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Emergency

Evacuation
Muhammad Ikhwanul Hakim
Andi Hidayat
Zaky Fauzi

Emergency
Evacuation
The proces moving and
tranport emergency
victims in disaster with
right procedure.

Principles of
Prehospital Care

The goal of prehospital care is to minimize


further systemic insult or injury and manage
life-threatening conditions through a series of
well defined and appropriate interventions, and
to embrace principles that ensure patient
safety

ROLES OF TRANSIT
EMERGENCY PLANS

MITIGATION

PREPAREDNESS

RESPONSE

RECOVERY

Rescue Drag and carry


Techniques

Required to evacuate a sick or injured person form an


emergency scene to a safe location.
Causalities carried carefully and correctly handled,
otherwise their injuries may become more serious or
possibly fatal.
situation permitting, evacuation of a causality should be
organized and un-harried.
Each movement should be performed as deliberately and
gently as possible
Manual carries are tiring for the rescuer and involved the
risk of increasing the severity of the causality's injury.
Chose the rescue techniques that will be least harmful, both
to rescuer and the victim.

Types of Drag and carry


Techniques

Tied-hands crawling

Crawling techniques

One person arm carry

One person pack-strap


carry

Fire fighters carry

Two persons drag

Two persons carry (by


arm and legs)

Chair carry

Ankle pull

Shoulder pull

Blanket drag

Two handed seat

Four handed seat

Three person carry

Removal downstairs

Tied-hands crawling
The tied-hands crawl may be used to drag an unconscious causality for
short distance. It is particularly useful when you must crawl below a low
structure, but it is the least desirable because the causality's head is not
supported
place the causality face up,
cross
the casualty's wrist and tie them together.
kneel astride the casualty and lift
the arms over your head so that
the
casualtys wrists are at the back of your
neck.
when you crawl forward, raise your
shoulders high enough so that the
casualtys head will not
bump against
the deck.

Crawling Techniques

Use a triangular bandage , a torn shirt, etc to tie the


casualtys hands together and place them around your
neck. This way you can move person much heavier then
yourself.

One Person Arm Carry

Single rescuer to lift a victim safely


by arm carry

Rescuer holding the victims


around the victims back and
under the knees

One Person Pack-strap Carry


This method is better for longer distance to lift a victim safely.

Place both victims arm over your


shoulders.

Cross the victims arm, grasping the


victims opposite wrist.

Pull the arm close to your chest.

Squat slightly and drive your hips into the


victim while bending slightly at the waist.

Balance the load on your hips and support


the victims with your legs.

Fire Fighters Carry


This technique is for carrying a victim longer distance. It is very difficult to get a
person up to this position from the ground. Getting the victim into position requires
a very strong rescuer or an assistant.

The victim is carried over one


shoulder
The rescuers arm, one the
side that the victim is being
carried, is wrapped across the victims
leg and grasps the victim's opposite
arm.

Two Persons Drag/ Human Crutch


For the conscious victim, this carry allows the victim to swing their leg using the
rescuer as a pair of crutches.
For the unconscious victims, it is a quick and easy way to move a victim out of
immediate danger.
Start with the victim on ground.
Both rescuer stand on either side of the victims chest.
The rescuers hand nearest the feet grabs the victims
wrist on their side of the victim.
The rescuers other hand grasps the clothing of the
shoulder nearest them.
Pulling and lifting victims arm, the rescuer bring the
victim into sitting position.
The conscious victim will then stand with rescuer
assistance.
The rescuers place their hands around the victims
waist

Two Persons Drag/ Human Crutch


For the unconscious victim, the rescuer will grasp the belt of the victims clothing .

The rescuer will bend down


Place the victims arm over their shoulders so that they end
up
facing the same direction as the victim.
Then, using their legs, they stand with the victim.
The rescuers then move out, dragging the victims legs
behind

Two persons carry (by arms & legs)

Rescuer 1 squats at the victims head and grasps the victim


from behind at the midsection.
Rescuer 2 squats between the victims knees, grasping the
outside of the knees.
Both rescuers rise to a standing position.

Chairs Carry
This is a good way to carrying victims up and down stairs or through
narrow or not smooth areas

Pick the victim up and place them or have them sit


in
a chair.
The rescuer at the head grasps the chair from the
side of the back, palms in.
The rescuer at the head then tilts the chair back onto
its rear legs.
For the shorts distance or stairwells, the second
rescuer should face in and grasp the chair legs.
For longer distance, the second rescuer should
separate the victims leg, back into the chair and on the
command of the rescuer at the head, both rescuers stand
using their legs.

Ankle Pull

The ankle pull is the fastest way for moving a victim a short distance
over a smooth surface. This is not a perfect way of patient movement.

Grasp the victim by both ankles or pant cuffs.

Pull with your legs, not your back.

Keep your back as straight as possible.

Try to keep the pull as straight and in line as possible.

Keep aware that the head is unsupported and may bounce over
bumps and surface imperfections.

Shoulders Pull
The shoulder pull is preferred to ankle pull. It supports head of victim,
the negative is that requires the rescuers to bend over at the waist
while pulling.

Grasp the victim by the clothing under the shoulders.


Keep your arms on both sides of the head.
Support the head.
try to keep the pull as straight and in line as possible.

Blanket Drag
This is preferred way for dragging a victim from confined area.
Place the victim on the blanket by using the logroll or the
three position lift.
The victim is placed with the head approx. 2 ft. from one
corner of the blanket.
Wrap the blanket corners around the victim.
Keep your back as straight as possible.
Use your legs, not your back.
Try to keep the pull as straight and in line as possible.

Two handed seat


This technique is for carrying a victim to longer distance.
This technique can support an unconscious victim.

Pick up the victim by having both


rescuers squats down on either side
of the
victim.

Reach under the victims shoulders as


under their knees.

Grasp the other rescuers wrist.

From the squat, with good lifting


technique stand.

walk in the direction that the victim is


facing.

Four Handed Seat


This technique is used to carry conscious and alert victims to moderate
distance . The victim must be able to stand unsupported and hold
themselves upright during transport.
Position the hands as indicted in the graphics.
Lower the seat and allow the victim to sit.
Lower the seat using your legs, not your back.
When the victim in place, stand using your legs, keeping your back
straight.

Three persons carry


This technique is for lifting a patient into bed or stretcher, or
transporting to short distance

Each person kneels on the knee nearest the victims feet.

On the command of the person at the head, the rescuers lift


the victim up and rest the victims on their knees.
If the patient is being placed on a low stretcher:
On the command of the person at the head, patient is placed down the
stretcher.
If the patient is to be placed on high bed or to be carried:
At this point, the rescuer will rotate the victims so that the victim facing the
rescuers, resting against the rescuers chest

Three persons carry

On the command of the person at the head, all the rescuers will
stand.

To walk all rescuer will start out on the same foot, walking in a line
shoulder to shoulder.

Removal Downstairs

Do not try if you suspect head or spinal injuries or broken limbs.

Use a mattress or rug under the person if one is available.