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BUILDING MATERIALS

WATERPROOFING and
DAMPROOFING

DEFINITION
WATERPROOFING

A membrane or coating applied to render a surface impervious to water


is the combination of materials used to prevent water intrusion into
the structural elements of a building or its finished spaces. Its main
purpose is to resist hydrostatic pressure exerted by moisture in the
liquid state.
DAMPROOFING
The treatment of a masonry or concrete surface to retard the
absorption of water or penetration of water vapor
The term damproofingis often confused with waterproofing.
However,damproofing is a system designed to resist the flow of
moisture in a gaseous state i.e. water vapor.

PURPOSE
In construction, a building or structure is waterproofed with the
use of membranes and coatings to protect contents as well as
protecting structural integrity.
AREAS THAT NORMALLY REQUIRE WATERPROOFING

WATERPROOFING MATERIALS
Waterproofing membranes are made from several one or more
layer materials such as:

The most important property of the waterproofing material is the


material's water absorption rate. A satisfactory rate is below 4%
(most materials are between 1-2%). Also important is the

WATERPROOFING SYSTEMS
INTEGRAL SYSTEM
- Work within the matrix of a concrete structure, giving the
concrete itself a waterproof quality
- involves adding materials to the concrete mix to make the
concrete itself impermeable
-Capillary / Crystalline Waterproofing
-Can be used as a mortar, sprayed on, or injected. Upon contact,
the active chemicals in a capillary coating are "pulled" into the
pores of the concrete by capillary action caused by moisture.
Once inside, the chemicals react with the free lime in the concrete
forming crystals that fill the pores, permanently stopping the
transmission of moisture. As long as there is water in the
concrete, the active chemicals will continue to penetrate, filling
the tiny channels, and sealing out water for good.
CEMENTITIOUS WATERPROOFING
- Comprise of a mix of dry cement, sand, and liquid latex. The
materials are mixed on site resulting in a relatively thin,
cementitious liquid that can be applied by brush or roller onto
different substrates.

CEMENTITIOUS WATERPROOF

MEMBRANE
-Can be in the form of Sheet or Applied liquid that transforms into
a film that is impervious to water when cured.

TYPES OF WATERPROOFING MEMBRANES


FILM or SHEET MEMBRANE
-Sheet, self-adhering sheet, sheet metal membrane, and sheet
metal waterproofing membranes fall into this category. Film or
sheet membrane are attached to a surface using adhesives,
mortar, tape, straps, anchors, plastic welding, or fasteners.
-Membrane sheets can consists of bentonite clay, modified
bitumen, rubber, polyethylene, polypropylene,
ethylenepropylenediene monomer (EPDM), reinforced polymers,
and
other
rubber and
plastic sheet compositions.
-SELF
ADHERING
- MEMBRANE
-also known as "peel and stick" membranes, have an integral layer of
adhesives, so adhesives do not need to be applied to the surface of
membrane at the work site.The release liner is peeled off the adhesive
coating and the membrane stuck onto surface at the construction site.
-TORCH-APPLIED SHEET MEMBRANES
-Sheet membrane is torched melting a thin portion of the membrane,
thereby attaching it to the surface which is earlier prepared and applied
with primer.

NON-ADHESIVE SHEET

TORCH - APPLIED

SELF-ADHERING SHEET

SHEET MEMBRANE WATERPROO

BUILT-UP or LAMINATE MEMBRANE


-Built-up waterproofing membranescan consist of thick viscosity tar,
polymer mastics or cementious materials troweled or mopped onto a
surface. Reinforcing layers of perforated felt, fiberglass, or fabrics are
applied and then additional tar or mastics is layered onto the cloth
reinforcement.

APPLIED or LIQUID MEMBRANE


-Spray applied membranes, cold-fluid-applied membranes, and
hot-applied membranes are types of membranes applied by
melting and then fusing a rubber, bitumen, or elastomer layer
onto the surface to be waterproofed.Liquid membranes have
grown in popularity for horizontal applications.

COLD-FLUID-APPLIED
-brushed, rolled, or sprayed onto the surface to be protected. The liquid
membrane dries or cures into a permanent waterproof membrane.
-Eg. Elastomeric Waterproofing, Tank Linings, Acrylic, Epoxy Paint and
coatings
HOT-APPLIED SYSTEMS
-should include a thermometer so the temperature can be monitored
throughout the process.The temperature must be kept within 25 degrees
of the required application temperature to ensure even application.

FLUID APPLIED ELASTOMERIC WATERPROOFING SYSTEM

APPLIED or LIQUID MEMBRANE

HOT APPLIED WATERPROOFING SYSTE

APPLIED or LIQUID MEMBRANE

INJECTABLE WATERPROOFING
- Injectablewaterproofing membranes are used in existing constructions
requiring waterproofing improvements. Injectable waterproofing
membranes are installed by drilling holesthrough a foundation's floors and
walls and then pumping a liquid polyurethane, bentoniteclay, orepoxy
waterproofing compound behind the foundation wall or floor to form a
positive side waterproofing membrane.