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In this chapter, we take a closer look at the

conditions that are necessary for an object to be at


rest.
Key Questions
What are the conditions for
equilibrium?
How do static objects respond
when forces are applied?
Cengage

PHYSICS for Scientists and Engineers: Foundations and


Connections Deborah Katz

A rigid body is in equilibrium if


A.
B.
C. neither A nor B.
D. either A or B.
E. both A and B.

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Static Equilibrium
The condition for a rigid body to be in static equilibrium is that
there is no net force and no net torque p = 0 & L = 0.
An important branch of engineering called statics analyzes
buildings, dams, bridges, and other structures in total static
equilibrium.
No matter which pivot point you choose, an object that is not
rotating is not rotating about that point.
For a rigid body in total equilibrium, there is no net torque
about any point.
This is the basis of a problem-solving strategy.
Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Types of Static Equilibrium

Conditions for Static Equilibrium


Fnet F 0

The particle is in equilibrium

Fnet F 0

net 0

The object is in static equilibrium

For an extended object to be in static equilibrium,


the net force and the net torque must be zero.

Fnet F 0

net 0

The object is not in equilibrium

Which of these objects is in static equilibrium?

Fnet F 0

net 0

The object is in static equilibrium

Static Equilibrium: Fnet, y = 0


n A nB w 0

nA nB w 0

Rotation Equilibrium: net= 0

If rotation axis at A: dAB*nB dAw*w = 0


peg

If rotation axis at B: -dAB*nA + dBw*w = 0


For an object in static equilibrium,
the net torques at any axis-point of
rotation must be zero.

dAB = distance from point A to point B


dAW = distance from point A to the c.o.g. of the hammer
dBW = distance from point B to the c.o.g. of the hammer

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Cross Product Revisited

r r r
r F

Cross Product Revisited



r F

Forces on a Board on Sawhorses


A board weighing 100 N sits across two sawhorses, as shown in the figure.
What are the magnitudes of the normal forces of the sawhorses acting on the board?

Fnet = n1 w + n2 = 0

For the purpose of calculating torque, the entire weight of an object


can be considered as acting at a single point, the center of gravity.
Using point 1 as the pivot: net = -d1 w + (d1 + d2) n2 = 0
n2 = (d1 w) / (d1 + d2) = (1.5 m)(100 N)/(2 m) = 75 N
Go back to Fnet: n1 = w n2 = 100 N 75 N = 25 N

Forces on a Board on Sawhorses


A board weighing 100 N sits across two sawhorses, as shown in the figure.
What are the magnitudes of the normal forces of the sawhorses acting on the board?

Fnet = n1 w + n2 = 0

n1 = w n 2

This time we put the pivot point at the center of gravity:


The torque about the center of gravity is: net = -d1 n1 + d2 n2 = 0
Substituting n1 into the torque equation: -d1 (w - n2) + d2 n2 = 0
n2 = d1 w / (d1 + d2) = (1.5 m)(100 N)/(2.0 m) = 75 N

Finding the Center of Gravity of the Human Body


A woman weighing 600 N lies on a 2.5-m-long, 60 N reaction board with her
feet
over the pivot. The scale on the right reads 250 N.
What is the distance d from the womans feet to her center of gravity?

n wb w F 0

wb dw LF 0

2
1
1
LF Lwb (2.5 m)(250 N) - (2.5 m)(60 N)
2
2
d=

w
600 N
= 0.92 m

The torque equation:

A 2-m-long board weighing 50 N extends out over the edge of a table,


with 40% of the boards length off the table. How far beyond the table
edge can a 25 N cat walk before the board begins to tilt?

Tipping Over
Consider the two configurations of

a) case 1 will tip

books shown below. Which of the

b) case 2 will tip

following is true?

c) both will tip


d) neither will tip

2
1/4
1/2

1/2
1/4

An object is in equilibrium if
A.
B.

F
= 0.
net

net = 0.

C. either A or B.
D. both A and B.

What does the scale read?


