Material

Quadratic Applications

Application problems may give rise to all

types of equations, linear, quadratic and

others

Here we take a look at two that lead to

quadratic equations

Example

Two boys have two way radios with a range of 5 miles, how long can

they communicate if they leave from the same point at the same time

with one traveling north at 10 mph and the other traveling east at 7

mph?

D N =

R

T

N boy

R 10 mph

10 x E boy

5 mi

E

R 7 mph

10 x

7x

10

7

x

x

7x

7 x 2 10 x 2 52

49 x 2 100 x 2 25

149 x 2 25

25

x

149

5

x

149

2

5 149

x

hr

149

x 0.4096 hr

Example

A rectangular piece of metal is 2 inches longer than it is

wide. Four inch squares are cut from each corner to

make a box with a volume of 32 cubic inches. What

were the original dimensions of the metal?

4

x2

Unknowns

x2

L Rec x

W Rec x 2 8

L Box x 8

W Box

Height Box 4

x4

V LWH

Impossible

32 x 6 x 8 4

32 x 2 14 x 48 4

x 10

2

32 4 x 56 x 192

2

0 4 x 56 x 160

W

10

in

.

2

0 x 14 x 40

. L 12 in.

0 x 10 x 4

x 10 0 OR x 4 0

Homework Problems

Section: 1.5

Page: 130

Problems: 5 9, 21 22

MyMathLab Assignment 22 for practice

Thus far techniques have been discussed

for solving all linear and quadratic

equations and some higher degree

equations

Now address techniques for identifying

and solving many other types of

equations

Polynomial Equations

So far methods have been discussed for solving

first and second degree polynomial equations

Higher degree polynomial equations may

sometimes be solved using the zero factor

method or, the zero factor method in

combination with the quadratic formula or the

square root property

Consider two examples:

x3 8

x x 9x 9 0

3

Example One

x3 8

Make one side zero:

x3 8 0

x 2 x

2 x 4 0

Factor non-zero

side:

2

x2 0

x2

x 2x 4 0

2

2 2 41 4 2 12

x

21

2

2 2i 3

x

1 i 3

2

Note : 3 solutions, 1 real and 2 non - real complex

OR

Example Two

x3 + x2 9x 9 = 0

One side is already zero, so factor non-zero side

x3 + x2 9x 9 = 0

x2(x + 1) 9(x + 1) = 0

(x + 1)(x2 9) = 0

Apply zero factor property and solve:

x + 1 = 0 OR x2 9 = 0

x = -1

x2 = 9

x=3

Homework Problems

Section: 1.4

Page: 124

Problems: 59 62

MyMathLab Assignment 23 for practice

Rational Equations

Technical Definition: An equation that

contains a rational expression

Practical Definition: An equation that has

a variable in a denominator

Example:

1

5

2

2

x 2x 3 x 1 x 3

1. Find restricted values for the equation by

setting every denominator that contains a

variable equal to zero and solving

2. Find the LCD of all the fractions and multiply

both sides of equation by the LCD to eliminate

fractions

3. Solve the resulting equation to find apparent

solutions

4. Solutions are all apparent solutions that are

not restricted

Example

RV

1

5

2

x 2x 3 0

2

x 1 x 3 0

x 2x 3 x 1 x 3

x 1 0 OR x 3 0

x 3

1

5

2

x 1

x 1 0 Already Solved

x 1 x 3 x 1 x 3

x 3 0 Already Solved

LCD

1

5

2 LCD

x 1 x 3

x 1 x 3 x 1 x 3 1

16 3 x

1 5 x 3 2 x 1

16

1 5 x 15 2 x 2

x

Not

RV!

1 3 x 17

3

2

Homework Problems

Section:

Page:

Problems:

1.6

144

Odd: 1 25

An equation is quadratic in form if the

same algebraic expression is found

twice where one time the exponent on

the expression is twice as big as it is the

other time

Examples:

m6 7m3 8 = 0

8(x 4)4 10(x 4)2 + 3 = 0

Quadratic in Form

1. Make a substitution by letting u equal

the repeated expression with exponent

that is half of the other

2. Solve the resulting quadratic equation

for u

3. Make a reverse substitution for u

4. Solve the resulting equation

that is Quadratic in Form

m 7m 8 0

Let u m 3

u 2 7u 8 0

6

u 8 u 1 0

u 8 0

u 8

3

m 8

OR

m3 8 0

u 1 0

u 1

m 3 1

m3 1 0

m 2 m

2m 4 0

m 2 0 or m 2 2m 4 0

m 2 or m 1 i 3

2

m 1 m 2 m 1 0

m 1 0 or m m 1 0

1

3

m 1 or m

i

2 2

2

that is Quadratic in Form

8 x 4 10 x 4 3 0

4

LET u x 4

8u 2 10u 3 0

4u 3 2u 1 0

4u 3 0 OR 2u 1 0

2u 1

4u 3

1

3

u

u

2

4

3

x 4

4

3

x4

2

2

3

x 4

2

1

2

x 4

2

1

x4

2

2

x 4

2

Homework Problems

Section:

