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Security Level:

06/15/15

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Huawei Confidential

Multiple Access Technology and Duplex


Technology

Multiple access technology

Time division multiple access (TDMA)

Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)

Code division multiple access (CDMA)

Duplex technology

Time division duplex (TDD)


Frequency division duplex (FDD)

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Huawei Confidential

Page 2

Multiple Access Technology and Duplex


Technology
CDMA
Power
Tim
e

cy
en
u
eq
Fr

Traffic channels: different


users are assigned unique
code and transmitted over
the same frequency band,
for example, WCDMA and
CDMA2000

TDMA
Power
Tim
e

FDMA
Power

Us
er

Us
e
U
Us ser r
Us e r
Us e r
er
y
nc
e
u

Tim
eq
e
Fr
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e
qu
e
r
F

y
nc

Traffic channels: different time slots


are allocated to different users, for
example, DAMPS and GSM

Traffic channels: different frequency bands


are allocated to different users,for example,
AMPS and TACS
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Page 3

Chip Rate, Symbol Rate, Data Rate

Coding

Rate
Matching

Interleaving

Spreading

Scrambling

WCDMA:
3.84Mchips/s
cdma2000:
1.2288Mchips/s

Data rate

WCDMA: DL

Symbol rate

Chip rate

data rate=384kbps, symbol rate=960ksps,

chip rate=3.84Mcps

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Processing Procedure of CDMA


System
Source
coding

Channel
coding

Spreading

Modulation

Radio channel

Source
decoding

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Channel
decoding

Despreading

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Demodulation

Page 6

Spreading

Data after
spreading

Data

bits

chip
s

Channelization
Code
2

Data
after
scrambli
chips
ng
Scrambling
Code

Data after
modulation

Digital
modulation
QPSK
Power

+1
1 -1

f
bit

Power

1/T

bit

+1
2

-1
+1

Power

1/T

chip

chip

3 -1

f
1/T
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Page 7

chip

OVSF&Walsh

Creating the orthogonal code sequences


Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1)
Cch,2,0 = (1,1)
Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)

Cch,1,0 = (1)
Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1)
Cch,2,1 = (1,-1)
Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)
SF = 1

SF = 2

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SF = 4

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Page 8

Spreading and Despreading (DSCDMA)


Symbol

Data

-1
Chip

Spreading
1

Spreading code

-1
1

Spreading signal
=Datacode

-1

Despreading
1

Spreading code

-1
1

Data
=Spreadingcode

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-1

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Page 9

Spreading and Despreading (DSCDMA)


Desired signal
1

Desired spreading signal

-1
1

Spreading code

-1
1

Data after despreading

-1
8

Data after integration

-8

Other users signal


Other spreading signal

Other signal after despreading

1
-1
8
-8

Other signal after integration


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/
Eb / No = Ec / Io

a2Tbit = Ebit

Echip

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Page 11

Spectrum Analysis of Spreading &


Despreading
Spreading code

P(f)

P(f)

Narrowband signal

P(f)

Broadband signal
f

Noise

Recovered signal

Signal
Combination

P(f)
f

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Noise+Broadband signal
P(f)
f

Spreading code

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Page 12

Spreading Gain
P

Processing Gain

Processing
Gain

W
R
b

Despreading
W

Rb

Spreading Gain Pg=W/R (W=3.84Mchips/s)

The energy of the signal may be far lower than noise

The lower speed of signal, the higher spreading gain of Pg

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Page 13

Principle of RAKE Receiver


Correlator 1
Correlator 2

Combiner

Receive set

The combined
signal

Correlator 3
Calculate the
time delay and
signal strength

Searcher correlator

s(t)

s(t)

RAKE receiver help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance


the receive performance of the system
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Page 14

Structure of RAKE Receiver


Input signal

I
Correlator

Code
generators

Phase
Rotator

Delay
Equalizer

Channel
estimator

Path 1

Combiner

Path 2
Path 3

Matched
Filter

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Page 15

Advantages
of
CDMA
RAKE receiver is adopted

The time diversity effect generated by channel coherence


time is efficiently used.

frequency diversity

Higher interference tolerance and security performance

Wideband frequency spectrum


Low signal transmission power

Great flexibility in carrying multiple services with largely


different bit rate and QoS requirement.

Different spreading factors for different services with


different data rates

High spectral efficiency

All users can share the same frequency spectrum


simultaneously.

Supporting soft handover and softer handover.

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Page 16

Thank you
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