Sei sulla pagina 1di 18

Building Materials

Building technology 1

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
WOOD
- Is that fibrous substance which composes the trunk and
branches of a tree that lies between the pitch and the bark
- Technically, wood is known as Xylem

PROPERTIES OF WOOD AS BUILDING MATERIAL


Strong Material
Durable
Light in weight
Ease of working and fastening
With artistic and natural beauty

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
ADVANTAGES OF WOOD AS BUILDING MATERIAL
In proportion to weight, wood is stronger than other materials
Wood is easily worked out with tools and fabricated into many shapes, sizes
and design
Wood is excellent non-conductor of heat.
With artistic grains and appearance conducive to architectural designs,
adding beauty and attraction to furniture and interior finishes
It is abundant in many shapes, colors, sizes, and as renewable resources
In terms of value, wood does not deteriorate if properly handled and
protected

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD
STRENGTH with respect to the ability of wood in resisting stress and strain.
However, strength of different wood varies in the following manner:
Wood is resistant to compression along the fibers
Stiffness or the ability to resist bending stress as in floor joists, beams,
and rafters supporting heavy load
Strength in tension or the ability to resist lengthwise stresses
Shearing strength or the ability of the fibers to resist rupture along or
across the grain
MOISTURE is an important factor affecting the strength of wood. To a
certain extent, strength increases with the degree of wood seasoning.

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD
WEIGHT of wood is another important consideration because heavy woods
are generally stronger than lighter wood.
HARDNESS
is expressed as resistance to indentation or to the saw or axe across the
grain.
Hardness is generally dependent on the weight of wood, structural
elements and degree of seasoning.
CLEAVABILITY is the resistance of wood to split along the grains.
The line of least resistance to splitting is along the radius because the
wood rays are in this direction
Wood splits much more easily when wet beacuse moisture softens the
fibers and reduces adhesion across the grain.

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD
FLEXIBILTY and TOUGHNESS
The moisture content of wood influences flexibility to a considerable
degree.
Toughness refers to the combined strength, shock resistance and
pliability or flexibility of wood.
DURABILITY
As applied to wood means the ability to resist decay or simply the length
of its life under a given condition.
also includes the resistance of the wood to the influence of mechanical
wear

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD
FLEXIBILTY and TOUGHNESS
The moisture content of wood influences flexibility to a considerable
degree.
Toughness refers to the combined strength, shock resistance and
pliability or flexibility of wood.
DURABILITY
As applied to wood means the ability to resist decay or simply the length
of its life under a given condition.
also includes the resistance of the wood to the influence of mechanical
wear
the darker the heartwood, the more durable the wood is
Many species with light colored heartwood are perishable.

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD
DURABILITY
The durability of any specie depends on certain chemical component
present in wood such as:
Resins of the wood
Gums of the wood
Tannin and other decay resisting materials
These chemical components provide a dark discoloration to the
heartwood of several species. This phenomenon explains the
relationship of color to the durability of wood
COLOR
Is often a means of identifying wood.
Heartwood is generally much darker in color than sapwood, although in
some species, there is a little differentiation in color between the
heartwood and the sapwood
Oxidation turns wood to darker shade

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD
wood which are classified as good lumber for building constructions are
those that grows larger by the addition of a new layer on the outer surface each
year.

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD
According to
MODE OF GROWTH:
Exogenous are those outward growing trees most preferred for lumbering
Indigenous are those inside growing trees. This kind of tree is less preferred for
lumbering because the center core of the log is soft and brittle in character
DENSITY:
Softwood known as conifers and evergreen
Hardwood generally deciduous with broad leaves
LEAVES:
Needle shape
Broad shape

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD
According to
SHADES or COLOR OF WOOD:
White
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Black
GRAIN:
Straight grain
Cross grain

Fine grain
Coarse grain

NATURE OF SURFACE WHEN SAWED:


Plain
Grained
Figured or Marked

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
METHODS OF LOG SAWING
PLAIN or BASTARD SAWING
By cutting the logs entirely through the diameter with a parallel chord
tangential to the annual rings
QUARTER or RIFT SAWING
Categorized into four methods:
- Radial method
- Tangential method
- Quarter tangential - Combined radial and tangential
* Quarter sawed lumber is less affected by moisture changes, less
warping and shows special grain effects.

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
DEFECTS IN WOOD
ABNORMAL GROWTH
Heart shakes radial cracks originating at the heart of the logs
Wind shakes or Cup shakes cracks or breaks across annual rings of
timber during its growth caused by excessive bending of tree due to wind
Star shakes is composed of several heart shakes radiating from the
center of the log in a star-like manner
Knots usually occurs at the starting point of a limb or branch of the
wood
DUE TO DETERIORATION caused by:
Dry rot - is the presence of moisture in seasoned wood caused by fungi
Wet usually takes place sometime in the growth of trees caused by
water saturation.

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
SEASONING of WOOD
-means drying of lumber
- also known as conditioning or curing
-moisture from freshly cut trees has to be expelled thoroughly to preserve the
lumber from shrinkage or decay
METHODS OF SEASONING:
Natural or Air seasoning lumber is piled vertically outdoor.
Artificial Seasoning under this method, lumber are stacked inside a
drying kiln and then subjected to steam and hot air under pressure.
The artificial seasoning methods employed are:
- Forced air drying fans are used to booster circulation of air as
preparatory process to kiln drying
- Kiln drying under this process, the lumber is dried in a specially
built room or chamber wherein temperature and humidity as well as the
circulation of air is under control
- Radio frequency dielectric drying using radio frequency dielectric
heat

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
METHODS OF WOOD PRESERVATION
Wood does not decay naturally through age nor will it decay if it is kept constantly
dry or continuously submerged in water.
TYPES OF WOOD PRESERVATION
External Processing is accomplished by coating wood with
preservative chemicals that will penetrate into the fibers.
Internal processing - a chemical compound is impregnated at a specified
pressure to permeate the wood thoroughly
MEASURING OF WOOD
Board foot unit measure in computing wood volume
Board foot = Thickness X Width X Length
12
where: Thickness is in Inches
Width is in Inches
Length is in feet

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
METHODS OF WOOD PRESERVATION
Wood does not decay naturally through age nor will it decay if it is kept constantly
dry or continuously submerged in water.
TYPES OF WOOD PRESERVATION
External Processing is accomplished by coating wood with
preservative chemicals that will penetrate into the fibers.
Internal processing - a chemical compound is impregnated at a specified
pressure to permeate the wood thoroughly

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS

WOOD and WOOD


PRODUCTS
DEFINITION OF TERMS
SURFACED or DRESSED LUMBER is a planed lumber having at least
one smooth side
S2S planed or dressed lumber that is smooth on 2 sides
S4S planed or dressed lumber that is smooth on 4 sides
SLAB is a kind of rough lumber cut tangent to the annual rings of wood
running the full length of the log and containing at least one flat surface
TIMBER Is a piece of