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Commercial Applications Of Fungi

1.Introduction
2.Diet / Food in various forms
3.Uses in industries
4.Uses in agriculture
5.Uses in medicine
6.Advance research?
7.Conclusion
8.Bibliography/Reference

Introduction
Difference

Plant

Fungus

Cell Wall

Contain
Cellulose

Contains
Chitin &
Glucans

Food Source

Photo
synthesizers

Decomposer
s

Origin

Seeds

Dead Matter

Energy
Source

Sunlight

Dead/Decayi
ng
organisms

Fungus can be defined


as a large group /
kingdom which are a
member of eukaryotic
organisms that
includes
microorganisms such
as yeast, mushrooms
and molds. The study
of fungus is known as
mycology

Diet / Food in various forms

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Mushrooms ( eg Morchella
esculenta)

Aspergillus oryzae
White mycelium of the rhizopus

Uses In Industries
During anaerobic conditions, yeast ferments sugar to

produce. Alcohol and carbon dioxide in the process of


fermentation.
Equation: Yeast + Water + Glucose = Alcohol +
Carbon dioxide
Stains inhibit an enzyme involved in the synthesis of
cholesterol theyve become important for control of
cholesterol in patients. For example:- Lovastatin comes
from pleurotus ostreatus and other statin drugs also
comes from aspergillus terreus

Pleurotus ostreatus

Lostatin

==
Aspergillus Terreus

Statin Drugs

Uses In Agriculture
Fungi that infect insects Fungi are found in the
environment as spores. Insects
can become infected when they
come into contact with spores
on the surface of plants, in the
soil, in the air as windborne
particles, or on the bodies of
already dead insects Spores
attach to the surface of the
insect and infect by penetrating
through the insect cuticle, often
at joints where the insects
protective covering is thinner.
Once inside, the fungus grows
throughout the body of the
insect. Many fungi also produce
toxins in the host that increase
the speed of kill.

Uses In Agriculture
Control of Narcotics using fungi:Fungal pathogens have adverse effects
on agriculture, why not use pathogens
to attack plants that we dont need to
cultivate? In agriculture, fungal
pathogens may be useful for the
biological control of weed. In Canada
78 out of 107 most troublesome weeds
could be destroyed by using fungal
pathogens. This policy has a 67%
overall success rate.

Not only weed but heroin and


cocaine can also be destroyed.
For example Leospora papaveracea
against heroin poppies , Fusarium
oxysporum against cocaine
plantation .

Fusarium oxysporum

Uses In Medicine
Antibiotics are used to treat
bacterial and fungal infections.
Penicillin -produced by the
mould Penicillium notatum
was discovered by Alexander
Fleming in 1928. This was
used to treat diseases like
syphilis.
Medicinal mushrooms are
available to cure cancer cells
and research has identified
compounds produced by these
fungi that have inhibitory
biological effects against
virsues . Such mushrooms are
Agaricus subrufescens and
Gandoderma lucidum.

Advance Research?
The British Textile Technology Group (BTTG) is based in Didsbury
In Manchester and works with the Welsh School of Pharmacy in
Cardiff. Together they have designed and produced a range of
Filamentous fungal materials that help with the healing of wounds.
The secrets in the chitin (which maintains the rigidity and
Structure of fungal cell walls).
Many experiments have been conducted which suggest
That chitin can speed up the healing of wounds.
It is thought that chitin actually encourages the growth of
fibroblasts into the wound. Fibroblasts help build new tissue.
The process has the potential to treat chronic ulcers and
bed sores in hospital patients.
If a patients wounds heal faster than hospital and nursing
resources will be saved.

Conclusion
Research and understanding of fungus has led to the
commercialization of the production of fungus. Fungus has been used
in food, agriculture, medicine and industries. Production and research
in fungus has created a market for fungus.
Use of bio pesticides in agriculture has destroyed unwanted plants
thus giving an impetus to the agriculture field.
Use of fungus in facilitating and manufacturing of many antibiotics,
acids and other chemical products.
Due to research of fungus and its innovative uses has led to
commercialization of products thus launching a new market where
business and companies have invested in the byproducts of fungus.
Research and commercialization have worked hand in hand to sustain
the understanding of fungus in various field of life.

Biblography/Refrences
"Fungi | A Moment of Science - Indiana Public Media." Indiana Public Media |
News and Information, Music, Arts and Community Events from WFIU and WTIU.
Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <http://indianapublicmedia.org/amomentofscience/fungi/>.
"Fungus." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 28 Aug. 2011. <
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungus>.
Fungi | A Moment of Science - Indiana Public Media." Indiana Public Media |
News and Information, Music, Arts and Community Events from WFIU and WTIU.
Web. 28 Aug. 2011. http://indianapublicmedia.org/amomentofscience/fungi/
Fungal Databases." Web. <
http://http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/>. 15 August 2011

MLA CITATION

Name - Vivek Bhojwani


Class - FYBSc Biotechnology
Topic - Commercial Applications
Of Fungus (Botany)
Roll No - 854