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SolidWorks Simulation Training


SolidWorks 2012

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About this course

Prerequisites
Course Design Philosophy
Using this book
A note about files
Conventions used in this book
Class Introductions

Design Validation Products


Simulation Premium

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SolidWorks
Premium

Simulation Professional
Frequency/
Buckling

Nonlinear
Fatigue

Optimization

Static
Composites

SolidWorks
Motion

Thermal

Drop Test

Pressure
Vessel

Advanced
Dynamics

What is Finite Element Analysis?


Example: Brick road from home to mailbox measure the distance of a
curved path using yard stick

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Curved path is approximated by straight segments


Measure using a yard stick

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Building the FEA Model


CAD Model
Stress Results

Building the FEA Model - Fixtures

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Represent how the given model is attached to the rest of the world
Fixed on a Surface or Edge or Point
Allow Sliding or Rotation

Fixtures used to reduce the size of the problem to a component


level or subassembly level

Building the FEA Model - Loads

Loads applied to exterior surfaces of the model

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Forces on Surfaces or Edge or Points


Torque, Moment
Pressure

Loads acting on entire model

Gravity, Centrifugal force


Thermal loads

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FEA for structural analysis

Split the fitting into small tetrahedral


pieces and approximate the
deformation on each piece

Example of a fitting

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FEA for structural analysis

Example of a bracket

Split the surfaces of bracket into small


triangular pieces and approximate the
deformation on each piece
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FEA for structural analysis

Example of a frame structure

Split the members of frame into small


straight pieces and approximate the
deformation on each piece
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Mesh, Nodes, Elements,

MESH Approximate representation of the


CAD geometry using Tetrahedra or Triangles
ELEMENTS Tetrahedra or Triangles in the
Mesh
NODES - Points at which different elements are
jointed together; nodes are the locations where
values of unknowns (usually displacements)
are to be approximated

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Using Stress Results to Validate Design


Stresses at a point are defined by 6 quantities 3 normal stress and
3 shear stresses depend on orientation of coordinate system

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Von Mises Equivalent Stress =

VON is independent of coordinate system


Principal Stresses 3 normal stresses specified in a
special coordinate system for which shear stresses
are zero
Factor of Safety =

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Assumptions in Linear, Static Analyses


Response is proportional to the applied loads
If you double the load, deformation also gets
doubled
If you remove the load, model has no deformation
Material is linearly elastic
The part returns to its original shape if the loads are
removed (no permanent deformation)
Loads are static
Loads are applied slowly and gradually. Rapidlyapplied loads cause additional displacements,
strains, and stresses
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Small deformation

Large deformation

Check list for SolidWorks Simulation

1.

Material?

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2.

Steel 1040

Physical Working Condition?

3.

Pressure or force
Bolted or Welded

Modeling in SolidWorks Simulation

4.

TRAINING

Is my Design OK (Results)

Factor of Safety
Stress

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Lesson 1
The Analysis Process

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Lesson 1 Topics
Introduction to the Simulation interface
Perform linear static analysis Static
study
Material properties
Restraints
Loads
Mesh
Run
Influence of mesh density on displacement
and stress results
Post-processing
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SolidWorks Simulation interface


CommandManager tab
Analysis library

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Toolbar

Study tree
Simulation Advisor
Study tabs

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Loads and restraints

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Lesson 1: Results

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von Mises Stresses in coarse study

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Lesson 1: Results

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von Mises Stresses in default study

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Lesson 1: Results

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von Mises Stresses in fine study

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Lesson 1: Results

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Summary of results convergence study

Finer mesh More accurate results

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More computational time

Lesson 1 Results

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Comparison with analytical

Which result is correct???

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Exercise 1: Bracket

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Exercise 2: Compressive Spring Stiffness

F
0 .1

234.7 N m
3
u 0.426 10
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Exercise 3: Container Handle

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Lesson 1: Questions

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Lesson 2
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Mesh Controls, Stress Concentrations and Boundary Conditions

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Lesson 2: Topics

Using SolidWorks Configurations


Use of mesh controls, automatic transition
FEA Convergence issues
Different boundary conditions

fillet configuration

no fillet configuration

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Loads and restraints

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Lesson 2: Results
No fillet configuration

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Lesson 2: Results

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Stress Results mesh1, mesh2 and mesh3

1- When increasing the number of elements, will the stresses converge?