Page:

Problems:

1.6

145

All: 61 64, 73 74

Equation

An equation is a negative integer

exponent equation if it has a variable

expression with a negative integer

exponent

Examples:

x 1

6x 2 x1 3

Quadratic in Form

Exponent Equations

If the equation is quadratic in form,

begin solution by that method

Otherwise, use the definition of

negative exponent to convert the

equation to a rational equation and solve

by that method

With Negative Integer Exponents

x 1

1

2

x 1

1

LCD

x 1 2 1

1 2x 2

3 2x

3

x

Not RV

2

RV

x 1 0

x 1

LCD

x 1

With Negative Integer Exponents

x

Let u x

u2 u 2

u u 2 0

u 2 u 1 0

2

u 2 0 OR u 1 0

u 1

u 2

x 1 2

x1 1

1

RV

2

x0

x

LCD

1

LCD

x

2

x

1

1 2 x

1

x

Not RV

2

1

1

x

Not RV

x 1

Homework Problems

Section:

Page:

Problems:

1.6

145

75, 76

MyMathLab Homework Quiz 5/6 will be due for a

grade on the date of our next class meeting

Radical Equations

An equation is called a radical equation if

it contains a variable in a radicand

Examples:

x x3 5

x x 5 1

3

x 4 3 2x 0

1. Isolate ONE radical on one side of the equal

sign

2. Raise both sides of equation to power

necessary to eliminate the isolated radical

3. Solve the resulting equation to find apparent

solutions

4. Apparent solutions will be actual solutions if

both sides of equation were raised to an odd

power, BUT if both sides of equation were

raised to an even power, apparent solutions

MUST be checked to see if they are actual

solutions

Raised to an Even Power?

in equivalent equations

If both sides of equation are raised to an odd power, then resulting

equations are equivalent

If both sides of equation are raised to an even power, then resulting

equations are not equivalent (extraneous solutions may be

introduced)

Raising both sides to an even power, may make a false statement

true: 2 2 , however : - 2 2 2 2 , - 2 4 2 4 , etc.

3

3

5

5

true:

2 2 , and : - 2 2 , - 2 2 , etc.

Example of Solving

Radical Equation

Check x 4

x x 3 5

x 5 x 3

x 5

x3

x 10 x 25 x 3

x 2 11x 28 0

x 4 x 7 0

x 4 0 OR x 7 0

x 4 OR x 7

2

4 43 5?

4 1 5?

35

x 4 is NOT a solution

Check x 7

7 73 5?

7 4 5?

55

x7

IS a solution

Example of Solving

Radical Equation

x x 5 1

x 5 1 x

Check x 4

4 4 5 1?

2

x 5 1 x

x 5 1 2 x x

4 2 x

2 x

2

2

2 x

4x

4 9 1?

2 3 1?

5 1

x 4 is NOT a solution

Equation has No Solution!

Example of Solving

Radical Equation

3

x 4 3 2x 0

3

x 4 2x

3

x4

2x

x 4 2x

4x

(No need to check)

Homework Problems

Section:

Page:

Problems:

1.6

144

Odd: 27 51, 55 57

An equation in which a variable

expression is raised to a fractional

power

Example:

x 1

2

3

1

3

9x 0

Solving

Rational Exponent Equations

1.

2.

3.

4.

Otherwise, solve essentially like radical equations

Isolate ONE rational exponent expression

Raise both sides of equation to power necessary to

change the fractional exponent into an integer

exponent

Solve the resulting equation to find apparent

solutions

Apparent solutions will be actual solutions if both sides

of equation were raised to an odd power, but if both

sides of equation were raised to an even power,

apparent solutions MUST be checked to see if they

are actual solutions

Example

x 2

2

3

x 2

x 2

2

3

1

3

9x 0

x 4 OR

2

3

9 x

9 x

1

3

x 2 2 9 x

x 2 4 x 4 9 x

x2 5x 4 0

x 4 x 1 0

x 4 0 OR

1

3

x 1 0

x 1

Homework Problems

Section:

Page:

Problems:

72

1.6

145

All: 53 54, 59 60, 65

Absolute value means distance away from zero on

a number line

Distance is always positive or zero

Absolute value is indicated by placing vertical parallel

bars on either side of a number or expression

Examples:

The distance away from zero of -3 is shown as:

3 3

Can' t be simplified, because value of " u" is unknown. However, its value is zero or positive.

