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Al-Ain University of Science and Technology

College of Pharmacy
Orientation to Pharmacy
Dr. Khairi M. Salem 2nd Semester 2012-2013

June 24, 2015

COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course covers orientation to pharmacy, history of
pharmacy, pharmacy profession on local and worldwide, career opportunities for pharmacists, education
in pharmacy, college curriculum, with special
emphasis on the differences between patientoriented, and drug oriented education, local and
international organizations, information resources in
pharmacy, drug literature .It offers an introduction to
various drug delivery systems concerning their
definition, route of administration, advantages,
disadvantages of and an overview on the
prescription.
June 24, 2015

COURSE OBJECTIVES
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Orient students to pharmacy as a future career, using examples


for comparing the advantages of pharmacy as a profession as
compared with other professionals and the essential characters
of the different opportunities for pharmacist.
Overview the history and development of pharmacy from
medicinal herbs to biotechnology using presentations, projects,
researches and appropriate illustrations Be familiar with old
civilizations in pharmacy with an overview on contemporary
pharmacy especially the leadership of USA in clinical pharmacy.
Gain the knowledge to illustrate the progress in pharmacy
education and its implication on pharmacy profession with
special emphasis on patient-oriented to pharmacy education
using sources on the internet.
Interpret, classify and evaluate different pharmaceutical dosage
forms with special emphasis on simple drug delivery systems as
solutions, syrups, pastilles, pastes and ointments using models
of the products and internal inserts.
Use available documentations and references to understand the
pharmacy ethics and to enumerate the local and international
pharmaceutical organizations with a summary of their roles

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COURSE OUTCOMES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Discuss the present situation and future of


pharmacy as a career.
Compare between the different career
opportunities for a pharmacist concerning
activities, advantages and disadvantages.
Evaluate the role of Islam. Ancient Egyptians,
Indians, Chinese and Babelions, Greek and Romans
on pharmacy profession development.
Compare drug-oriented with patient-oriented
pharmacy education..
Enumerate the routes of administration of most
important medications.
Discuss the types, advantages and disadvantages
of different dosage forms
Define patient compliance with the prescribed
medication
Discuss the importance of ethics in pharmacy
practice

June 24, 2015

LEARNING AND INFORMATION RESOURCES


1. Textbook Title:

Pharmacy : An Introduction to the Profession


Author: Michael Posey
ISBN: 9781582121277
Edition: 2nd Publisher: American
Pharmacists Association
Year Published: 2009
2. Shargel L. et al (2005). Comprehensive pharmacy Review.
Lippincott Williams Philadelphia. USA
B. References:
1. Lieberman A. et al (2004). Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms.
Marcel Decker. U.S.A. Ansel ,An Introduction to
pharmaceutical Dosage Forms 4th Ed. Lea and Febiger
Philadelphia. USA

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C.

Internet References

Students are encouraged to visit web sites as a means of


learning more about the profession:
www.moh.gov.ae/en/ (Ministry of Health-UAE)
www.haad.ae/haad/ (Health Authorities Abu Dhabi)
www.pharmacist.com (American Pharmacists Association)
www.ashp.org (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists)
www.aacp.org (American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy)
www.amcp.org (Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy)
www.ascp.com (American Society of Consultant Pharmacists)
www.ncpanet.org (National Community Pharmacists Association)
www.npha.net (National Pharmaceutical Association)
www.talkaboutrx.org (National Council on Patient Information
and Education)
www.nacds.org (National Association of Chain Drug Stores)
www.phrma.org (Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of
America)
www.nabp.net (National Association of Boards of Pharmacy)
www.fda.gov (Food and Drug Administration)
www.pharmacy.ohio-state.edu (OSUs College of Pharmacy)

Instructor
Phone
Extension
Mobile
Course Title

Dr. Khairi M. Salem


866
050-44924160
Orientation to Pharmacy

Course Code

0201131

Course type

Compulsory

Course Time

Lecture : 10-11 Sun


.Lab.1. MALE: 11-13 Sun

.Lab.51. FEMALE: 13.0-15 Sun


.
June 24, 2015

Weekly lectures
Week 1
Introduction to pharmacy profession
Definition of relevant pharmacy terms
The future of Pharmacy as medical
profession
Week 2
The Pharmacist and Pharmacy Career
opportunities
Pharmaceutical Care and Medical Care
Community Pharmacists
Week 3
Pharmacist Career
Hospital Pharmacist
Clinical Pharmacist
Week 4
Pharmacist Career
Industrial Research and development
and QC Pharmacist
Marketing and promotional Pharmacist
Academic Pharmacist
Pharmacist and Public Health
Week 5
Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms
Types of dosage forms
Requirements of drug delivery system
Assessment of drug dosage forms
Week 6
Liquid Dosage Forms
Formulation of Liquid dosage forms
Advantages and Disadvantages of
liquid dosage forms