2- Why?

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Lesson 2: Results

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Fillet, Mesh Control

No Mesh Control

Mesh Control
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Lesson 2: Results

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Welded boundary condition

Fixed edge produces unrealistic stresses at the support location.


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Lesson 2: Boundary Conditions

Can greatly simplify the model


Can also affect results
Know your assumptions

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Exercise 4: C-bracket

No fillet
Filleted edge

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Exercise 4
Fixed hole

Stress concentrations

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Exercise 5: Bone Wrench

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Exercise 6: Foundation Bracket

0.5 mm

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Exercise 6: Foundation Bracket

0.5 mm

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Lesson 2: Questions

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Lesson 3
Assembly Analysis with Contact

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Lesson 3: Topics
Assembly Analysis Basics
Interference Detection
Global and Local Contact/
Gaps conditions

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Interference Detection

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Global contact

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Default: Bonded
Global contact conditions
No penetration
Bonded (No clearance)
Allow Penetration

Component Contact

Uncheck Global Contact box


Overrides Global Contact

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Contact/Gap Hierarchy

Global and Component contact apply only to initial touching areas


Global contact for most common condition, component and local
contact as needed
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Local Contact Conditions

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For structural studies

No Penetration
Bonded
Allow Penetration
Shrink Fit
Virtual Wall

For thermal studies


Insulated (similar to Free in a static study)
Thermal contact resistance

Friction at the local level for touching entities


Initial gap (clearance) can be ignored or accounted for by specifying it
here
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Loads and restraints, mesh


225 N

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i)
ii)

Global No Penetration contact


Local contact

Fixed

225 N

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Lesson 3: Results

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Von Mises stresses - Global contact (225 N force)

(You can plot stresses in exploded configuration)


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Lesson 3: Results

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Von Mises stresses With local contact (4500 N force)

Could we study the stresses on contact surfaces?

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Exercise 7: Two Ring Assembly

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Lesson 3: Questions

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Lesson 4
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Symmetrical and Free Self-Equilibrated Assemblies

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Lesson 4: Topics

Analyze shrink-fit problem


Use of symmetry
Review stress results in local coordinate
systems
Solver options to eliminate rigid body
modes

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Local Contact Conditions

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Contact conditions (global & local) review

Contact conditions (local only) Shrink fit


1 - Program creates a shrink fit condition between selected faces.
2 - The faces may or may not be cylindrical.

(NOTE: Virtual wall a sliding support (roller), with friction and wall elasticity capability)

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Boundary conditions

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Contact and Mesh

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Lesson 4: Results

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Hoop stress (using local cylindrical coordinates)

Why is there a jump in the hoop stress value across the interface?
Would the assembly experience a similar jump58in radial stresses?

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Exercise 8: Chain Link

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Exercise 9: Chain Link 2

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Incorrect solution

Correct solution

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Lesson 5
Assembly Analysis with Connectors

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Lesson 5: Topics

Connectors
Rigid
Spring
Pin
Elastic Support
Bolt
Spot Weld
Edge Weld
Link
Bearing
Global and local contact conditions
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Connectors

Spring
Pins (three in all)

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Boundary conditions and Mesh


225 N

Fixed
225 N

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Lesson 5: Results

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Exercise 10 & 11

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Exercise 12: Shock Absorber


Simplify the model

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1. Suppress the original


helical spring from the
analysis.
2. Introduce Spring Connector.

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Exercise 12: Shock Absorber

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Exercise 13: Spot Welds


Connector types Spot Welds

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Spot Welds

Spot Welds

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Exercise 13: Spot Welds

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Spot Welds - solid models - stress results

We notice high stresses in the vicinity of welds. Would the subsequent mesh refinement in these regions
bring more accurate stress distribution?
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Lesson 6
Compatible/Incompatible Meshing

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Lesson 6: Topics

Compatible solid element mesh with Bonded contacts


Incompatible solid element mesh with Bonded contacts
Simplified bonding for incompatible solid meshes

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Compatible solid mesh

Bonding of touching parts is achieved by imprinting and merging the nodes.