A.
B.
C.
D.

500 N
1000 N
2000 N
4000 N

500 N

Dont Let the Rake Fall Down


A rake is placed against a smooth wall so that it makes an angle with the floor of the
garage. Assume friction between the wall and the rake is negligible, but the rakes tines
are made from a hard rubber that rests on the concrete floor. The coefficient of static
friction S for rubber on dry concrete is 1.0. Find the minimum value of (other than
0) so that the rake does not slide. The rakes center of mass is one-fourth of the way up
from the tines as shown.

What is the tension T in the rope


if the weight of board is 100 N.
Fnet F 0

net 0

The object is in static equilibrium

Horizontal Beam Example


Conceptualize
The beam is uniform.
So the center of gravity is at the
geometric center of the beam.
The person is standing on the beam.
What are the tension in the cable and
the force exerted by the wall on the
beam?
Categorize
The system is at rest, categorize as a
rigid object in equilibrium.

Horizontal Beam Example, 2


Analyze
Draw a force diagram.
Use the pivot in the problem (at the
wall) as the pivot.
This will generally be easiest.
Note there are three unknowns (T, R,
).

Horizontal Beam Example, 3


Analyze, cont.
The forces can be resolved into
components.
Apply the two conditions of
equilibrium to obtain three equations.
Solve for the unknowns.
Finalize
The positive value for indicates the
direction of R was correct in the
diagram.

What is the tension T in the rope


if the weight of board, Wb is 100 N,
the weight of the person, Wp is
75 N, l is 40 m, and d is 10 m.

What is the tension T in the rope if the weight of board, Wb is 100 N,


the weight of the person, Wp is 75 N, l is 40 m, and d is 10 m.

Will the Ladder Slip?


A 3.0-m-long ladder leans against a frictionless
Wall at angle of 60o. What is the minimum value
of S, the coefficient of static friction with the
ground, that will prevent the ladder from slipping?

n2 f s 0

f s n2

n1 w n1 Mg 0

n1 Mg

The torque about the bottom corner:


1
net d1w d 2 w2 ( L cos 60) Mg ( L sin 60)n2 0
2
1
( L cos 60) Mg
Mg
n2 2

L sin 60
2 tan 60
f s n2

Mg
2 tan 60

f s f s ,max s n1
f s s Mg

fs

Mg
2 tan(60 o )
1
s
0.29
o
2 tan(60 )
s ,min 0.29

s Mg f s

f3
Using the dimensions given in the
figure, find the torque of force f3
with the bottom of the ladder as
the axis.

A. f3a
B. +f3a
C. f3a sin()
D. +f3a cos()
E. +f3a sin()

a=

f3

Using the dimensions given in the


figure, find the torque of persons
weight mg with the bottom of the
ladder as the axis.

A. mgb
B. +mgb
C. mgb sin()
D. +mgb cos()
E. +mgb sin()

h=

What is the torque of tension T at point A as the pivot?


A) hT sin
B) +hT sin
C) +hT
D) hT cos
E) +hT cos

Wp

What is the torque of the poles weight WP at point A as the pivot?


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

(L/2) WP sin
+(L/2) WP sin
+(L/2) WP
(L/2) WP cos
+(L/2) WP cos

Traffic Light Pole


A traffic light hangs from a pole as shown in the figure below. The uniform
aluminum pole AB is 7.50 m long and has a mass of 12.0 kg. The mass of the
traffic light is 21.5 kg. Determine the tension in the horizontal massless cable CD.

Solution:
Net torque at pivot A= 3.8*T (L/2 cos(37)) (12g) (L cos(37))(21.5*g)=0
3.8*T = (L cos(37))*g*(6+21.5) T= 425 N. (D)

Center of gravity = Center of mass


The center of mass is the mass-weighted center of the object.

The Center of Mass of a Rod


Find the center of mass of a thin, uniform rod of length L and mass M.
Use this result to find the tangential acceleration of one tip of a 1.60-m-long rod
that rotates about its center of mass with an angular acceleration of 6.0 rad/s2.
Divide the rod into many small cells
of mass dm.
One such cell, at position x.
The cells width is dx.

dm

M
dx
L

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Balance

Line of action

Gravity acts at the


center of gravity.