An equation that has a variable contained

within absolute value symbols

Examples:

| 2x 3 | + 6 = 11

| x 8 | | 7x + 4 | = 0

| 3x | + 4 = 0

Equations

Isolate one absolute value that contains an algebraic

expression, | u |

If the other side is a negative number there is no solution

(distance cant be negative)

If 2 x 5 4, then :

No solution

u = 0 and Solve If 2 x 5 0, then : 2 x 5 0

If the other side is positive n, then write:

u = n OR u = - n and Solve

If 2 x 5 3, then : 2 x 5 3 or 2 x 5 3

write:

u = v OR u = - v and Solve

If 2 x 5 x 3 , then : 2 x 5 x 3 or 2 x 5 x 3

Example of Solving

Absolute Value Equation

2 x 3 6 11

2x 3 5

2 x 3 5 OR 2 x 3 5

2 x 2

2x 8

x 1

x4

Example of Solving

Absolute Value Equation

x 9 7x 4 0

x 9 7x 4

x 9 7x 4

13 6 x

13

x

6

OR

x 9 7 x 4

x 9 7 x 4

8x 5

5

x

8

Example of Solving

Absolute Value Equation

3x 6 2

3 x 4

Homework Problems

Section:1.8

Page: 164

Problems: Odd: 9 23, 41 43,

67 69

MyMathLab Assignment 29 for practice

MyMathLab Homework Quiz 7 will be due

for a grade on the date of our next class

meeting

Inequalities

An equation is a comparison that says two algebraic

expressions are equal

An inequality is a comparison between two or three

algebraic expressions using symbols for:

greater than:

greater than or equal to:

less than:

less than or equal to:

Examples:

Two part inequality

x 15 3 x 3

1

3 x 4 1

2

Inequalities

There are lots of different types of

inequalities, and each is solved in a

special way

Inequalities are called equivalent if they

have exactly the same solutions

Equivalent inequalities are obtained by

using properties of inequalities

Properties of Inequalities

inequality gives an equivalent inequality with the same sense

(direction) of the inequality symbol

Add 3

x 3 2 is equivalent to : x 5

POSITIVE number gives an equivalent inequality with the same

sense (direction) of the inequality symbol

Divide by 3

3 x 6 is equivalent to : x 2

NEGATIVE number and changing the sense (direction) of the

inequality

symbol

Divide

by - 2 gives an equivalent inequality

2 x 8 is equivalent to : x 4

Solutions to Inequalities

Whereas solutions to equations are usually sets

of individual numbers, solutions to inequalities

are typically intervals of numbers

Example:

Solution to x = 3 is {3}

Solution to x < 3 is every real number that is less than

three

Standard Notation

Graphical Notation

Interval Notation

A two part linear inequality is one that

looks the same as a linear equation

except that an equal sign is replaced by

inequality symbol (greater than, greater

than or equal to, less than, or less than or

equal to)

Example:

x 15 3 x 3

Part Inequalities

inequality symbol, and a number appears alone on right side:

x2

using arrows to indicate all numbers to left or right of where shading

ends, and using a parenthesis to indicate that a number is not

included, and a square bracket to indicate

2 that a number is

]

included

smallest and largest numbers that are in the solution interval,

separated by comma, enclosed within parenthesis and/or square

bracket. If there is no limit in the negative direction, negative

infinity symbol is used, and if there is no limit in the positive

direction, a positive infinity symbol is used. When infinity

symbols are used, they are always used with a parenthesis.

(, 2]

Solving

Two Part Linear Inequalities

Solve exactly like linear equations

EXCEPT:

Always isolate variable on left side of

inequality

Correctly apply principles of inequalities

(In particular, always remember to reverse

sense of inequality when multiplying or

dividing by a negative)

Linear Inequalities

x 15 3 x 3

x 15 3 x 9

2x 6

x 3

3

(, 3]

Interval Notation Solution

Homework Problems

Section:

Page:

Problems:

1.7

156

Odd: 13 23

Consist of three algebraic expressions compared with

two inequality symbols

Both inequality symbols MUST have the same sense

(point the same direction) AND must make a true

statement when the middle expression is ignored

Good Example:

1

3 x 4 1

2

Not Legitimate:

1

3 x 4 1 Inequality Symbols Don' t Have Same Sense

2

.