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Week 7
Solvents used in liquid dosage formsWeek 12
Semi Solid dosage Forms
Water; advantages, disadvantages and
Ointments and Creams
types
Suppositories
Ethyl alcohol
Glycerol
Week 13
Pharmacy Educations
Co-solvency
Drug oriented and Patient oriented curricula
Hydrotrophy and Soulbilization
College of pharmacy curricula
Week 8
Excipients used in liquid dosage forms
Week 14
Aromatic Water
History of Pharmacy
Ancient Egyptians, Indians, Chinese and
Solutions
Babelions
Spirits
Old Creeks and Chinese medicines
Elixirs
Arabic and Islamic contributions
Tinctures
Week 9
Week 15
Ethics in Pharmacy
Syrups
Code of ethics
Suspensions
Emulsions
Week 16
Oral Mixtures
Revision
External Solutions
Week 10
Solid Dosage Forms
Powders
Granules
Capsules
Week 11
Tablets
Advantages and disadvantages
Properties of ideal tablets
Formulation of tablets as sold dosage
form

Introduction to pharmacy profession


(Chapters 1,2and 3)
Textbook.
Pharmacy : An Introduction to the Profess
ion
Chapters 1

Definition of relevant pharmacy terms

The future of Pharmacy as medical profession


Outcomes:
By the end of this chapter the student will be able to:
1. Demonstrate the different terms related to the profession
2.

Discuss the present situation and future of pharmacy as a


career

Definition of relevant pharmacy terms


Pharmacy is the is a health profession that
links the health sciences with the chemical sciences
and
it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of
drugs and pharmaceuticals The word derives from the
Greek word: (pharmakon), meaning "drug" or "medicine
The scope of pharmacy practice includes certain
traditional roles such as compounding and dispensing
medications, and it also includes more modern
services related to Health Care, including clinical
services, reviewing medications for safety and
efficacy, and providing drug information.
Pharmacist, therefore, are the experts on drug
therapy and are the primary health professionals who
optimize medication use to provide patients with
positive health outcomes

Medication Therapy Management:


For centauries, the pharmacists have been paid
when they provide medicinal agent to patient
When the responsibilities of medicine and
pharmacy were separated, the pharmacist
concentrated on the art of preparing their
medicines prescribed by the physicians( a few
centuries ago)

The new automated and advanced


pharmaceutical industries Limited the pharmacist
to practice the profession in this field
( 19th -20th century) start of MTM (2003)
Health Care:
Effect of aging and the pharmacist role
Pharmacist and drug preparations

Chapter 2
Development of Pharmacy in History as Healing profession
Outcomes:
Illustrate the history of pharmacy from its origins in
ancient times through the middle of twentieth century
1. Pharmacy differentiates during the Middle ages:
The separation between pharmacy and medicine in Islamic land.
The first pharmacy shop: in eight century in Bagdad
German Frederick II issued an act in1240 that separates the pharmacy
profession

2. The European Renaissance : Emerging the association


of pharmacists
3. Pharmacy in USA: in the old days and in nineteenth century
1820. USA Pharmacopeia , 1821 the Philadelphia college of pharmacy, new
York college of pharmacy 1829.
4.

Twentieth century pharmacy:

improvement of

pharmaceutical industry
Thinking of other practices of pharmacy as patient oriented practices
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History of Pharmacy
1. Ancient Egyptian Period:

The ancient Egyptians 3000 B.C . Were expert in using drugs


for disease curing.
Son was a priest doctor and pharmacist, who prescribe and
prepare medicines.
The ancient Egyptians used to prepare their medicines and
drugs either from biological sources either from animal origin
or plant origin.
2. The Mesopotamian Formula:
The Babylonian medicine was known through interpretation of
a written table known as (Laws of Hammurabi in 772 B.C .
The formula contain 250 materials of plant and 180 of animal
source which usually mixed with honey or water before
administration.:
3. Old Indian Medicine :
The aim of the old Indian drugs (2000 B.C) is used to prolong
the human life.
The drugs obtained from plant materials by pure religious
person.
The fresh plants were considered to be more effective, after its
collection from fertile soil washed with pure water and exposed
to sun
13