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Incompatible solid mesh

Bonding of touching parts is achieved by additional constraint equations.


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Incompatible solid mesh: More Accurate


Bonding

Surface based contact. Results at the contact interface are uniform


but solution time is longer.
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Incompatible solid mesh: Simplified


Bonding

Node based contact. Results at the contact interface may be


patchy but solution time is lower.
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Lesson 7
Assembly Analysis Mesh Refinement

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Lesson 7: Topics
Analyze larger assembly using solid
elements
Remote load feature
Define multiple contact conditions
Nontraditional contact and connector use
Analyze mesh quality and question the
results of the simulation

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Remote loads

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Load (Direct transfer)


Load/Mass (Rigid connection)
Displacement (Rigid connection)

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Bolt connectors

Bolt type
Tight fit
Material
Pre-load
Bolt series
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Virtual wall

Type of contact that replaces modeling a


component
Rigid or Flexible

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Lesson 7: Results

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Draft mesh: mesh parameters and results

Mesh parameters are not ideal leading to


excessive von Mises stress results
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Lesson 7: Results

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High mesh: mesh parameters and results

Mesh parameters improved, so did the results of


the simulation.
(NOTE: The time required to complete the simulation increased as well.)
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Exercise 14: Bolt Connectors

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Exercise 15: Awning

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Lesson 7: Questions

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Lesson 8
Analysis of Thin Components

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Lesson 8: Topics

Shell Elements
Mid-plane and surface shell element meshing
Alignment of shell mesh
Evaluating mesh sizes
Evaluating results for shell elements
Reaction forces
Solid vs. Shell meshing

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Lesson 8: Results
Solid Elements Von Mises Stress
55449 DOF

987978 DOF
(2 element per thickness)

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(1 element per thickness)

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Shell elements
Defined by:
Existing surface or sheet metal
bodies
Mid-plane surfaces
Outside/inside faces of solid bodies

Mid-plane surface

Outside faces
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Shell Type

Kirchoff Theory
span
20
thickness

Mindlin Theory
span
10
20
thickness

Thin shells ignore shear deformation through the thickness of the shell

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Shell Element Alignment


Shell Elements - Alignment

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Misaligned shell elements

Incorrect stress result representation

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Lesson 8: Results
Shell Elements (midplane) Von Mises Stress

Bottom
(orange)

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Top (gray)

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Lesson 8: Results
Shell vs. Solid Elements
Shell elements can greatly decrease the required computational time.
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Modeling with shell elements is more demanding than with solids.


* See results of Exercise 16

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Case Study: Joist Hanger

Shell elements generated


automatically for sheet metal
features

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Exercise 16: Bracket

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Exercise 17: Shell Mesh Using Outer/Inner Faces


Shell Elements (surfaces) Von Mises Stress

Bottom
(orange)

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Top (gray)

Top

Bottom
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Exercise 18: Spot Welds - Shell mesh

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Spot Welds - shell model - stress results

Both solid and shell models predict similar behavior. Which one would you choose?

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Exercise 19: Edge Weld Connector

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Edge Welds - shell model weld bead sizes

Design the size of the edge weld beads.

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Exercise 20: Container Handle Weld

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Self-guided exercise

Design double sided fillet welds connecting the container handle to the square plates.

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Lesson 8: Questions

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Lesson 8: Questions

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Lesson 9
Mixed Meshing Shells & Solids

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Lesson 9: Topics

Mixed meshing
Solid-shell bonding
Shell offset
Mesh failure diagnostics

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Mixed meshing

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Why Mixed Meshing?

Some design assemblies may contain bulky parts suitable for solid mesh, as well as thin
parts ideal for shell elements.
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Solid and Shell Elements

Compatibility problems in mixed solid and shell element meshing


Use of mixed mesh in simulation
How many DOF does a solid
element have?