This force exerts no


torque about her toes.

Base of support

For an object to balance, its center of gravity must reside


over its base of support. That way gravity does not exert a
torque.

Stability and Balance of the Human Body

To maintain stability, we unconsciously move


our arms and legs to keep our center of gravity
over our base of support.

In Fig. a, the center of gravity is well above


the base of support (the foot), ensuring stability.

In Fig. b, when we stand on tiptoes, we need


to lean forward to maintain stability.

a.

b.

Stability and Balance

Stable: if a vertical line through objects center of gravity


passes through its base of support.

Unstable: if such a line lies outside its base of support.

SUV

Sedan

Stability and Balance


Putting c.o.g. above the base point:

tan( c )

t/2
h

c tan 1 (

t
)
2h

The maximum possible angle of tilt (qc) is determined by the ratio of


track width (t) to the height of center-of-gravity (h).
The larger t/h the more stable is the car.

An object will be stable if


A.
B.
C.

its center of gravity is below its highest point.


its center of gravity lies over its base of support.
its center of gravity lies outside its base of
support.
D. the height of its center of gravity is less than 1/2
its total height.

Elasticity

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Elasticity and Fracture

F
Stress
A
The SI units of stress are N/m2
and 1 N/m2 = Pa
Pa stands for pascals.

Elasticity and Fracture

l
Strain
l

A stress on a rod causes a strain.

Elasticity
F/A is proportional to L/L.
We can write the proportionality as

F
L
Y
A
L
The proportionality constant Y is called Youngs modulus.
The quantity F/A is called the tensile stress.
The quantity L/L, the fractional increase in length, is called strain.
With these definitions, we can write

stress = Y strain

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Young's modulus Y is
the slope of vs.

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

The rod fractures at some maximum tensile stress known as the


tensile strength ten. Experiments show that tensile strength
depends on the material of the rod.

A microscopic model illustrates the strain on a rod as it reacts to a stress exerted on


it by a hanging load. Each molecular bond stretches vertically, obeying Hookes law.

Shear Deformation
Shear stress results when a force is applied
tangentially to one surface of a stationary object:

F
A

x
Shear strain
h

G
G is called the shear modulus.

The dedication plate mounted to the base of a building was deformed during an
earthquake. The plate, made from a metal alloy of shear modulus G=4.0010 Pa, was
originally 80.0 cm high, 50.0 cm long, and 5.00 mm thick. The earthquake shifted the
top surface of the plate 0.100 mm relative to the bottom surface. What shear force did
the plate experience during the earthquake?

Hooke's law for shear:


FP
A

x
h

0.1103 m
4.00 10 Pa

2
A
80

10
m

FP

10

5.0 106 N/m 2

Area A (0.5 m) 5.0 10 3 m 2.50 10 3 m


FP (5.0 106 N/m 2 ) 2.50 103 m
1.25 10 4 N

Shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the


type of
yield or structural failure where the material or component fails in
shear.
Shear strength of a material is the maximum shear stress that the
material can support without yielding in shear.
Shear strength = max
A shear load is a force that tends to produce a sliding failure on a
material along a plane that is parallel to the direction of the force.
When atotal
paper
is cutatwith
scissors,
the the
paper
fails in shear. area
Given
force
failure
(F) and
force-resisting

(e.g. the
cross-section of a bolt loaded in shear), Ultimate Shear
Strength () is:
F
F

2
rbolt

What force is required to punch a 20-mm-diameter hole in a plate


that is 25 mm thick? The shear strength of the plate is 350 MN/m 2.
F

The resisting area is the shaded area along the


Perimeter:
The resisting area A 2 rh
2 (10 10 3 m)(25 103 m)
1.57 10 3 m 2

The shear force F is equal to the punching force.


Given total force at failure (F) and the force-resisting area (e.g. the crosssection of a bolt loaded in shear), Ultimate Shear Strength () is:

F A

350 106 N 1.57 10 3 m 2


5.495 105 N

Seeing Isnt Always Believing


In the figure, a car seems to be hanging from some gooey substance.
Estimate the Youngs modulus for this unidentified material.

Applications

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