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4. Old Chinese Medicines :

Famous in the acupuncture and the Chinese herbal medicine before 1000
B.C.
The Chinese thought that for every disease, there must be a drug curing
it, and the drug is only provided by nature.
Many drugs of plant and animal origin were used and prepared in form of
suppositories and ointments or as dry powders

5. The Greek and Romans:


Well Known Hippocrates (466 B.C) was familiar with numerous drugs
and wrote Corpus Hippocraticum .
Alexander the great helped to increase the number of the drugs used at
that time.
Dioscorides was first to describe the drugs and his work Greek Herbal
of Dioscorides included about 5000 medical plats + animal and mineral
drugs.
drugs
6. Islamic contribution :
The Islamic civilization added many scientific terms as Kemia alcohol .
Famous Islamic scientist as Abu al Hassan Ibn-Sina (980-1037
A.D). His Book (canon of Medicine) was known as the best written
medical test.
Ibn Al- Bitar born in Spain in 1197 A.D, he was the best pharmacognosit
from fertile soil washed with pure water and exposed to sun, his book
Jameul- muffradat contains description of 2000 drugs.
Dawood El- Antaki and his book Tazkert Uli Ai- Albab
Al- Buiruni and his book pharmacy and medical material
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June 24, 2015

Chapter 3
Pharmaceutical Care and Medication Therapy
Management
Outcomes:
Discuss the pharmacy profession and the new
application of Pharmaceutical care and medication
therapy Management
1. Pharmacy (occupation vs profession):
2. Pharmaceutical Care as reprofessionlization :
Drug information, Decentralized drug distribution,
pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics
3. The Millis report: Pharmacists for future(1975
AACP)
Development of clinical pharmacy, NAPLEX exam,
enhancing the clinical studies in the pharmacy
colleges, board of pharmaceutical specialties within
APHA
4. Pharm.D program.
1989 accreditation by ACPE, 2000 eliminating B.Sc. in
pharmacy replaced by Pharm.D
5. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies
Till 1990 Pharm. care provided in hospital only, in 2003
US congress approved the MTM for high- risk people
elderly and disabled people
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Pharmacy: A branch of Science, technology and art


dealing with the following aspects:
1. The Discovery of New Medicaments
A. Natural Source
B. Animal Source
C. Microbial Fermentation
D. Mineral and trace elements
E. Chemical synthesis or semi synthesis
2. Production of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms
3. Quality control of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms
4. Distribution of the formulated Dosage Forms
5. Dispensing of drugs
6. Marketing and promotion

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The Pharmacist and the Pharmacy


Careers

Pharmacist must conceive knowledge that improve health


services, through the Pharmaceutical Care (PC) which is a
necessary element for the Total Health Care (THC)

Physicians carry out Medical Care (MC)


Pharmacist carry out Pharmaceutical Care (PC)

Pharmaceutical Care (PC) : Can be defined


as Responsible provision of drug therapy for
the purpose of achieving definite outcomes
that improve a patients quality of life

Medicaments: Agent used in the prevention, control and treatment


of a disease (PCT)
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Pharmacist:
A highly qualified person whose profession is pharmacy
(practicing Pharmacy ) and may be :
1. Community Pharmacist
2. Hospital Pharmacist
3. Clinical Pharmacist
4. Manufacturing Pharmacist
5. Quality control Pharmacist
6. Research & Development Pharmacist
7. Governmental Pharmacist
8. Marketing Pharmacist
9. Academic Pharmacist
Pharmacist Careers :
Community Pharmacist:
Dispensing of Prescriptions ( To Give Drugs According to
Prescription ).

The Role Of Community Pharmacist include:


1. Review prescriptions for the following reasons:
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A.
B.

Possible Unaccepted indications


Possible dug drug interactions ( Tetracycline with
Calcium)
C.
Possible dug food interactions ( Tetracycline with
Meat)
D.
Possible dug smoking interactions
E.
Possible contraindications ( Voltaren with Peptic Ulcer)
F.
Possible tetratogenic drugs (Danger for fetes) Amino
glycosides
G.
Possible danger for babes during breast feeding
( Hormones in oral contraceptive)
H.
Possibility of dose errors ( high or Low dose)
2. Suggest Alternatives on scientific background
a.
Standard Product is the most effective product as
Lanoxin for digoxin, Augmentin for Amox-clav , etc
b.
If the standard product is not available, the
pharmacist must select an alternative which must be
bioequivalent
Bioequivalent = dosage forms that give similar
concentration in blood to the standard product
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3. Improve adherence or compliance :