How many DOF does a shell


element have?

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Bonding between solids and shells

Hinge formed at the connecting edge


May introduce rigid body modes if not
handled properly
Mesh incompatible at the interface
Bond generated through multi-point
constraints internally (mortar bonding)

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Hinge

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Shell offset

Mid-surface
Top surface
Bottom surface
Ratio

By default, mesh located at mid-plane


Orientation important when defining
shells with different thickness

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Mesh failure diagnostics

Incompatible mesh
Mesh control
Auto-looping
Check geometry
Switch mesher
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Lesson 9: Results

Why are the stresses highest at the base near the support and bonded contacts?
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Exercise 21: Mixed Mesh Analysis

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Lesson 9: Questions

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Lesson 10
Mixed Meshing Solids, Beams & Shells

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Lesson 10: Topics

Beam elements
Joints
Bonding of beams
Post-processing of beam elements

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Beam elements

6 DOFs
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Joints

joints are connected to two or more beam members.


joints are connected to a single member only
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Bonding of beams

Bond joints or entire beam to


target entities
Beam profile imprinted on target entities
Accurate results at the interface

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Lesson 10: Results

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Results for beam elements

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Stress: Axial, bending,


worst-case, torsional, shear
Displacement
Axial force diagrams
Shear & bending moment
diagrams
Reaction forces & moments

Simply supported with uniform distributed loading


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Exercise 22: Beam Elements

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Exercise 23: Cabinet

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Exercise 24: Frame Rigidity

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Exercise 24: Frame Rigidity

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Lesson 11
Design Study

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Lesson 11: Topics


Design Study performing several studies for different
input data (model geometry or loads)
Stresses in vehicle suspension when vehicle is:

Stationary and loaded


Moving at constant acceleration on a smooth road
Moving on a bumpy road
Moving at a constant speed on a banking road
Different loads in different directions

Review different connectors and fixtures

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Design Scenario with loads input

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Lesson 11: Results (Loads input)

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Design Scenario with geometry input

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Lesson 11: Results (Geometry input)

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Exercise 25: Design Scenarios

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Lesson 12
Thermal Stress Analysis

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Lesson 12: Topics

Static analysis with temperature load


Use of various contact conditions
Temperature dependent material properties
Soft spring and Inertia relief options

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Lesson 12: Results


Averaging across boundaries ON

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Averaging across boundaries OFF

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Lesson 12: Results

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Axial strain at the sensor locations

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Lesson 12: Results

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Lesson 13
Adaptive Meshing

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Lesson 13: Topics


Why and What is Adaptivity?

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What do FEM results depend on?


1. Mesh
2. Type and order of the elements used (Draft or High quality)
3. Other phenomena (numerical errors, modeling errors etc.)
What is our Goal? Is it just to obtain a solution?
Make sure our results are close to some defined accurate solution.
(typical parameter is strain energy density)
How to achieve it?
1. Modify and refine the mesh topology

h-adaptivity

2. Modify the order of elements

p-adaptivity

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Adaptive Finite Element Analysis


h-Adaptivity, p-Adaptivity

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Refining the mesh (h-Adaptivity)

Changing the order of elements (p-Adaptivity)

1st order
(Draft Quality)

5th order

2nd order
(High Quality)

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Lesson 13: Results

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h-Adaptivity - results

98% convergence criteria (2% accuracy) was achieved in 6 iterations


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Lesson 13: Results

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p-Adaptivity - results

0.05% convergence criteria was/was not achieved in 4 iterations


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Lesson 13: Results

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Summary

Max. displacement difference: 0.2%


Max. Von Misses stress difference:10%

Which method would you use?


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Lesson 14
Large Displacement Analysis

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Lesson 14: Topics

Surface contact
Contact analysis with the large
displacement option
Evaluate mesh adequacy for modeling
bending stresses
Limitations of the linear material model

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Lesson 14: Results

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Small displacement contact analysis Incorrect Displacements

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Lesson 14: Results

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Large displacement contact analysis Correct Displacements

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Lesson 14: Questions

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