1

3 x 4 1 - 3 is NOT - 1

2

Part Inequalities

Standard notation - variable appears alone

in the middle part of the three expressions

being compared with two inequality symbols:

2 x 3

inequalities:

3

2

inequalities:

(2, 3]

Solving

Three Part Linear Inequalities

Solved exactly like two part linear

inequalities except that:

solution is achieved when variable is isolated

in the middle

all three parts must be kept balanced by doing

the same operation on all parts

Example of Solving

Three Part Linear Inequalities

1

x 4 1

2

1

3 x 2 1

2

6 x 4 2

2 x 2

2

2

Homework Problems

Section:

Page:

Problems:

1.7

156

Odd: 23 33

Quadratic Inequalities

Looks like a quadratic equation

EXCEPT that equal sign is replaced by

an inequality symbol

Example:

x x2

2

1. Put quadratic inequality in standard form (make right side zero and

put trinomial in descending powers)

2. Change quadratic inequality to a quadratic equation and solve to

find critical points

3. Graph critical points on a number line and draw a vertical line

through each one to divide number line into intervals

4. Pick a test point in each interval (a nice number that is close

to zero)

5. Evaluate the trinomial described in step 1 with each test

point to determine whether the result is positive or negative

and write the appropriate + or - above each test point

6. Now graph the solution to the inequality by shading all the

intervals of the number line for which the + or satisfies the

inequality written in step 1

Example of

Solving Quadratic Inequality

Evaluate Test Numbers :

x2 x 2

x2 x 2

0 02

2 2 2

3 3 2

x2 x 2 0

422

93 2

2

x x20

)(

x 2 x 1 0

2

x x20

x 2 0 OR x 1 0

Numbers that make trinomal are solutions

x 2 OR x 1

2

Test Numbers :

Critical Numbers

, 1 2,

Homework Problems

Section:

Page:

Problems:

1.7

157

39 51

Rational Inequality

An inequality that involves a rational

expression (variable in a denominator)

Example:

2

3

x 1

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Perform math operations on left side to end up with a single rational

expression (the rational inequality will now be in standard form

Factor numerator and denominator of rational expression

Find critical points by putting every factor that contains a variable

equal to zero and solving

Graph critical points on a number line and draw a vertical line through

each one to divide number line into intervals

Pick a test point in each interval (a nice number that is close to zero)

Evaluate the left side of standard form described in step 1 with each

test point to determine whether the result is positive or negative and

write the appropriate + or - above each test point

Now graph the solution to the problem by shading all the intervals of

the number line for which the + or satisfies inequality found in step 1

Example of

Solving a Rational Inequality

2

1

x 1

2

1 0

x 1

2

1 x 1

0

x 1 1 x 1

2 x 1

0

x 1

x 1

0

x 1

x 1 0

x 1 0

x 1

x 1

Critical Numbers

2 1

2 1

0 1

0 1

2 1

2 1

0

0

[

1

(, 1) [1, )

Homework Problems

Section:

Page:

Problems:

1.7

158

Odd: 69 85

Looks like an absolute value equation

EXCEPT that an equal sign is replaced

by one of the inequality symbols

Examples:

| 3x | 6 > 0

| 2x 1 | + 4 < 9

| 5x - 3 | < -7

Therefore, u must be located between what two numbers?

between -5 and 5

How could you say this with a three part inequality?

-5 < u < 5

Generalizing: | u | < n , where n is positive, always translates to:

-n < u < n

| u | > 3, means that u must be less than what, or greater than what?

less than -3, or greater than 3

How could you say this with two inequalities?

u < -3 or u > 3

Generalizing: | u | > n , where n is positive, always translates to:

u < -n or u > n

Inequalities

1. Isolate the absolute value on the left side

to write the inequality in one of the forms:

| u | < n or | u | > n (where n is positive)

2. If | u | < n, then solve:

If | u | > n, then solve:

-n < u < n

u < -n or u > n

Example

Solve:

3x 6 0

3x 6

Equivalent Inequality:

3 x 6 or 3 x 6

x 2 or x 2

(, 2) (2, )

Example

Solve:

2x 1 4 9

2x 1 5

Equivalent Inequality:

5 2x 1 5

4 2x 6

2 x 3

2, 3

Inequalities

If isolating the absolute value on the left

does not result in a positive number on the

right side, we have to use our

understanding of the definition of absolute

value to come up with the solution as

indicated by the following examples:

with No Solution

How can you tell immediately that the following

inequality has no solution?

5 x 7 2

negative contrary to the definition of absolute

value

Absolute value inequalities of this form always

have no solution:

2x 5 0

because < 0 means negative, and:

2 x 5 can' t be less than a negative number!

However, notice the symbol is:

And it is possible that: 2 x 5 0

We have previously learned to solve this as:

2x 5 0

2x 5

5

x

2

5

Solution is : x

2

Solve this:

4x 5 0

This means that 4x 5 can be anything except

4 x 5 0 or 4 x 5 0

zero:

Solving these two inequalities gives the solution:

4 x 5 0 or 4 x 5 0

4 x 5 or 4 x 5

5

5

x

or x

4

4

5 5

, ,

4 4

Homework Problems

Section:

Page:

Problems:

1.8

164

Odd: 27 39, 45 61

MyMathLab Homework Quiz 8 will be due for a

grade on the date of our next class meeting

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