The proper use of medications according to the regulations given
by the prescribed ( non- adherence = 22 88%) Examples
as:

Changing the dose by increase or decrease

Change frequency ( every 6 Hours to every 8 hours)

Earlier stop of drugs (use antibiotic for 1-3 days instead of 57 days)
4. Purchasing drug Product: ( Effectiveness, Price, needs of
patients.
5. Proper storage of drugs ( sera, vaccines and suppositories)
6. Preparation of certain formula( exp. Na bicarbonate - Glycerol )
Advantages: Fresh, decrease Load on manufactures and Utilize
pharmacist knowledge
7. Patient Consultant for:
A.
Selection over the counter (OTC) as anti-acids and anticough drugs for diarrhea, constipation etc
B.
Adherence : ensure the using of drug in proper way by the
Patient
C.
Patient education
D.
Good storage condition
E.
Refill ( repeat the prescription for diabetes, hypertension
etc)
8. Pharmaceutical care
A.
Preventive Therapy
B.
Non-Pharmacological Therapy
9. Patient Monitoring
10. Arrangement of drug Product According to:
a.
Manufacturing company
b.
Pharmacological groups
c.
Alphabetical
11. Computerization

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Hospital Pharmacist (HP):


This is the pharmacist working in hospital, including army,
police , company etc, Hp activities include the
following:
A.
Administration as chief pharmacist
B.
Dispensing pharmacist
C.
Unite Dose preparation
D.
Purchasing & Storage of Drugs
E.
Pharmaceutical Care activities
F.
Manufacturing of certain Pharmaceutical Product
G.
Included in pharmacy and therapeutic committee.
Unit Dose System: The dispensing of each dose (doses) in a
special box for in-patient ( Patient well receive at proper
time a box containing one tablet , one capsule etc)
Pharmaceutical Care : new concept in pharmacist activity
which means the participation of the pharmacist in
clinical activity by direct or indirect way.
Drug information center: a unit containing all facilities
(software, CD, internet to answer any questions about
drugs as drug-drug interactions, side effects,
contraindicationsetc
Patient Education: to give patient full idea about disease,
importance of medication and proper use & storage
of drug
Patient monitoring :For insuring adequate response &
avoid adverse reactions
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Industrial Pharmacist :
This is the pharmacist working in pharmaceutical
industry, whose activities include the following:
1.
Storage of raw material s and finished products
2.
Production of pharmaceutical dosage forms
3.
Quality control of pharmaceutical dosage forms
4.
Research and development of pharmaceutical
dosage forms
5.
Quality assurance
6.
Synthesis of raw material
7.
Extraction of natural source ( plant, animal)
8.
Biotechnology and genetic engineering industry
9.
Manufacturing and quality control of cosmetics

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Marketing and Promotion of drug products :


In Arab world, Pharmacist is involved in this activity
Bylaw, it is not allowed for any one except the
pharmacist to work in promotion in UAE, Oman
and Saudi Arabia, The promotion activity
include:
1)
Regular visits to Physician and pharmacist to
give presentation on the advantage s of a
product
2)
Marketing studies
3)
Design of promotional aids
4)
Participation in conferences
Governmental Activities
As pharmacist in Pharmacy departments in Ministry of
Health or general authority for health services
which has the following responsibilities:
1.
Registration of new drug product and reRegistration of present drug product
2.
Licensure to new graduate pharmacist & to nonnational pharmacist
3.
Licensure to pharmacies & pharmaceutical
companies
4.
Establish and monitor the drug policies
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Other activities:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

As researcher in research centers


I.e. Sheik Zayed center for medical
herbs.
Universities
Medical Laboratories ( Biochemical
and Microbiological)
Medicinal Herbs
Cosmetic industry
Distribution of drug products to
pharmacy.
pharmacy

Pharmacist and Public Health:


Prevention of Disease
1. Factors like : smoking , improper
diet, less exercise, alcohol, obesity
2. Infectious disease like AIDS
3. Vaccines and sera
4. Nosocomial infections

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Chapter 4
Communication skills in Pharmacy
Practice
Outcomes:
Understand the techniques used to build
the relationships and improve health
care.
1. Developing the relationship:

2. Listening and effective response: Give


complete attention
listen , empathic response , trust

3. Supportive communication: Adherence

Patient counseling:
5. Interacting with physicians
6. Word choice and nonverbal cues
4.

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Thank You
Khairi M. Salem. B.Pharm. PhD
Associate Prof. in pharmaceutical analysis
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